What is well and what it is bad?
the Balanced diet of pregnant women
the Pregnant wife as, will feel soon that she in a womb conceived, especially undertakes to observe in every possible way respectable life and a blagopovedeniye in all to its state decent; because it has to be peeped not tokmo about protection of own health, but still to have care and about observance wearable it a uterine fruit.
| of H. M. Maksimovich (Ambodik), |
professor Sankt - St. Petersburg
of povivalny institute,
“Art of a povivaniye“ (1784 - 1786)
Food of future mother is one of ways of her communication with the kid growing in her “tummy“ (not without reason “food“ and “education“ - cognate words). On the one hand, mother “brings up“ the kid, honestly and in due time adapting the diet for needs of the growing child; with another - the kid quite often significantly influences food addictions of mother. By the way, long since on favourite products of the pregnant woman tried to predict a sex of the child. To me the message that the girl who was born in India smelled of those spices which very much loved during pregnancy her mother somehow met.to
Anyway, about a balanced diet during pregnancy wrote thousands of books, medical institutions let out all new and new guides and instructions to a balanced diet of pregnant women and the feeding women, count all new and new norms. Therefore we do not apply for capturing all possible recipes and diets at all, and would like to remind once again you some reasonable principles which should be considered during drawing up a food allowance during pregnancy.
1. Food of future parents even before conception of the child is of great importance. If you have an opportunity and desire to plan pregnancy, then pay attention that his health in many respects depends on a state of health of parents during conception of the child. Therefore preparation for pregnancy has to concern not only diagnostics and treatments of infectious diseases of mother and the father, not only identification of risk of transfer of genetic diseases and immunological incompatibility, but also development of healthy habits in food and a way of life. It is known that education and maturing of spermatozoa in a testicle takes about three months therefore if in three months prior to conception the man ceases to subject the different organism to harmful effects, refuses alcohol intake, adheres to a diet with enough proteins, abundance of vegetables and fruit (additional reception of vitamins will not prevent), then “quality“ of its spermatozoa considerably improves. Respectively, chances to conceive the healthy child increase. The woman preparing for conception has to normalize the weight: on the one hand, during pregnancy it does not need extra kilos at all, with another - the child uses “maternal stocks“ for the growth and development therefore the lady exhausted by diets for weight loss is suitable for execution of a responsible maternal role a little. Besides, I would already advise to refuse at a stage of preparation for conception those products which are not recommended to be used during pregnancy (we will talk about them a bit later). Naturally, the woman should not forget about vitamins - better to begin at once with those which are recommended for inclusion in pregnancy time. They differ in the increased content of folic acid which lack of an organism of the pregnant woman on early terms of pregnancy, as we know, leads to development of defects of nervous system.
2. Keep in mind that the need for nutrients depends on many factors. Let`s list the most important of them:
- pregnancy Term
In the first trimester a fruit practically does not need increase in caloric content of your diet. At this time there is laying of all systems of the child, and the main emphasis should be put on quality of food. Especially it concerns proteins (from each three grams of the protein eaten by the pregnant woman, one gram goes for creation of fabrics of a fruit) and vitamins.
In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy - up to 32 weeks - needs to increase the caloric content of your diet. The child actively grows, gains weight and a pregnant uterus therefore both proteins, and fats, and carbohydrates in a diet of future mother has to become more. In the second half of pregnancy the need for calcium, vitamin D, iron, magnesium, zinc and other minerals increases.
About 32 weeks of pregnancy, as a rule, physical activity of future mother decreases, she has more a rest (the working pregnant woman goes on prenatal leave), and it is expedient to reduce the caloric content of food, only not at the expense of protein (we agree with opinion of many practicing perinatolog and obstetricians - gynecologists who should face various complications in the last month of pregnancy and in the first months of life of the child, connected with the fact that mother absolutely refused meat a month before childbirth). Reduce the caloric content of the menu at the expense of digestible carbohydrates - that is confectionery, jam, other sweets as they promote the birth of babies with an excess weight and to obesity at pregnant women.
- of Feature of a course of pregnancy
First of all if you suffer from usual for pregnant indispositions in the first trimester (nausea, etc.) change of a diet can help. It is better to eat five - six times a day, small portions. It is possible to afford - if there is a strong wish - a little salty and ostrenky (reasonably, of course). Toxicosis of the first half of pregnancy with heavy nausea and vomiting, loss of weight demands treatment in a hospital, but you have to understand that in such situation the increased amount of liquid for completion of its loss is required. At development of complications of the second half of pregnancy, dysfunction of kidneys, increase of arterial pressure your attending physician will surely recommend to you to limit consumption of liquid and salt, to exclude fried, sharp, etc., and it is necessary to adhere to its recommendations strictly. At not incubation threat it is necessary too, having coordinated with the doctor, to enter into your diet certain groups of vitamins (vitamins of group B, E, etc.). If you bear not one child, but two (three etc.) naturally, the need for nutrients increases - respectively, it is necessary to change a diet. by
- of Feature of the constitution
it was already mentioned about so-called “maternal stocks“ Above. It is clear, if you differ in a slender constitution (especially if doctors speak about deficiency of body weight), then the caloric content of your food has to be higher, than at the pregnant woman with the increased body weight which just has even a chance to grow thin during pregnancy. Except caloric content, also the range of products influencing a metabolism is of great importance. For example, it is expedient to corpulent women to avoid digestible carbohydrates, using proteins of an animal origin (meat) in combination with the products containing ascorbic acid are more often. On the contrary, it is contraindicated to thin women to be fond of ascorbic acid. Physical activities
- with intensive physical activities and, respectively, you spend a lot of energy, it should be filled due to increase in caloric content of food. On the other hand, if for some reasons you are on a bed rest, then it is expedient to reduce the caloric content of food.
- Geographical conditions
If you live in the north, it is necessary to consider that in these conditions it is recommended to increase diet caloric content (for 10 - 15%). In the south diet caloric content, on the contrary, decreases (by 5%).
- the Season
In summertime needs to watch amount of the liquid drunk in a day. It is connected with the fact that during pregnancy, especially in its second half, easily there comes organism dehydration. In the conditions of normally proceeding pregnancy in the summer (especially in hot weather) drink so much how many you want.
If your work or a way of life are connected by
3. Vegetarians have all opportunities to take out and give birth to the healthy child if, of course, they include cottage cheese and dairy products in the diet, and also is competent - and by all means together with the doctor - will pick up polivitaminno - the mineral complex (containing 12 vitamin B ; and folic acid, iron). It would be desirable to tell that observance of posts is contraindicated to pregnant women. Neither in Orthodoxy, nor in Moslem from pregnant women of it it is also not required.
4. Of course, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins necessary for you can be received from the most different food. However during pregnancy considerable value acquires the range of products and ways of their preparation. Pay attention that:
- sources of animal protein during pregnancy have to be various - alternate meat, dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, cheese etc.) in your diet fish; to
- from all grades of meat during pregnancy to you especially will suit low-fat beef, rabbit flesh, chicken and an indyushachya light meat; meat boiled, than stewed, baked or fried is better than
- : boiled meat casseroles, meatballs, quenelles, simply boiled meat;
- fish - a good source of calcium and phosphorus, try to use low-fat fish and is it once a week; fats in your diet have to be presented to
- by generally vegetable oils (olive, corn, sunflower); do not forget that animal fats surely contain in meat, fish, dairy products; > carbohydrates it is better for li to receive
- from the products containing vegetable cellulose (bread from coarse flour, with bran, from whole grains; grain - buckwheat, oat, rice; vegetables, fruit);
- usual table salt can be replaced during pregnancy with the salt iodated; >
- it is desirable for li to drink mineral water, herbal teas, green tea.
5. During pregnancy (and not only during pregnancy) it is useful to know the allergenic potential of foodstuff. There is, for example, a group of products which causes the reactions of the slowed-down type which are not depending on an allergen dose. It would be possible to call effect of the use of such products accumulative, i.e. reaction develops at the daily use of such products not at once, and after a while - by a weekend, for example. Therefore it is recommended by a breast to keep “the food diary“ during pregnancy and feeding.
So, allergen at the frequent use. It is better to avoid subfrying, shish kebabs, strong broths. It is more useful to cook secondary broths (i.e. after boiling of water to merge it, replacing new), lenten soups, borsches, Russian cabbage soup. Hypoallergenic meat: pork, light meat of a turkey, rabbit flesh. It is desirable to use fish in a boiled look, the hake, a cod, a navaga, ice are preferable. Caviar (red and black) should not be abused - leave it as a festive delicacy.
Allergenic potential also protein of cereal cultures possesses: rye, wheat and oats. At preparation of porridges be not fond of a semolina and porridge. You remember, there is a set of other fine grain: buckwheat, rice, millet, pearl-barley, corn. They can be prepared with meat, cabbage, apples, oil (it is better vegetable or creamy melted).
the Most widespread allergen - protein of cow`s milk. If in one day the pregnant woman eats two yogurts, cheese, cottage cheese, drinks two glasses of milk, a glass of kefir, then it is possible to speak about a “dairy“ overload. It is desirable to boil milk, for preparation of porridges to use the concentrated without sugar or powdered milk, and cottage cheese to use in the form of cheesecakes or baked puddings.
the daily use of protein of bean Is fraught with complications: soy, peas, haricot. It is especially important to know about it in the conditions of present “advertizing expansion“ from the West. By the way, at marking of many import products there is a warning of possible allergic effect (a letter “And“).
also other group of allergens which influence is defined by a dose Is. Such products cause reactions of immediate type - an itch, rash, the small tortoiseshell, local hypostases etc. It is first of all about vegetables and fruit of orange, red and black color. Coloring is caused by the specific substances which are a part of these fruit and vegetables - so-called natural salycylates which are useful only in small doses. In big quantities they cause an allergy. I will explain on an example. The fresh or cooked in borsch carrots (one - two pieces) are useful, and two - three glasses of carrot juice (or even only one glass, but in combination with juice tomato or pumpkin) can lead to development of karotinovy jaundice. I remember, the father of one of my little patients having eczema was indignant: “That you, the doctor, carp at 50 ml of orange juice which were drunk by the child, - I to the pregnant wife carried oranges boxes, and nothing was!“. (I will notice in brackets that in this concrete case owing to so caring attitude mother added 18 kg for pregnancy. As a result - it is impossible to call the phenomena of late toxicosis lungs in the last two months of pregnancy and childbirth in any way.) Half-glass of fresh blackcurrant - it is useful, and daily used kissel from this berry wiped with sugar can cause allergic reaction. To wild berries the preference traditionally is given to wild strawberry in all diets for pregnant women and the feeding women, for example, - before garden strawberry. Absolutely harmlessly from the point of view of an allergic situation the use of cowberry, a cranberry, bilberry, blueberry (instead of sugar it is better to use fructose). And here with dried apricots, apricots, peaches be more careful (the “piece“ use is recommended). It is better to use all fruit and berries in the natural form, but not in cookings, kissels, compotes.
6. Now food additives for pregnant women and the feeding women - as a source of vitamins and minerals are widely advertized. You should not consider them as the magic means “optimizing“ any pregnancy. At their appointment the doctor by all means considers character of a course of pregnancy, health and the constitution of future mother, possible risk for the child. It is possible to tell one - neither polyvitamins, nor food additives can be used uncontrolledly. Otherwise it is possible to gain a boomerang effect.
7. Though there is no wish to be categorical, nevertheless, during pregnancy it is extremely undesirable to use:
- alcohol in any kind, even low alcohol drinks (beer);
- in a large number - the products containing tartrazin (the painted aerated soft drinks, smoked products, the painted creams, chewing gums and chewing candies, caramel);
- hot sauces, spices and seasonings, vinegar;
- strong black tea and strong coffee;
- fat grades of meat and fish, fat;
- fried dishes (especially in the second half of pregnancy).
So what it is good? Various food taking into account specific features of the pregnant woman and her family. What is badly? Abuse of products with a high allergenic potential, monotonous food. Very badly - starvation and an overeating. Undoubtedly, the diyetoprofilaktika has advantages before a dietotherapy!
If you led more or less a healthy lifestyle before pregnancy, then can quite count during pregnancy on the intuition and intuition - the organism will prompt to you on what products it is worth paying special attention and what it is necessary to refrain from. For God`s sake, do not panic, having drunk a glass of beer, and you do not hurry to get rid of pregnancy.
In any doubtful case consult with the doctor to whom you trust. Now in female consultations work doctors - perinatology, the making recommendations to pregnant women on preservation of health of the child before childbirth - the recommendations submitted on decrease in complications of pregnancy and formation at a fruit of proper protective responses of an organism. Their competence includes also collecting the family anamnesis allowing to consider in recommendations of feature of each concrete family. In domestic obstetrics and perinatology the most modern and effective control methods and self-checking behind the course of pregnancy are applied.