Flu and the company
Sharp respiratory virus diseases - group of the viral diseases which are characterized by primary damage of mucous membranes of airways which on specific weight in structure infectious pathologies of both children, and adults strongly occupies one of the leading places. Carry flu and ORZ (SARS) group to number of these diseases.Flu
the Activator is vozdushno transmitted to
- a drop way through the top departments of a respiratory path - mucous membranes of a nose and a nasopharynx. The peak of incidence is necessary on the oseena - the winter period. During epidemics gets sick with 40 - 70% of the children`s population. Therefore fight against flu and its prevention - very important problems of pediatrics and health care in general.
three types of viruses of flu Exist: And, In and S. Vozbuditelyami of pandemics and large flu epidemics different types of a virus A usually are. This virus was for the first time allocated in 1933. The virus of flu B was allocated in 1940. Flu epidemics of this type arise time in 3 - 4 years, extend slowly, are characterized by a long current and limited to territories of the certain cities. The virus of flu C was allocated in 1947. The flu caused by this virus affects generally children. Course of a disease most often not really heavy.Viruses of flu are very changeable
. In each epidemic there is a new subtype (strain) of a virus to which the population has no immunity. And immunity after the postponed disease happens very short that can lead to a repeated disease. Immunity to flu A remains 1 - 2 years, to flu B - 3 - 5 years, to flu C - longer time (perhaps, for life).
the Source of infection with flu. In the incubatory (hidden) period of a disease of the patient allocates in environment viruses (at conversation, cough, sneezing) with drops of saliva or a phlegm. The virus of flu A is steadier in environment, than a flu B virus. It till 2 weeks remains on bed linen, and in room dust - till 5 weeks. Therefore there is a possibility of infection through a dust aerosol, through use objects (toys, ware, towels).
the Incubatory period at flu makes of several o`clock (flu A) about three days (flu B). At this time getting sick has an indisposition, a poznablivaniye, an ache in muscles and joints, body temperature increases (to 37,1 - 37,5 degrees). The beginning of a disease at children often sharp - arises a severe headache, dizziness, joint pains and sharp weakness, sometimes - nasal bleedings, nausea, vomiting; considerably temperature rises (to 39 - 40 degrees). The headache at flu has characteristic localization: forehead, temples, nadbrovny arches, area of eyes.
Existence of the catarrhal phenomena at flu (cold, irritation in a throat and pain when swallowing, dacryagogue) is not obligatory. The maximum temperature is noted in the first - the second days of a disease, raised (subfibrilny) can remain till 5 days. Decrease in temperature happens after that usually quickly. Sometimes after normalization of temperature the second peak of its increase is noted: it is caused by development of complications, an aggravation of the available infection centers. The Bezlikhoradochny form of flu occurs at little patients extremely seldom. The average duration of a course of flu - 6 days, at severe forms - 11 - 13 days.
Difference of Flu from ORZ (SARS)
Flu has sharper beginning (sometimes the bright symptomatology develops in several hours). Temperature reaches high figures (there can be above 38,5 °C) within 1 - 2 days, at 10% of children 5 years are younger febrilny spasms can be observed. Catarrhal phenomena (sore throat, nose congestion, cold etc.) appear on 1 - 2 day after a sharp onset of the illness, are expressed poorly or are even absent. At ORZ intoxication symptoms (a headache, nausea, joint and muscles pains) develop more slowly - in 2 - 3 days from an onset of the illness and are expressed poorly or moderately. Body temperature can be normal or subfebrilny (to 37,1 - 37,5 °C). Catarrhal symptoms are expressed more sharply, appear together with the first symptoms of an illness, and sometimes are the main. At recovery weakness and an adynamy (weakness) can remain about several weeks.Classification and the short clinical characteristic of ORZ
damage of a throat is characteristic
Of paraflu which children are ill, as a rule, in the spring or in the fall. There is laryngitis which can lead to even more serious and dangerous illness - a croup. At the child the voice becomes hoarse or vanishes absolutely, there is a rough barking cough, breath is at a loss. In this case he needs to be hospitalized immediately.
At a sintsitialny infection the lower departments of a respiratory path - bronchial tubes and bronchioles are surprised. Inflammatory processes bring into them to so-called a bronchial tube - to an obstructive syndrome. The kid has a cough, short wind, it becomes difficult for it to exhale air.
the Adenoviral infection are not purely respiratory infection. Damage of the top airways with the expressed ekssudativny component - puffiness of fabrics is characteristic of it. Can be involved in inflammatory process and eyes - conjunctivitis and dacryagogue develops, and at a severe defeat of a cornea can develop keratit. At survey the inflammation of a throat and almonds (sore throat) and increase in lymph nodes is noted (is more often - cervical and submaxillary). Such form of an illness is called faringo - conjunctival fever. Besides, adenoviruses are capable to break a gastric barrier, to get into intestines and to cause belly-aches and diarrhea (a liquid chair).to
At rinovirusny infections during the day will need enormous quantity of handkerchiefs. The mucous membrane of a nose - the first barrier on the way of an infection to an organism, and most often it is exposed to its influence. Inflammatory process is followed by strengthening of permeability of vessels from which liquid gets into intercellular space, and then into the nasal courses. Slime secretion amplifies, the mucous membrane of a cavity of a nose bulks up, the nasal courses are narrowed, it becomes difficult for child to breathe.Should mean
that these viral infections most often affect children of early age. Their diseases pass especially hard as they meet viruses for the first time.
of Complication of Flu and ORZ (SARS)
Big health hazard of the child are represented by development of serious complications of complication of flu and SARS as these diseases can lead to structural changes of a mucous membrane of airways, failure of adaptable mechanisms of protection and formation of chronic pathology the ENT SPECIALIST - bodies (an inflammation of a middle ear, an inflammation of additional bosoms of a nose), bronchopulmonary system (tracheitis, laryngitis), and also to other somatic diseases (myocarditis, glomerulonefrit etc.) .At all SARS forms the risk of developing of a secondary bacterial infection is big
, in this regard the constant control behind data of blood tests and urine is necessary. The most frequent and terrible complication - pneumonia (most often happens at the flu caused by a virus A). It is possible to suspect pneumonia of cases it is long the remaining fever, emergence of damp cough, short wind, thorax pains, plentiful perspiration (mainly at night). It is important to remind that pneumonia surely has to be treated in a hospital. Among terrible complications also brain hypostasis, meningitis, etc.Treatment not severe and the ORZ uncomplicated severe forms and flu can be carried out by
in house conditions. Until temperature decreased, the bed rest is obligatory - it will reduce probability of complications. Plentiful warm drink and lung maximum the sparing food is recommended (the food has to be soft, not demanding a careful chewing, hot dishes, smoked products, etc. are excluded). After the end of the feverish period to the child it is appointed dairy - a vegetable diet, vitamin-rich, meat and fish are included in a diet only in a boiled look, small portions. At children with a SARS, especially the first year of life, control of a chair as hypotonia of a large intestine can be the additional factor supporting intoxication is of great importance.the doctor who will establish the diagnosis and will appoint broader medicamentous therapy surely has to examine
of the Sick child: febrifuges, at a hyperthermia it is above 38,5 °C (without existence in the history of life of neurologic pathology and spasms), for example, paracetamol (Panadol, Kalpol etc.) or other NPVS (“Ibuprofen“ etc.) in an age dosage. Salycylates and derivatives of metamizol of sodium according to the recommendation of the Ministry of health and social development should not be given to children till 15 years from - for possible side effects.by
complex anti-cold preparations (Ferveks, Koldreks) or homeopathic remedies can be applied To knocking over of symptoms of cold (Biolayn Kold and Biolayn to a fl). At the rhinitis phenomena no more than 5 - 7 days vasoconstrictive means (Nazivin, Nazol Bebi etc.) are used, and it is possible to struggle with cough mucolytics and expectorant means of a vegetable and chemical origin (Lazolvan, Gedeliks, Bromhexine etc.). For reduction of a sore throat, the osiplost of a voice can use antiseptics for an oral cavity and a throat (Geksoral, Stopangin, the Doctor Megohm (lollipops with various tastes) etc.). Certainly, you should not forget about specific antiviral means (Arbidol etc.) interferon preparations (Grippferon etc.) and interferon inductors which activate humoral and cellular reactions of immunity, and also about vitamin therapy.
Prevention of flu
For prevention of viral infections since the beginning to the oseena - the winter period should avoid overcooling of a children`s organism and to limit visit of child care facility in the period of epidemics. If in a family nevertheless the diseased appeared, for the prevention of infection of other members of the family of the patient it is desirable to isolate to the certain room, and exciting to wear gauze masks, several times in days to air the apartment and to carry out in it damp cleaning.Important value mass immunization of the children`s population has
of the Inoculation and immunity
according to specialists of WHO in the most reliable way of the prevention of an infectious disease is timely immunization. It is necessary to increase the specific resilience of an organism to these or those activators, i.e. to influence actively or passively immunity. Immunity to infectious diseases is developed during natural recovery of the infectious patient or at artificial introduction to the healthy person of a vaccine. The purpose of active immunization consists in causing the specific immune answer on certain the infectious agent - the entered vaccine.Vaccination in our country is voluntary
. According to “The law on immunoprevention of infectious diseases“ any parent has the right to write refusal and not to do to the child the inoculations recommended by the Ministry of health and social development. Recently, by the way, these refusals become more and more popular. So it is a craze, or it is valid parents have bases to be afraid of immunoprevention?by
At vaccination into a human body enters the weakened or inactivated virus to stimulate development of antibodies against this infection. So specific immunity - protection against a concrete disease develops. The principle of action of specific immunity is as follows: at contact with a virus of an antibody enter with it fight and neutralize pathogenic influence. However you should not think that the inoculation gives to 100% a guarantee that the child will not get sick.
efficiency of vaccination is influenced by a set of factors, for example, extent of cleaning of a preparation, the correct and its accurate introduction to an organism, individual reaction to a vaccine, its allergenicity, the general condition of an organism etc. The inoculation is practically an illness benign therefore it is necessary to prepare for it. On the eve of the child the pediatrician has to examine. Need of preliminary reception of polyvitamins and antihistaminic preparations is discussed with the doctor, the general blood test and the general analysis of urine are surely made. In day of an inoculation of the kid the pediatrician thoroughly examines. And only in case of the full health confirmed with good results of analyses it is possible to go to an inoculative office. The inoculation can give a number of complications therefore it cannot be done if the child is sick, though very easily. Medical branch are neurologic diseases, malignant new growths, an allergy, especially on chicken protein or an exacerbation of diathesis, atopic dermatitis, immunodeficiency etc. After carrying out an inoculation rise in temperature to 38 °C is possible, the general weakness is a natural reaction of an organism to an inoculation which will take place in 1 - 2 day.now in Russia are allowed by
For prevention of flu for use from the 6th monthly age of a vaccine, (Grippol) and abroad Begrivak who are made in Russia (Kayron - Bering, Germany), Vaksigrip (Aventis - Pasteur, France), Flyuariks (Smith - Klein Bich, Germany), and also a vaccine Inflyuvak (Solvey Farmasyyutikalz, the Netherlands).
Due to the high variability of a virus of flu, nearly an every year there are new anti-gene options of a virus, especially a virus of A type that forces to change the influenza strains used for preparation of vaccines.
New strains (options) of a virus of flu for preparation of an influenzal vaccine for the forthcoming epidemic season is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). By means of 110 national influenzal laboratories in 82 countries and 4 international centers for flu of WHO more than 1000 influenza strains allocated from patients during influenzal epidemics are annually analyzed and reveal the most actual anti-gene options among again arisen. At the end of February every year WHO publishes the list of the strains recommended for preparation of influenzal vaccines during the forthcoming epidemic season. The firms making influenzal vaccines can receive these strains and begin production of a vaccine.
Krom of vaccines in an arsenal preventive and remedies in pediatric practice specific antiviral means are available: Remantadin, Algir (remantadin). Suppresses a reproduction of viruses of flu A. Remantadin is allowed for use for children 7 years, and Algir - since 1 are more senior.
Arbidol, Arbidol - LENS (arbidol). Has immunomodulatory, interferonogenny and antioxidant effect. It is active concerning viruses of flu A and B. The mechanism of anti-virus effect of Arbidol is connected with violation of merge of a lipidic cover of a virus to a lipidic cover of a membrane of a cage, with inhibition of broadcast of virusspetsifichesky proteins in the infected cages therefore the reproduction of viruses is suppressed. It is applied at children from 2 years.Ribavirin (ribamidit)
, Synthetic analog of nucleosides with a wide range of activity against various DNA and RNA of viruses, including against a herpes virus.by
of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) - selective inhibitor of a neuraminidase of viruses of flu A and B is applied at children since 1 of life.
Giporamin (extract of galloellagotanin from leaves of a sea-buckthorn krushevidny), its antiviral activity is connected from an ingibitsiy virus neuraminidase and is allowed by induction of production of endogenous interferon for use for pregnant women and children with 2 - monthly age.
of Oksolinovaya ointment which has viritsidny effect concerning Rino - and miksovirus.
Important value for prevention of flu and other viral diseases are played natural (Interferon, Lokferon, Leykinferon) and recombinant (Viferon, Grippferon, Infagel) by interferona. All preparations of interferon cause synthesis in cages of proteins which provide anti-virus and immunomoduliryshchiya the effects directed to viruses relief of cages.by
For prevention prostudno - viral diseases, especially, at often ill children, also widely use interferon inductors (Amiksin, Tsikloferon, Not OVIR, Tsitovir - 3, Ridostin ointment and of river) which action is directed development strengthening by cages of an organism of different types of interferon: an alpha - a beta - scale - interferon. The strengthened production of own interferon provides increase of antiviral protection of an organism and has immunomodulatory effect. Many inductors of interferon are capable to have direct antiviral effect on flu viruses.Prevention of flu in the period of epidemic is possible
also by strengthening of immunity with use of the wide list of immunoactive preparations of different groups: Derinat, Likopid, Polyoxydonas, IRS - 19, Bronkho - munat, Ribomunil, etc.
One more way of prevention of flu - phytotherapy (Immunal, Extract of an ekhinatsea, other form of an ekhinatsea - a plant, being a natural immunostimulator) and application of homeopathic remedies (Otsillokoktsinum, Aflubin, Agri, Sandra, Edas - 103, Edas - 903) which obvious advantage - lack of side effects. At the same time as additional resources of prevention and treatment of flu and other viral infections they can be rather effective.and at its treatment according to medical indications should be given to
For prevention of flu surely children`s polyvitaminic complexes. Them now a set in the medical market, but as any medical supply, only your attending physician has to prescribe vitamins.to
to Increase of resilience of a children`s organism and resistance to various infections is promoted by observance of a day regimen and rest, rules of personal hygiene, balanced and good nutrition, daily walks, reduction of loadings and stresses, the dosed physical activities and, certainly, a constant hardening of an organism.
the Hardening is an increase of resistance of protection of an organism to an adverse effect of environment, t. e to low temperatures, influence of pathogenic bacteria etc. Of course, bathing in an ice-hole is in the winter already an extreme, but from first year of life of the child it is possible in house conditions to accustom gradually to cool bathing. Almost all children love water and with pleasure lap in a bathroom with toys. Why not to turn entertainment into improving procedure?can be Begun with
at any age and at all seasons of the year. Just lower water temperature from 36 degrees to 35. Wait couple of days, let`s the child get used, there should be no signs of discomfort. Lower water temperature for half-degree. Further and continue. When the child absolutely gets used to low water temperature, it is possible to try contrast douches - alternate hot and cold water.
the Main principles of a hardening is a regularity and gradualness. Instant results will not be, there has to pass time that the organism got used to new rules of interaction with environment. It is sharp you should not start too - radical measures lead to opposite effect: the weakened organism becomes an easy mark for a viral infection. It is important to begin with small and not to stop at all.
by means of these simple preventive measures you will prepare the child for life without diseases. Just you remember that if rules of hygiene and a hardening are simple, it does not mean that they are inefficient. It is better to think of prevention of a children`s infection in advance, than then to be the serious preparations forced to treat the little person.