Rus Articles Journal

We expand a diet. Food of children from 1 year to 1,5 years of

your kid just celebrated first “anniversary“ - to it year was executed. He learned much for this year. Whether style of its food has to change now?

Grant

, one may say, that at yours the baby there came the transitional stage in food. It now any more not the baby. The kid will begin to master more and more “the food environment“ and to come nearer in the eating habits and addictions to adults. But the baby needs some time gradually to be reconstructed on new style of food.

To this age in a gastrointestinal tract of the kid too big changes happened. In - the first, it already got own teeth. As a rule, by 1 year children have about 6 - 10 milk teeth. Chewing skills of the kid are promptly improved. In this process not the last role is played by interest in a chewing of food which “gets“ to the baby in krupnoizmelchenny or even not crushed look. In - the second, activity of the digestive enzymes produced in various departments of a digestive tract of the kid considerably grew. It means, it is already ready to digest and acquire much more difficult products, than half a year ago. In - the third, the child already got acquainted with many tastes of dishes, at him, quite possibly, these or those flavoring preferences were already created. Further modification of food has to be accompanied not only by increase in nutritiousness of a diet, but also by expansion of flavoring knowledge of the baby.

As a rule, feedings by a breast after 1 year happen early in the morning and late at night, before going to bed. Quite often at this age also night feedings remain. In it there is nothing terrible: it is impossible to overfeed with breast milk. Besides, the last researches allow to tell with confidence that night feedings by a breast not only do not increase risk of development of caries, but also on the contrary - prevent its development. The antibodies which are contained in breast milk contain growth of staphylococcus which is the main reason for development of caries.

If the kid already ceased to receive breast milk, but continues “to be put“ to a small bottle with mix or even juice at night, then it needs to put an end. Unfortunately, mixes differ on properties from breast milk. Therefore their use, especially at night, considerably increases risk of development of caries. The matter is that after them, as well as after any meal, kislotno - the alkaline balance in a mouth is strongly displaced in the sour party that creates prerequisites for destruction of tooth enamel. And in general, the kid by one and a half years already should be disaccustomed is at night (it does not belong to feedings by a breast) as it interrupts a sleep, worsens appetite during the day and does not allow to sleep to parents.

When and how many to feed the child?

can leave by

Till 1,5 years to the kid five times food, but if you notice that the child refuses the last (fifth) feeding, so its time to transfer to the “adult“ four times mode: breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner. In this case intervals between feedings make 3,5 - 4 hours. For this period, according to data of researches, the eaten food is evacuated from a stomach of the baby, that is it is ready to the following meal. It is necessary to carry out quite accurately set diet: try not to deviate from “schedule“ more than for 15 - 30 minutes. At observance of the mode of feedings more accurate work of all gastrointestinal tract is observed: the food reflex causes formation of good appetite, is timely and in enough digestive juice is produced that allows to digest and acquire food well. At chaotic food the similar reflex is almost not developed, release of enzymes and juice decreases, and the food is processed worse. Try to give nothing to the kid between feedings - fruit, juice, dairy products and the more so sweets. Especially it concerns to children with the reduced appetite. Similar “having a snack“ reduces appetite of the baby, forces down the installed mechanism of production of digestive juice therefore during the main meals he can refuse these or those useful products.

the Caloric content of a daily diet of the child in 12 - 18 months makes about 1300 kcal, food volume - 1000 - 1200 ml. Distribution of this quantity during the day rather uniform: a breakfast and a dinner - on 25%, a lunch - 35%, an afternoon snack - 15%. It is counted that on each kilogram of body weight the one-year-old child needs a day about 4 g of protein, 4 g of fat and 16 g of carbohydrates. At the same time proteins of an animal origin have to make not less than 70% of their general daily quantity, vegetable fats - about 13% of total of fat.

What to give to a table?

By 1 year yours the baby, most likely, got acquainted already practically with all types of products. After 1 year modification of a diet assumes both the appeal to new products, and gradual change of a way of their preparation and extent of crushing.

Chest or not chest?
In spite of the fact that the baby formally already left ranks of babies to separate it from a breast, perhaps, still rather early, especially in a hot season (the last circumstance considerably increases risk to catch intestinal infection). Many pediatricians consider what should be nursed approximately till 20 - 24 months. Sucking of a breast not only gives to the baby the chance to receive tasty milk, but also allows to feel maternal heat and care, providing psychological comfort. It is impossible to forget that milk and at this age remains extremely useful also: it contains the special substances stimulating development of nervous system, in particular a brain, many vitamins, antibodies, is easily and completely acquired.

Dairy products in food of the child

the Big place in food still occupy with

dairy products. They are a source of valuable calcium, vitamins of group B, and also the supplier of protein and milk fat. After 1 year the kid can offer kefir (to 200 ml a day), yogurt (200 - 300 ml). It is better not to exceed the recommended quantity as lactic products are rich with sour connections that can overload both digestive, and secretory systems of the kid. It is better that yogurt was made especially for baby food. If you give to the baby “adult“ yogurts, watch that they were low-fat (dairy, but not creamy) and contained as little as possible sucrose, preservatives, fragrances and other artificial additives. Of course, it is better to prefer “live“ yogurts - they allow to support useful intestinal flora. Such yogurts have limited periods of storage (usually no more than 2 weeks), and it is possible to store them only in the refrigerator, at a temperature of 2 - 8 °C. If on packing of yogurt it is specified that period of storage exceeds 1 month, so this product passed heat treatment and does not contain live lactic cultures. Also actual are dairy mixes - the so-called “subsequent formulas“, that is those that are intended for food of children after 6 months. Why even after 1 year it is worth offering them to the baby? The matter is that nutritionists more and more agree on postponing acquaintance of the kid to whole cow`s milk at least until 2 - 2,5 years that is connected with high frequency allergic reactions to protein of cow`s milk.

Other important dairy products are cottage cheese and cheese. It is possible to increase a daily dose of cottage cheese after 1 year to 70 g a day. Some parents prefer to give it to children every other day, but in a dose about 140 g. Cottage cheese can be given in a “pure“ look, and it is possible to prepare from it a pudding, baked pudding, is closer by one and a half years - to make cheesecakes. Cheese is more often used in a grated look as an additive to pasta. But some kids like to eat cheese the teeth. In this case this product will promote also formation of chewing skills.

Butter is most often used by

as an additive to porridges or smeared on bread. The recommended dose makes it about 12 g a day. It is better not to subject butter to thermal treatment (that is to add already to ready dishes).

After 1 year can use low-fat sour cream and cream in small amounts. Sour cream in the best way is suitable for seasoning of first courses, cream - for preparation of sauces for second courses.

Fruit and vegetables in food of the child Fruit and vegetables have to be widely presented to

by

on a table of the kid too. After 1 year it is possible to acquaint the baby with new types of fruit and berries slowly: strawberry, cherry, sweet cherry, kiwi, apricots, peaches, currant, gooseberry, black-fruited mountain ash, sea-buckthorn, raspberry, blackberry, cranberry, bilberry, cowberry and even citrus. Certainly, similar acquaintances have to be well considered, and mother should watch reaction of the baby to each new entered product attentively. At children with allergic reactions it is better not to take new steps without consultation of the allergist or the pediatrician. It is better to crush the berries having quite dense peel in mashed potatoes while soft juicy fruits (apricots, peaches, a kiwi) can be offered the kid segments. Even if your beloved peanut well transfers exotic fruit (a citrus, a kiwi), do not give them much: these fruits contain very many vegetable acids that in a large number can irritate a gentle mucous membrane zheludochno - an intestinal path. Grapes strengthen processes of fermentation in intestines and overload the child`s diet with carbohydrates. At the same time, it is rather poor in vitamins. That is why nutritionists recommend to begin its use at later age - closer by three years. Fruit can be given to the kid in end of the main meals, it is also possible to add to porridge, to mix with dairy products. The recommended dose of fruit - about 200 - 250 a day. It is possible to add 100 more ml of fruit juice to this quantity. If till 1 year it was necessary to prefer the clarified juice, then after 1 year it is quite possible to give to the baby juice and nectars with pulp.

the Vegetable menu of the kid can enrich

with beet, turnip, tomatoes, green peas, haricot. Bean it is necessary to give to children in small amounts and only in well boiled thoroughly and carefully crushed look as these products are rich with rough cellulose which causes the increased gas generation in intestines, strengthens a vermicular movement that can lead to belly-aches and fluidifying of a chair. Vegetables find the main application in soups and garnishes to meat and fish dishes. It is possible not only to boil them, but also to extinguish. At the age of 1 year they are given in the form of mashed potatoes, closer by one and a half years it is possible to begin to offer the kid soft boiled or stewed vegetables pieces. Closer by one and a half years it is possible to begin to offer sometimes the baby and garden greens - fennel, parsley, cilantro, a ramson, spinach, salad, green onions. Small cut greens can be added to soups and second courses before their giving to a table. Vegetable oils it is better for p to add

in a final stage of preparation of vegetables it is as little as possible to subject of them to thermal treatment as in the course of heating of any fats carcinogens, unhealthy not only the baby, but even the adult are formed.

Meat, fish, eggs in food of the child

Meat products are given to

by

in the form of steam cutlets, a teftel, quenelles, a meat souffle and a pudding in number of 100 g daily. Closer to the middle of the second year it is possible to offer the kid stewed meat small pieces, but at the same time to watch closely that it did not choke. In food many grades of meat are still used: beef, veal, low-fat pork, a rabbit, a turkey, chicken, and also an offal - a liver, language, heart, brains. Waterfowl meat (ducks, a goose) and mutton are rich with refractory fats that complicates digestion and assimilation of these grades of meat therefore they can be given only from time to time.

Fish should offer

one - two times a week on 30 - 40 g on reception as replacement to meat dishes. It is possible to make fish cutlets (steam) or meatballs, to stew fish fillet.

of Egg are also of great importance in food of children after 1 year as are rich with valuable nutrients - digestible protein, valuable amino acids, vitamins (A, D, E), phospholipids, mineral substances, micro - and macrocells. Protein of eggs is acquired almost completely - for 96 - 97%, fats - approximately for 95%. For food of kids only chicken and quail eggs are used. Eggs of waterfowl are excluded from - for high risk of transfer of dangerous infections. Quail eggs differ from chicken not only higher content of protein (with a large amount of irreplaceable amino acid - tryptophane), but also higher content of fat and cholesterol. Children till 1,5 years should offer eggs only in the welded (hard-boiled) look or in the form of omelets on milk (they also may contain various vegetables). In the raw (but also, “soft-boiled“ and “in a sack“ eggs are digested worse as contain not denatured protein, and also are dangerous from the point of view of transfer of infections. It is convenient to prepare an omelet in the microwave oven. Then it will be not fried, as on a frying pan, and baked, without crust. Omletny weight is poured out in the ware intended for microwave ovens (without oil use) and put in the furnace for 2 - 3 minutes. Besides, eggs are added to other products to a preparation time of various dishes (cheesecakes, pancakes and so forth) . As eggs - a product with high allergenic properties (quail eggs nevertheless much more less allergens, than chicken), you should not give them to children daily, 3 times a week or every other day are better to do it. The recommended dose of eggs makes egg % a day or whole - every other day. For quail eggs the dose increases approximately twice.

of Grain, flour and bakery products in the child`s diet

of Grain are widely used by

in baby food. Porridge and buckwheat are especially useful to kids, it is also possible to use corn, rice, millet and other types of grain. It will be simpler to one-year-old kid to chew and swallow if porridge has a uniform consistence therefore soluble (“instantny“) porridges still are often used. Closer by one and a half years it is possible to give well razvarenny grain without additional crushing.

can use pasta in food of children From time to time. They can be given in the form of a garnish or to fill with them soup. However, it is not necessary to abuse them as they are rich with digestible carbohydrates. It is recommended to offer them to the kid one - two times a week.

Bread is also used in food of children of this age. It is up to 1,5 years better to offer babies only white loaf: it is digested easier. The total of bread a day should not exceed 100 g. Since 1,5 years it is possible to include in a diet of the baby of a little rye bread (up to 50 g a day). To children till 1,5 years rye bread is not offered as sour dough from which it is made ferments in intestines.

Other products

Drink can be presented to

by clear water (better not boiled, but bottled “for baby food“), dairy products, fruit and vegetable juice, compotes (it is desirable that they were welded in general without any sweetener or with addition of a small amount of fructose), poorly brewing tea, grass broths (a camomile, fennel, mint and so forth). (Even mineral water) children till 3 years are not recommended to give carbonated drinks as the carbon dioxide which is contained in these drinks irritates mucous zheludochno - an intestinal path. The amount of the consumed liquid is regulated let by the kid. It, certainly, will depend on a food allowance, a season, the surrounding temperature and physical activity of the baby.

Table salt is used by

in small amounts - about 0,5 - 1 a day.

Grapes strengthens fermentation processes therefore it is recommended to give to children not earlier than three years.

of Sweet. You can add gradually sugars to sweeten some, especially not loved by the kid, products. It is better to prefer fructose: it is more slowly and more evenly soaked up and acquired by an organism (that almost excludes sharp differences of level of glucose in blood), for penetration into cages of an organism does not demand insulin (that is does not create overloads in work of a pancreas), breaks kislotno less - alkaline balance of a mouth (so, promotes development of caries less). Besides, correctly made, it is nearly 1,75 times more sweet than sucrose that allows to use it in small amounts. For taste giving to porridges and cottage cheese you can use fresh fruit and berries, and also dried fruits. Besides, occasionally kids can be indulged with sweets (ideally they can be made on fructose too - you can find such products on shelves of shops with medical foods) - a fruit candy, a zephyr, jam, jam and, of course, honey (provided that the kid transfers it). The general dose of sugars in day makes 30 - 40 g for children of 1 - 1,5 years.