Rus Articles Journal

Miracles of “photoshop“

the Computer already surely entered our everyday life. It and book, it and teacher, it and assistant. It helps us to train kids, on it it is possible to make the present house video movie or to turn the usual photo into a work of art. Here we will also be engaged in the last: let`s learn to process photos by means of the popular Photoshop program.

What Photoshop is able?

I Think, it is worth understanding a little: and what he is able, this Photoshop * what it can be necessary for us for? Let`s not go into details of its professional use so far, and we will talk about those functions which will help us to take house pictures even more beautifully and more interestingly. So, first of all, by means of the program we will be able to improve quality of not too good photo: to adjust brightness and contrast, to make brighter than paint or, on the contrary, to reduce intensity of this or that color, to retouch a picture. In - the second, Photoshop will help to correct composition errors, “to cut off“ all superfluous from the photo or to make a portrait of a usual picture. In - the third, you will be able to be engaged in the real creativity: to create a photocollage, to add different interesting details on the image, to change a background, to make a frame, to turn the photo into water color drawing, to make an own wall calendar, a greeting card, the schedule of day of the kid, etc. All this not only useful skills are also a possibility of self-expression. Having a little accustomed with the program, having gained some experience, it is possible to create the real masterpieces from usual photos.

Who is who

For a start let`s talk about the general Photoshop device and its tools. It is necessary in order that we could understand each other further. In the left part of the screen there is a toolbar. In Photoshop there is a lot of them therefore they are united in groups. In order that the necessary tool became active, click a mouse on its pictogram (picture). Near some pictograms the small strelochka is located. If to click on it, then the emerging palette containing the tools entering into group opens. In the right part of the screen several separate windows which are called a floating palette are located. In them there are some of very useful tools about which we will talk a bit later. Switching between palettes is carried out by click of the left button of a mouse on a label of the corresponding palette. The top line with inscriptions (“File“, “Editing“ etc.) call the menu bar.


Before beginning work with this or that photo, it is necessary to open for us it. It is carried out as well as in any other program. We click in the menu bar on “File“ and we choose “to Open“. If your files have the JPG expansion, do not forget to check in a window “File type“ what expansion at you is chosen at present (by default PSD). Choose from the list of expansions necessary, and then find the necessary photo on the disk and open it double click. But there is a way faster and convenient. It is rather simple to left-click twice a mouse on the working field of a main window Photoshop, and on the screen the window of opening of files will appear.

After we will finish with

work with our photo, it is necessary to keep it. By the way, periodically keep it and in the course of work. Otherwise unforeseen failure of the program or the computer can nullify all your works. So, for preservation at us is the whole three teams located in the File menu:“ To keep “, “ to keep as “and“ to keep for Web“. The first of them keeps the document under his current name, overwriting the new version of the image old. Use this team with care, otherwise it is possible to lose the original of the photo. The second team, “To keep as“, it is intended for saving the photo under other name other than current. It is better to use it. Expediently at once, beginning to work with a photo, to keep it under a new name, and not to touch the original. Then you will have original photo, and changed will bear other name. If you plan to place the photo on the Internet, use the Keep for Web team. In this case the special window of management of process of saving documents which allows to pick up optimum setting up the kept image will open (to optimize the image). The Keep for Web module supports the most widespread formats for the Internet - JPG, GIF, PNG. Convenience of use of this module consists in a possibility of simultaneous viewing of several versions (from 1 to 3) of the final image.

When saving the photo pay attention to some important parameters. First of all, check that the JPG format was chosen. When pressing the Keep button you will have one more window in which it is possible to change quality of the file. For the press, viewing on the computer or further editing leave high or maximum quality (9 - 10). If further you are going to place the photo in the Internet, to insert it into the text document (Word) or the presentation (PowerPoint), establish average quality (5). It will be quite enough, and you considerably reduce the file size.

It is possible, you want to unpack the turned-out masterpiece. It can be made through the File menu, having chosen the option “Press“.

Bright paints

So, we will start the most interesting. Shortcomings have the majority of the finished shooting photos (especially if you have no skills of faultless shooting yet or your camera not really well removes). They can be too dark, with indiscernible details, too light, insufficiently contrast etc. Difference of the good photo from bad is shown first of all in the correct balance of light and shade. Then objects of shooting look relief and are well perceived by an eye. Before being engaged in correction, let`s create two windows with the identical photo. Changing the picture in one of windows, we will be able to compare it to an initial picture and to solve, we like what turns out, or not. For this purpose open the necessary photo in Photoshop. Then select in the menu “Image“ the option “Duplicate“. At you two windows with identical pictures will turn out. For tone correction it is convenient to use the automatic Avtourovni function which is in the Image menu, - “Adjustments“. If you did not like what turned out after application of this function, you can always return on any quantity of steps backwards. For this purpose use a floating History palette (in the right part of the screen). There it is consecutive, one under another, all your actions are designated. Choose the necessary “point of return“ and - it is ready, all unsuccessful actions will be cancelled.

It is possible, you will want to strengthen brightness of the photo or to make the image more contrast. Apply to the picture the Avtokontrast function from the Image menu - “Adjustments“. This team automatically selects contrast and brightness of the image. If the result was not pleasant to you, try to make manual correction. For this purpose open the Image menu - “Adjustments“ - “Brightness / Contrast“. By means of cursors achieve the satisfactory image and press “OK“. Keep in mind that change of one of parameters involves change and another. Increase or reduction of brightness leads to contrast reduction, increase in contrast promotes increase in brightness, and contrast reduction - to reduction of brightness of the image. The Image team - “Adjustments“ - “Avtotsvet“ will help to correct colors to you. If, in your opinion, in a picture there is too much any one color or just you want to muffle slightly this or that color (for example, to make the reddened faces less red), use the Image function - “Adjustments“ - “Shade / Saturation“. In the opened window choose that color which you want to edit, and achieve desirable result, changing tone, a saturation and brightness.

I still. If you are going to print photos from the digital camera, previously process them in Photoshop: they will only benefit from it. But do not forget that the main thing governed - it is moderation. Try that colors in the photo looked natural.

to Clean all superfluous!

One of important components of the good photo is the correct creation of a shot. And if the shot is incorrectly grouped, then there is an involuntary wish “to shift“ it down, up or aside. Happens so that the child in a picture turned out just amazingly, but here if from edge of a shot that plastic bottle did not loom here. And if to cut off a little an “excess“ background at the edges - and at all the photo though on an exhibition! Familiarly it? And here we will be come to the rescue by the wizard of Photoshop too. With its help we will be able to cut off all superfluous from a shot. This operation is called “framing“, i.e. increase in part of the photo. To make it as easy as shelling pears. Let`s say we have a photo where the kid frolics on a lawn. But there is only too much lawn, and the figure of the kid on its background is lost. We need to cut off part of a background around the child. For this purpose we open the necessary photo and we choose a dotted small square at a toolbar. This tool is called rectangular allocation. Install the cursor in the necessary point of the photo and, holding the mouse pressed the left button, lead round that area of the photo which you want to leave. Now the allocated area is outlined by a flickering dotted line. If it turned out to allocate not absolutely that there was a wish, cancel the made allocation by click of a mouse in any point of the image outside the allocated area and repeat operation. The dotted line can be moved, having guided a mouse at the allocated area and holding the left button. If result 52: satisfied, select “Image“ - “to Crop“. All superfluous is - cheznt, there will be an allocated area. If you need to make strictly square picture, at allocation press and hold the Shift key.

we Do to

a portrait

Let`s say you have a photo where the kid turned out especially well. Let`s turn this picture into a portrait. At first allocate the necessary area (a face of the kid) in the way already known to us by means of rectangular allocation. Do not forget that allocation can be made and square. But it is possible to offer and which - what is more interesting. Let`s receive a portrait of an oval or round form. For this purpose guide a mouse at a badge of rectangular allocation and, holding the left button, choose the pictogram with a circle at a toolbar. Now we will be able to lead round oval area of the size necessary to us in our photo. If the circle is necessary, at an obvedeniye we hold pressed the Shift key. Then we will choose the Copy command in the Editing menu, we will create a new window and we will insert into it our portrait. For this purpose open the File menu - “New“, in the appeared window enter a name of the new file (not necessarily) and click on “OK“. At you the new empty window with a white background has to turn out. Now we choose “Editing“ - “to Insert“, and already our round portrait of the kid appears in a new window. But on a white background the photo looks somehow not really: there is a wish for something more brightly. Let`s make a background. For this purpose at first pick up color of the foreground: click on the top square from two the blocking each other at a toolbar (by default it black). In the opened window choose any color which attracted to you. Now we need the Bucket tool at a toolbar. The cursor will turn into a bucket too. Let`s bring it serially to all white corners on the picture and we will left-click. White areas will be painted over in the chosen color. Experiment with a background and pick up what will be in harmony with a picture.

the Background can be made

also in the form of a gradient of any chosen color, i.e. the background will change smoothly and beautifully from dark tone to light or from one color to another. For this purpose, before inserting into a white window our photo, zatoniruy it. Choose color of the foreground and color of a background by means of an icon with two squares. Guide a mouse at a bucket already familiar to us and, holding the left button, choose the Gradient tool. Now bring the cursor to a window and draw a line from left to right, from right to left or on diagonal. The window will be painted over by smooth transition from one color to another. If you want to receive a gradient of one color, choose it as color of the foreground (at a toolbar), and color of a background leave white. Now we insert our cut-out photo on the prepared substrate.

In the program the library of styles from which it is possible to choose an unusual background for the photo is. Open the Styles tab in one of floating palettes in the right part of the screen. Fill in with the attracted picture a window, and then insert the photo.

In order that the background was in harmony with the photo, one of those flowers which is in your picture can be necessary for you. To set just the same color, use very useful tool which is called the Pipette. It and is represented, in the form of a pipette. Choose it at a toolbar, bring to the necessary color and left-click. The small square of color of the foreground at a toolbar will be painted in the chosen color. Now it is possible to fill in with this color a background by means of a bucket.

If the desire is, it is possible to add a fast frame to the photo. Choose at the Brush toolbar. In the Window menu click on the Brushes function. In the appeared window note the pleasant brush (there are also figured: in the form of asterisks, leaves, petals, etc.) . Displacing a cursor “Diameter“ to the right - to the left, choose the suitable thickness of a brush. The same result can be received if to right-click on the photo. The window of the choice of a brush will open. Do not forget to establish necessary color of the foreground. Now we bring a brush to our portrait and we draw any frame.

the Glamourous kid

Is so that on a background of our remarkable photo there is some subject which spoils all picture. Or the stranger incidentally got into the shot. Or just we want to clean some details, for example, not nice spot from a children`s t-shirt. Such processing of the photo is called a retouch. Clever Photoshop will cope also with it. Of course, not without your help. So, let us assume, we want to clean a spot on a t-shirt. At a toolbar guide a mouse at an icon “Stamp“ (it and is represented - in the form of a stamp, the press) and, holding pressed the button, choose “Stamp cloning“. Our task to pick up a suitable site on a t-shirt which we want to copy, and then to paint over it an ill-fated spot. In the Brushes menu pick up the suitable diameter of a stamp. Then bring the cursor in the right place of the photo and copy a site, holding pressed the Alt key and the left button of a mouse. Now shift the cursor on a spot and, having pressed the left button of a mouse, paint over defect. Having a little trained, you will be able to correct defects of photos so that nothing will be almost noticeable. By the way, action of a stamp is not limited to one image. It allows to transfer areas of one picture to another. For this purpose open two photos, by means of a stamp allocate necessary area on one of them, and then install the cursor in the right place of other photo and transfer the image, holding the left button of a mouse.

One more useful tool is called the Treating brush (it is similar to an adhesive plaster, it is located at a toolbar). This tool is very similar to the cloning stamp, but considers structure, lighting, shadows of the processed area of the image. As a result the restored site after a retouch easily fits into other part of the image. In other words, the treating brush carries out a retouch thinly and delicately. An operating procedure with a brush same, as well as with the cloning stamp. It especially is suitable for retouching of portraits: will easily clean from a face of a wrinkle, heat-spots, birthmarks, dirt.

In the neighbourhood with the treating brush the useful Replacement of Colour tool is (guide the cursor at an icon of the treating brush and, holding pressed a lionuyu the mouse button, choose the picture on which an eye and a brush are represented). This tool will give you the chance at desire “to tint“ lips and cheeks of the kid, to clean effect of red eyes, etc. How natural will look similar transformation depends because what color you will pick up. It is established as color of the foreground. After you decided on color, bring the cursor to the photo and, holding the mouse pressed the left button, paint over the necessary part in the chosen color.“ Clever“ the tool itself defines borders of the painted-over area (it differs from other photo on color) and “tries“ not to support its borders. For convenience use the Magnifying glass tool (is at a toolbar, the icon has a magnifying glass appearance). With its help it is possible to increase that part of the photo with which you work at present. Just bring a magnifying glass to the photo and press the left button several times, yet do not receive the necessary increase.

It is possible, you will want to recolour an undershirt of the kid in the photo from blue in red or just to experiment with a color. Open “Image“ - “Adjustments“ - “Replacement of color“. It is absolutely other tool, though has the similar name. In the opened window put a tag on the option “Picture“, then gain a pipette from the photo that color which you want to replace. Now click on a color square “Result“ which is here, in a window of replacement of color, and choose that color which you want to receive. By means of rychazhok “Tone“, “Saturation“, “Brightness“ it is possible to change parameters of color. If the result satisfied you, click on “OK“.

Cheerful collages

Happens, we want as - nibud to embellish the photo, having added amusing details to the image. For example, to add florets around the kid, to put nearby a toy, to make a beautiful frame, to turn the child into a butterfly, the Little Mermaid or other fairy tale character, to seat him on a cloudlet, to combine several photos... In a word, to make a photocollage. And this task not difficult. However, she demands some experience and skill. Let`s say you want to add some details on the photo: for example, to decorate a meadow around the kid sitting in a grass with butterflies, grasshoppers, ladybugs. For a start pick up suitable pictures with the drawn insects. They can be found on the Internet or on special disks with cliparts (collections of pictures). Open in Photoshop the necessary picture (for example, a ladybug) and the photo. Look for each picture at the actual size (The menu bar - “Look“ - “The actual size“). It is necessary to understand whether the ladybug is suitable for your photo. Perhaps, it is too big. If this is so, reduce the picture. For this purpose select “Image“ - “The image size“. In the opened window reduce width or height of drawing (you watch that there was a tag near the option “Keep Proportions“).

When we achieved compliance in sizes between two pictures, we will start creation of a collage. At first we need to cut out a ladybug. It can be made manually by means of the Lasso tool. It is at a toolbar and has an appearance of a rope loop. Choose the tool and, holding pressed the left button, lead round the image. Most likely, to make it it is accurate at you it will not turn out. The line will be uneven, and edge of drawing - inaccurate. It is much more convenient to use the remarkable tool which is called the Magnetic lasso. It is in the same place where also a usual lasso (hold on the icon pressed the left button). Bring the tool to edge of a ladybug, click on a contour of drawing and begin to lead round it slowly. You will notice that the line is as if attracted to the image and itself lays down on edge. But so will be not everywhere. In some places of drawing of a lasso can “be mistaken“ and leave slightly aside. Return on the necessary quantity of steps backwards by means of the Del key and record click of the left button of a mouse a point in the right place. Then continue an obvedeniye. When all necessary area of drawing is led round, left-click a mouse. On the screen the flickering dotted line will appear. Choose the Copy command from the Edit menu and insert the selected picture into the photo with the kid. By means of the Movement tool (two crossed arrows at a toolbar) move drawing and find for it the most suitable place. Here, actually, and all. In the same way you will be able to cut out a figure of the kid from the photo and to implant him on the picture with a big butterfly so that also the kid turned into a butterfly. Or to place it on a lawn where frolic Winnie - Down and Piglet. Or to make a greeting card for the father with a portrait of the kid. Further creativity is not limited to anything, except your imagination, and quality of the picture depends on experience and skills of work with the program. So, there is a little patience - and everything will turn out.