Games and toys in development of intelligence and creativity of the child
About importance of game and a toy in life of the child it is very much told and very much written that to convince someone of their need for development of the child there is no sense. All this is correct. We want to emphasize one feature of children`s game essentially important for development of children`s intelligence and creativity.
Often children`s game, as well as game of an animal, carries out function of research surrounding. In the course of game there is a development of the outside world, studying of properties and features of the most different objects and phenomena. The research behavior which is actively influencing development of the child often is realized through game. The psychologist Susanne Miller studying games and children and primacies, claims that, for example, macaques - Rhesus factors which in the childhood were deprived of an opportunity to play become low-active and show less tendencies to research, prefer less difficult incentives for regard and action, than the animals who grew in usual conditions.
the game Role in development of mentality is defined considerably by the fact that during implementation of game process there is a development of reality and mastering this reality. It is obvious that to play, it is necessary to understand in the beginning that for object before you and as to play with it. Therefore means of game become at first objects of research, and then what it is possible to play with. Process of game contains much what is subject to research, maintenance and development of a game plot are the most interesting subject for children`s studying too.
the Indispensable satellite of the childhood and the most important instrument of game - a toy. From first months of life it holds a specific place among the objects surrounding the child. Practically in all cultures there is a tradition to suspend various toys over beds of babies. Possibly, it is connected with an ancient belief about what rattles frighten off evil spirits. Of course, many of us forgot about this its function long ago and now rattles hang up absolutely with other purposes. A problem of these toys - to expand touch experience of the kid, drawing his attention with the simple opportunities: form, in the color, sound. The toys hanging over a bed, the child can consider and study. They shake, make sounds, reflect sunshine. The main task of these toys - to prevent boredom and to awaken and satisfy curiosity, giving food to the first manifestations of research activity of the kid.Scattering of toys becomes frequent
one of the first research games for many kids. It is quite often possible to observe such picture: the child throws a rattle and hides, listens what effect will cause it, is interesting to it how it will fall what sound will make as adults will behave at the same time. The child pulls in a mouth and licks toys as any subject which fell it into hands at the same time usually mutters something, makes some sounds. All this research interaction with toys, as a rule, is followed by bright emotions - laughter or crying.
of the Adult are attracted too by toys, but nature of interest of the adult and child in a toy are qualitatively various. The adult in a toy is attracted by esthetic characteristics, reliability, accuracy of execution of details, art expressiveness much more. The toy interests the adult first of all as a man-made thing. In it one of the collecting reasons is covered with adults of dolls, models of cars, planes, ships. The adult is capable to estimate skill, workmanship of a toy and therefore he makes thrifty use of it and quite often very much highly appreciates.
the Child is interested absolutely in other parties of a toy. Still the feeling of its worthiness as man-made thing as special part of culture is not familiar to it. For the child absolutely not very well what doll before it or the machine - collection or serial of usual shop, it occupies a question much more: what with it can be made? Adults, without wishing to understand it, often complain that little researchers carelessly treat toys, put them on severe trials, sort, break. At the same time, as a rule, even nonspecialists precisely fix the main reason for similar behavior - search activity.
All as though simply and easily explainably: the child realizes the thirst for knowledge, studies the device. But here trouble! The toy which is usually offered by us to the child is not counted on what its potential opportunities and contents will investigate so actively (to sort, break, etc.) . And the aspiration of the child to include a toy in the program of own research activity leads to the fact that it is thrown, heat in water, dig in in sand, sort, studying the device. All this usually puts a toy out of commission.At first sight can seem to
that there is an easy way of a solution: it is necessary to create toys with which it is possible to do anything, including - to sort and collect, the toys capable to trasformation, to that it was possible to study their opportunities and the device, without putting at the same time a toy out of commission. It is really a problem solution, but technically it is extremely difficult. Though if the best minds of mankind instead of designing of bombs and rockets were engaged in creation of such children`s toys, it would be possible to hope for success. For now with such toys at us it is difficult.
also alternative, and besides very productive, ways Are:
- to give to the child a minimum of ready toys; to try to do
- so that he played with toys which made itself or in creation which he took part; let the child himself finds
- to himself toys among objects which surround it; thus we have to recognize for the child the right to include all objects to which he comes into contact in number of toys.
A careful. Researches show that ready toys quite often do to development of the child more harm, than advantage. In - the first, ready, pleasant the adult of a toy often do not allow the child to realize the search activity, to mobilize the imagination. They are interesting only at first.by
in a number of special researches it is noticed that a large number of toys conceals in itself and danger: the attention dissipates. When around the child there are a lot of toys, it not so much stimulates his activity how many suppresses. It is difficult for child to concentrate on something one. Effectively to develop at it an independent way of thinking and an ingenuity it is hardly necessary to offer a set of ready toys.
Many observant teachers and parents without hint of researchers know that often expensive, new toy from shop concedes in competitive fight for attention of the child to simple fragments of glass or stones, wooden whetstones or an unknown origin to metal pieces, fragments of old ware or pieces of foam rubber. It is not casual - the child on the nature the researcher. What has no rigidly fixed functions, what can be used in the most different purposes is much more interesting to it.
at the same time show-windows of the modern shops selling children`s toys are capable to blow the mind of any adult. It is natural that adults are ready to spend big money, thinking that all this will be very useful and it is madly interesting to the child. The disappointment occurs quickly. In most cases the child already in a few minutes of game loses interest in a ready toy what interesting it would not seem to us, adults.
Of course, the ready toy becomes professionals, often highly skilled, and it seems to adults beautiful and amusing, but it usually has, at least, two shortcomings. In - the first, it is quickly investigated by the child. All its opportunities are studied, and it generates loss of interest in it. As S. Miller notes:“ Results of supervision over how children play, showed that the “complexity“ of a toy creating at the child some problems at game with it is directly proportional to time during which he will play with this toy“. In - the second, such toy is quite often poorly connected with real world around that, appears, it is very important for the child. But there are also other examples of toys.by
So still Maria Montessori developed a series of the toys imitating objects of the real world. They can be touched, thrown, to open, close, clasp, insert in each other etc. Now such toys set. All this is remarkable, but even such toys are not always capable to give to the child “pleasure of achievement“. In most cases the child does not want to be reconciled with the situation “small“, he wants that with it treated as the adult. He strives for the true, real difficulties and hopes in their overcoming to the aid of the adult.
it is Most interested the kid plays with toys which give it “pleasure of achievement“. To test this “pleasure of achievement“, usually offer children not ready toys, but sets of details from which it is possible to collect a toy independently. It is possible to make something new of separate parts, unusual, they can be used in the most different purposes.
the Special direction as we already noted, is use in the game purposes in quality of toys of real objects. The kid with much bigger interest and attention studies the real, surrounding him objects, tries to use them in the games. And he can use a subject in game and not to destination: for example, the book can be useful for construction of a tunnel; using a table, it is possible to build the remarkable house, and it is easy to turn a sofa into the plane or the steamship. However, all this usually conducts to a disorder in the house and therefore irritates adults, but for development of cognitive abilities, intelligence and creativity has extraordinary value.
the Search activity which is shown in aspiration to novelty acts as an important factor of stimulation of game activity of the child. Long ago it is proved, as at people, and the monotonous environment usually causes discomfort in animals. Repetition something (objects, sounds etc.) inevitably leads to decrease in efficiency of the solution of the tasks requiring attention. Duration and intensity of games of the child in which he realizes the search activity depends not only on his abilities, but more is defined by opportunities of a variety and variability of conditions in which he is character of material and extent of the excitement offered by external environment.are Especially attractive by
to the child of game, in which his aspiration to novelty is actively used, the New, incidentally found effects carry away, cause interest. Novelty of an event is very important for the child. Unlike the adult it cannot often concentrate on one of them. Therefore children cannot long play the same game, long play with one toy or be engaged in one business (to draw, design, etc.).