Problems of children`s reading. Model of children`s reading, or reading to reading - discord of
Reading children on the purposes, to motives and character is various. The model of children`s reading most often develops from educational, leisure, business, informative and readings “as a hobby“.
Educational, sometimes it call studying. It is carried out on the instructions of the teacher and makes nearly a half of all repertoire of reading school students according to researches. In relation to the doctrine though the task “the doctrine excitedly“, however school, first of all, work, strong-willed efforts, responsibility is set. These requirements extend also to reading program literature. Here depends on the habit to brainwork developed at the child, on the relation to study much in general. Supporting enthusiasm of the child to the doctrine, we support by that and its program reading.
the Literature entering the school program are the works which are selected by time, its best samples. Exciting force of artistic images empathy of the child, this literature is capable to influence it is moral and esthetically, to wake up in it good and pure feelings. Does it educational only one: it is accompanied by the tasks and questions demanding the analysis of the text. Something not to understand fear, to answer, not to guess incorrectly what from the pupil the teacher waits for, slows down full reading, deprives of the child of pleasure from communication with the book. Already fact of inclusion of work in the school program often frightens off from it the pupil.the history which happened to Salinger`s book “The Catcher in the Rye“ - the favourite book of teenagers of the whole world Is indicative
As soon as it was included in the program of the American schools, in its address damnations of the American pupils fell down, there was their mass rejection from this book. The example says about what put in most cases not in the literature (its quality is not subject to doubt), and that it becomes a training material and this most loses the attractiveness in the opinion of school students. The child in this case as he thinks, reads “for the teacher“, but not “for himself“, “for an assessment“, but not “as a hobby“.
Council. Induce the children to read program literature before studying it at school. Use for this purpose summertime. Join in its reading together with the child, find in it pleasure. Looking at you, and the child will receive pleasure. The subsequent studying of work in a class will lay down on emotionally paved way and neutralizes negative attitude to it.
Other purpose of children`s reading - entertainment, a relaxation, rest. Reading for fun, for leisure. Or, as children, “to laugh“ speak. This requirement is well satisfied by comics, books - paradoxes. Their function - to amuse the child. Psychologists established: the criterion “the ridiculous book“ is often represented at the younger school student with the favourite book. Darling - means ridiculous. And ridiculous - darling means. For younger school students D. Kharms`s works, G. Ostera, many stories of E. Uspensky, O. Grigoriev, V. Dragunsky, V. Golyavkin and other famous authors belong to such books.
the Favourite book of many generations with which it is possible to spend cheerfully time remains to “Myunkhgauzen“. Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky is the classic of the cheerful book for kids - told in the pedagogical work “From Two to Five“ as children “neighed“ with happiness as soon as he read them several lines from this book. He told about how he read to children under their explosive laughter about the axe which flew on the moon and about travel astride a kernel, and about the cut-off horse legs which were grazed on a meadow, and when it for a minute stopped, children shouted: “Further!“ . Such hour of reading can disseminate any trouble of the child.Should notice
that entertaining literature for children makes 40% of number of all editions for children and teenagers now. In its choice a lot of things depend on taste of the parents getting such literature.
a Certain place in life of the modern school student is taken by pragmatic, or business reading. Its function applied - to learn to make the hands or to check the abilities. Boys read about cars, sport, computers, designing. Girls - about sewing, hairdresses, a make-up, cookery. Now books about design, a household are in demand. Some like to solve crossword puzzles in free time, to fill in tests. Now there is a lot of such editions. To the business reasons concerning reading are also aspiration to increase literacy, to master richness of Russian. This motive of reading especially we mean to parents who quite often nominate him as the main argument of need of school reading.Big specific weight in structure of free time of pupils occupies with
informative reading. Polls of children show that the book for them, mainly, a source of knowledge.“ I read that the nobility is more“, - children say.
Here encyclopedias and reference books which are published in a huge number now came out on top in recent years. They become reference books in many families. Children selectively scoop from them information on different questions and from different fields of knowledge. At all importance of such reading in it there is a danger - the knowledge of the reader deprived of soul. Huge layer scientifically - informative books, differing in aspiration of authors to interest the child in world around, to cause in it inquisitiveness, keenness of mind, appears in a shadow of the impersonal and passionless encyclopedias developing erudition without depth of own thoughts of the reader.
Spiritual extract of culture is the fiction - art of the word. Reading it is deeply personal process. Most often children call reading works of art reading as a hobby. They tell it about it:“ Books help me to get acquainted with people whom in reality I would never meet. They open an opportunity to visit not only the past, but also in the future “.“ Thanks to the book I learned to cope with bad mood. When to me happens sadly, I take the book in hand, and the bad mood disappears “.“ When I read the interesting book, I plunge into some other world, the world of heroes of this book. I worry about them, I rejoice, admire them. And in this world it becomes easier for me. And my problems do not seem to me such difficult any more“.
the Fiction becomes for the child especially significant and necessary when it finds itself(himself) in the book. Effect of recognition - the strongest argument in favor of reading fiction for the teenager who is anxious with search of the “I“.Special value of reading the poetry “as a hobby“ has
. Iosif Brodsky in the Nobel lecture called poetry “the highest form of literature“. Each person, in his opinion, at least in small degree has to possess the heart, sight and reason inherent in the poet. In it he sees mission of the person. And to execute it, the person since the childhood needs to read poetry and to take from it pleasure.we called
From a set of the existing types and motives of reading some, mainly to what children point.
We have the right to think that the listed motives of reading are inherent in a varying degree and to all our school students.
Children`s reading needs support
We endure the responsible moment now. Society more and more realizes need of protection and support of children`s reading at the state level.by
decides not just a fate of children`s reading. The destiny of Russia, its intellectual power is decided. The actions and the congresses which swept over all country in support of reading are not casual. There took place the numerous conferences devoted to this subject.by
created in Russia Interregional office of the International Association of Reading with offices in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg. 2007 was declared Year of reading.by
created prerequisites and need of creation of the National program of reading is proved. The Russian book union headed by S. V. Stepashin created Committee on reading which participates in development of such program. The program purpose - education of the reading nation, and its kernel - the younger generation. Creation of the program and its realization are impossible without participation of the public, including parents of younger generation.to
according to researches, to parents in the majority obliged our reading children by awakening of interest in the book.
Experts in age psychology claim that maternal pedagogical activity plays a crucial role for all subsequent human life, including it defines both the relation to the book and reading. Developers of the Program leave with an appeal to mobilize participants of the movement “Young Russia Reads!“ . Reading as a kernel of culture can become the national idea capable to rally society, to provide connection between generations, to become a powerful factor of social and economic progress.
What parents can?
the Main issue which disturbs parents: “How to force the child to fall in love with the book? And whether it is possible to make it?“with
Here is how Daniel Pennac answers this question.
“the Verb “read“ does not suffer an imperative mood. There is an incompatibility which it divides with some other verbs, such how “to love“... or “to dream“...
can be Tried, of course. We try? “Love me!“, “Dream!“, “Read!““March to yourself also read
!“ Result? Any. He fell asleep over the book. The window suddenly seemed to it an exit in some tempting distance - there - that it and flew away. Escaping from the book. But he sleeps sensitively: the opened book still lies before it. If we furtively glance at a door, then we will see: he sits at a table and diligently reads. Even if to creep absolutely silently, he will hear us through a thin veil of a somnolence. “Well as, it is pleasant?“ He will not answer “no“, will not make sacrilege. The book is sacred how it is possible not to like to read? Calmed, we will return to the TV“.
This teenager who is falling asleep over the book perceives it as the pressed boredom as intolerable freight of fruitless effort. Let`s pay attention to the last phrase relating to behavior of adults:“ Calmed, we will return to the TV“. What she speaks about? She says that adults are aloof from the reading child: they have interests and the life.In general often parents tell
about complication of education unfairly much. They bear holding time of the child quite resignedly, and here on education they have neither time, nor desire. As if to them in justifications, sociologists calculated recently time which on average can give on education of the child mother - 20 minutes a day. Ridiculous figure! And at the same time - sad. But what such education in pure form, unless does not get it into leisure, economic affairs, reading - the word, into all family life? And if affairs at the rolled-up parents are so bad over time, then, obviously, it is necessary to renounce something for the sake of spiritual life of children. Long ago the truth is known: the more to find for children time and souls, the more they resemble the parents. In it their main award, their continuation, the spiritual wealth to become really enduring, has to find worthy successors. Family reading as one of the best spiritual traditions which passed through many generations - fine means for development of the highly moral relations in each family.
Council. If you want that the child read, it is necessary that near it there was a reading parent, and it is even better - the parent reading together with the child. Let children see how you read with pleasure: quote, laugh, learn fragments, you share read. This example can become infectious for them.Parental reading aloud is usually considered by
necessary when the child is not able to read yet. When he is a school student, then for it many consider parental reading excessive. But this belief is incorrect. Independent reading children should be supplemented with joint reading and at school age. Reading on school type is no good for this purpose. It is better to sit down in a cozy quiet place nearby and to read work alternately, the part is read by the adult, part - the child.
It is good if the habit to family reading becomes tradition of carrying out everyday joint leisure in certain time of day or evening. Process of reading can be followed unostentatious (in this case - “not“ in the most interesting place) by conversation: whether all is clear to the child during reading whether there are no words unfamiliar to it what it and at you had assumptions of further development of a plot, it is interesting to learn whether these assumptions will come true. When reading aloud children will have a sea of thoughts, questions, desires. If to keep this habit, then it will be always easier to understand thoughts of the child; he will not begin to confine suggestions to own bailiwick when he grows up. Specialists in family reading warn: not to turn conversation about the book into examination, to avoid conversation of test character, to force the child to retell.
Council. Talk about read so that the child felt clever and quick-witted. You praise it for ingenuity and diligence more often. Do not hurt his pride even if he understood something not as you would like. Support his confidence in the forces. Remembering later the childhood, he by all means will remember hours of reading, joint with you, and heart-to-heart talk, and it will warm his heart.by
For instilling at the child of interest in reading thought up many cunnings. Here some of them. To make success of the child in reading evident, it is useful to hang out on a wall “The screen of the read books“ where the child himself will note the read books, or to organize an exhibition of drawings based on the read books and to suggest the child to comment on the drawings. It is capable to kindle curiosity of the child and such method. The text with a bright plot which the parent begins to read is chosen. On the most interesting place it stops (“There is no time!“). The intrigued child is forced to read up the text up to the end to find out what happened to the hero. Naturally, it is necessary to read with expression, “on voices“ that it reminded game.
A here a method which is offered by the famous teacher Sh. Amonashvili. Its essence that about what to read Carlson gives councils to the child. It sends it letters about what books he is crazy. This “authoritative“ opinion of the favourite hero has the positive effect. The child with pleasure undertakes reading which is loved by Carlson.Continuation