Vitamin C. How to understand it?
As an independent, and mass and fatal disease, a scurvy (skornut) was in detail described in the Middle Ages. It leaned on people as a scourge of god during long sea campaigns, dragged-out wars (Crusades, sieges of the cities), in the areas suffering from a crop failure. Later it threatened with death to polar expeditions, gold diggers in Northern lands. Now in spring time visits northern regions in the form of a gipovitaminoz. Besides the general exhaustion, violation of durability of a vascular wall, and with it both hemorrhages, and bleedings, an anemia, ulcer damage of skin, loss of teeth, destruction of cartilages, joint pains and other delights, at a scurvy immunity decreases and there is fever. As besides the illness had obviously focal character, many considered it infectious. Others connected a scurvy with substandard food, with mental depression. At partial starvation all bouquet of tsingotny symptoms develops for several months. And at infectious diseases, especially at flu, the first symptoms (hemorrhages) of avitaminosis arise in a week.For the first time existence in natural food of some special substances necessary for life of animals was proved to
by the Russian pediatrician N. I. Lunin in 1881. Its work (thesis) was the largest opening as disproved accepted as the law opinion of the great chemist Yu. Libikh (“Organic chemistry in its annexes to physiology and pathology“, 1842) that proteins, fats, carbohydrates and mineral salts there is quite enough. Is not present still substances are, insufficiently, necessary, Lunin told and opened for those a new era in a problem of food and pharmaceutical science.
of B XIX - the beginning of the 20th century East Asia with its Polynesian and Japanese islands was the center heavy endemichesky (inherent in this limited area) take diseases - take (alimentary polyneuritis). It is characterized by damage of peripheral nerves, is warm - vascular system and hypostases, then there is an atrophy of muscles. So, in 1911 in Java and Sumatra from take mortality - take reached 70%. In Japan it struck generally seamen - on average 300 on 1000 people a year. By the ships all lived seemingly together, but officers ate better and were ill less often therefore doctors assumed that the illness is somehow connected with food.
In June, 1897 the Dutch doctor H. Eykman serving in colonial administration paid attention to that circumstance that the hens divorced in nursery at their institute in Batavia (so Jakarta was called earlier), had an illness reminding take - take from the person, - they as if could not go and constantly somersaulted. Eykman noted: the illness began since then when hens began to be fed with the shelushenny (polished) rice. It did not find microbes in their corpses, but in nerves and a spinal cord of hens the same degeneration of nerves, as at the person, - result of polyneuritis was noticed. Transfer of hens to usual food led to fast recovery. Similar results were described at supervision over health of prisoners in different prisons. And there transfer of patients to feeding with usual rice led to elimination of an illness. For this find H. Eykman together with the colleague F. H. Hopkins got the Nobel Prize in 1929. Only the fact that in some Batavia something necessary for health was in rice bran was found out. But were ill - that worldwide, especially in the north where and did not smell of the rice especially polished. So it was?with
in 1911 the Polish biochemist K. Funk, working in London, emitted special solid which 20 mg cured patients from from rice bran take - take. This substance, along with carbon and hydrogen, contained 8% of nitrogen. For this reason Funk suggested to call it life amine (in Latin - Vit) - vitamin (without any letters so far). In the subsequent it emitted the same substance from yeast, milk, a brain of cows and juice of a lemon. The scientist wrote:“ ... to the famous list of elements of food - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, purina and mineral salts need to add new group, namely - “vitamins““. The diseases caused by their absence, in particular a scurvy and rickets (any C and D was also not trace), he called avitaminosis. On me, so the real discovery of vitamins was made by Funk, but... ways of the Nobel committee are inscrutable.
, From where “With“?
That appeared With, at first are necessary And yes V. V the German scientist V. Shtepp reported to 1909 that when feeding mice the bread made on milk, animals well develop. However if by means of organic solvent from this bread to extract fat, then mice wither and perish. If to add the extracted substance to the fat-free milk bread, then they live, cheerful and vigorous. Addition of vegetable oil of such effect did not give, therefore, something fat is necessary, but not any fat.Is later than
, in 1914, British E. Makkoll and M. Deyvis established that the necessary fat is found in butter and an egg yolk. This substance authors in 1919 suggested to call “a soluble factor in fats “And“. Subsequently it was established that lack of a factor “And“ in food leads to dryness and an ulceration of a cornea (kseroftalmiya), and substance “A“ began to be called “akseroftalmin“. A year later it began to be used for treatment of diseases of a retina (Ruthin in Latin) and to call already vitamin A - Retinolum. So his name is and now.
In a year the same E. Makkoll and M. Deyvis found the “vitaminopodobny water-soluble substance“ necessary for growth of rats which, alas, was identical to the vitamin used for fight with take - take. According to the same Funk`s proposal this antipolinevritny vitamin was designated a letter B. Did not pass also decade as the number of vitamins B increased. First (that) there was, naturally, B1, and further send B2, B3 etc. All vitamins of group B are united by water solubility and thermolability (sensitivity to temperature). They also differ in it from fat-soluble and thermostable vitamin A.
Really the scurvy was reproduced at animals, namely at guinea pigs, only in 1910 by A. Holst and J. Frelikh. Everything began with feeding of experimental animals only porridge, and then it became clear that any grain monodiet is tsingotny. Then specified that though the antitsingotny factor and is absent in grains of cereals, but it appears in green sprouts. In juicy vegetables, fruit and in general plants it is, though in different quantities. There is it and in milk, but only fresh, and at sterilization collapses. Pasteurization for this purpose is also thought up: after it antitsingotny effect of milk decreases, but does not disappear. In 1920 And. Dryummond suggested to call antiskorbutny substance vitamin C. Soon the most interesting circumstance was investigated - it appears, only guinea pigs, anthropoids and, naturally, their closest relative, the person are ill a scurvy. In 1922 the researcher N. A. Bessonov allocated the first an active antiscorbutic preparation from juice of a white cabbage. Though it was insufficiently cleared, but in insignificant doses cured experimental skornut. (By the way, Bessonov it is not mentioned even in the Big medical encyclopedia.) After its publication a big series of works of many authors with results of gradual cleaning of a preparation and specification of its properties, and only in 1933 the German biochemist F. Mikheel and the Hungarian scientist A followed. Saint - Dyyordyi established a formula of the antiskorbutny vitamin emitted from lemons. Is later than Saint - Dyyordyi gave him the name “ascorbic acid“ (he got the Nobel Prize in 1937).the Main care of ascorbic acid
It is seemingly natural
that the main property of ascorbic acid - to warn and cure is skornut. But similar need it only the person and to him, and at all other animals (except a guinea pig) ascorbic acid is synthesized in a liver from sugars. Why? There is a lot of reasons, but, first of all, not to allow a live organism to flash a blue spark, to help the necessary oxidation and to resist to oxidation dangerous. All of us time balance on a razor edge: slow oxidation - life, fast - death!
All types of our activity demand energy and all it - chemical, mechanical, electric, nervous and even mental - is born from that oxidation which bears oxygen. Not everyone can hold breath more than for a minute. In 5 minutes after the termination of intake of oxygen to a brain it perishes. Complexity still not only that oxygen is necessary, but that it is necessary only for those processes which join in a chain of a power exchange. And these processes go exclusively intracellularly with participation of a number of enzymes, and process of biological oxidation goes not due to direct interaction of oxygen with a combustible material, and by transfer of electrons from the oxidized substance - carbohydrates and fats - on an oxidizer - oxygen on a chain of enzymes. And at what here ascorbic acid?
In an organism of animals the chain of enzymes and substrata on which there is a transfer of electrons and with them and energy of oxidation, is long and various. But such chain surely joins the adenosine triphosphoric acid (ATP) which is the basic and the unique chemical accumulator capable at influence of enzymes and as a result of any transformations directly to transfer the energy which is saved up in ATP both chemical, and electric, and to mechanical processes. Carbohydrates and fats - too energy accumulators - respectively 4,1 and 9,3 kcal/g, but without biological slow oxidation they can only burn, giving heat and light, but cannot directly turn even into mechanical energy, not to mention mental.
However in biological objects not always everything proceeds as would follow. Oxygen can get not two, but one electron that results in instability of oxygen and the increased reactivity. Existence of an excess electron in atom is conditionally designated by a point in the top part of a symbol of an element.
For a number of reasons, most often external (surplus of an ultraviolet, poisoning, radiation defeat, some diseases), at first the single activated atoms - radicals, and then and their chains can arise.
A further the branching of a chain which generates all new and new radicals activating separate atoms, and then and large molecules goes. This process not only branches, but also accelerates. The theory of the phenomenon, both in a general view, and in particulars, including ignition and explosions, was developed by our compatriot and almost the contemporary Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (The Nobel Prize of 1959).
Fortunately, in live organisms business does not reach burning. And here burns happen. The white-skinned blonde a couple of hours under the southern sun and - a burn, sometimes to blisters will lie down. At other reasons easily oxidized fats and zhiropodobny substances - lipids of internals suffer from rough accumulation of atoms and molecules of active oxidizers - pro-oxidizers. Arising in fabrics, pro-oxidizers interact first of all with fatty covers of the cages covering vessels - endotelialny cages. They are oxidized and as if foam. It is not enough, in blood there are zhiropodobny substances - lipoproteins of low density which are oxidized easier than others. Being oxidized, they cause destruction of membranes of endotelialny cages stronger than other pro-oxidizers. Cages collapse, but not destroyed cholesterol collects in intercellular spaces. After this also atherosclerosis approaches. It is not the only, but the main theory of its emergence today.By the way, initiators of formation of active radicals the polycyclic chlorinated hydrocarbons including simple polyvinyl chloride PHV, but even simple four-chloride carbon, and also carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and other delights of exhaust gases of vehicles can serve as
is Burnt by skin under an ultraviolet, lungs at ozone inhalation burn, and hydrogen peroxide in general kills all live. Rescue from such misfortune is the ascorbic acid synthesized by live organisms. That is for all normal organisms - the ascorbic acid synthesized by them, and for a human body - vitamin C. It - that is also our main protection - the antioxidant protecting all organism and first of all all zhiropodobny substances - lipids - from perekisny oxidation. Perekisny oxidation of lipids as the biochemical concept is so widespread now that sometimes appears in medical literature even without interpretation - the FLOOR.
ascorbic acid is Antioxidant because it the active reducer possessing ability it is easy to be oxidized and by that to liquidate active forms of oxygen - “to extinguish matches“. Reaction this not simple. Usual ascorbic acid is its got into condition. Reacting with active atom of oxygen and hydrogen, ascorbic acid itself becomes a radical, but... inactive. If the simple radical - R, the oxidized active radical - RO ° 2 :
of RO ° 2 + joint stock company - IT = ROOH + joint stock company - O °.
Feature of the formed radical of joint stock company - About consists in its small activity that prevents its further transformations and interrupts a reaction chain and the more so its branching. Extinguishes reaction. But how so? The radical it seems it is also the radical. From where small activity of ascorbic acid? At all acids too it seems as the same hydrogen ion. But ascorbic acid it is possible though a spoon is, and with nitric it is better to deal in gloves moreover and under draft. The oxidized joint stock company - About can turn in got into condition again, and can be oxidized further, being transformed to degidroaskorbinovy acid which then in the difficult ways turns into oxalic acid or is partially restored.should not forget
that a molecule of ascorbic acid difficult, and it not just the radical`s carrier, and enzyme. Its activity as flame arrester strikes - in 1 second it liquidates 1010 molecules of an active hydroxyl or I07 of molecules superoxidic anion - the radical of oxygen. Alas, with food we receive generally ascorbic acid in already oxidized form (the longer the food is stored, the more is oxidized). Content of ascorbic acid in the main products is specified in tab. 1.
the Most tasty and useful preparation of vitamin C - holosas. It not only hips, but also zhelchegonny means which yet damaged to nobody. And advantage!
Not only antioxidant
Ascorbic acid - the obligatory making participant (it is called a cofactor) activities of the enzymes participating in synthesis of transmitters of nervous impulses in a brain of dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline therefore at avitaminosis - a lack of vitamin C - intellectual activity decreases and even develops a depression (early-spring depression).
Vitamin C activates synthesis of collagen, main protein of connecting fabric. And if it is not enough, disintegration and disorder begins: teeth cease to keep in nests, articulate the cartilage is softened, the breast departs from edges, vessels badly hold blood, occur a krovoizliya a niya in joints that leads to their rigidity and pains, bones break, and changes do not grow together.to
it is Rather recently established that ascorbic acid - the participant of synthesis of the carnitine which is the substance necessary for ensuring oxidation of fats as it is accepted to speak in life - combustion. But fats - a power source. Their shortcoming causes weakness, and then and exhaustion. Weakness is partially connected also with development of anemia. The matter is that ascorbic acid, taking away on itself electrons, facilitates iron absorption and consequently, and accelerates formation of hemoglobin. There is no ascorbic acid - not enough iron in blood - there is iron deficiency anemia (in the past it was called the offensive term “pale can not“).
Earlier nitrogen oxide - NO - considered only as poisonous gas, but since recent time recognized him as the participant of numerous useful reactions, including the substance promoting expansion of vessels. R. Furchgott got for this opening the Nobel Prize in 1998 (see. “Science and life“ No. 2, 1999 of, No. 7, 2001 of) . Thanks to it the well-known viagra was created. And so, ascorbic acid both promotes synthesis, and protects NO from an inactivation (loss of biological activity). It, thus, if do not pass - viagra, then the defender from hypertensia is precisely. Considering that ascorbic acid possesses also anti-sclerous action, it is clear that it is necessary for her old men more, than to young people.
From widespread diseases in which developing the giperoksidation plays a role except atherosclerosis, it is necessary to call a cataract, some forms of anemia and even cancer. If not at treatment of these diseases, then it is not necessary to doubt efficiency of preventive effect of ascorbic acid.
of Supervision over activity of thousands of people demonstrate that regular reception of polyvitamins including ascorbic acid, from the middle of winter and till fall it is necessary: it protects from avitaminosis and strengthens health. But it is necessary to accept vitamins only in preventive doses (see tab. 2).How to accept ascorbic acid
If the need in ascorbic acid is increased by
, at least from - for age, then it in bigger, than usually, quantity also is oxidized, and being oxidized, itself becomes an oxidizer, let not really active, but nevertheless with an excess electron in an external orbit, that is dangerous. At the same time ascorbic acid should be restored for what there are other mechanisms peculiar to the person. In such situations it is necessary to accept other vitamin which also works, and restores ascorbic acid. It is vitamin E - tocopherol (in translation from Greek - “bearing childbirth“). It is called so because at its lack of an organism of the woman there are abortions. It is better to buy tocopherol in oil solution and to accept on 1 drop a day. The regularity is not necessary as it is deposited and used gradually. It is very essential
that soon after allocation and synthesis of ascorbic acid efficiency of powder began to be compared to a lemon. And... at a scurvy at pigs the lemon was much more effective. Naturally, decided that one With few. Also found in a lemon also vitamin P (from the English permeability - permeability). Vitamin of permeability of C and P needs to be accepted together. Such tablets are called “askorutin“:“ asko“ - from the name of acid, and “routines“ - from the word “rue“ - a buckwheat. Vitamin P as substance is called “kvertsetin“, but at it there is a lot of also other names (what is received from a lemon, is called “tsitrin“). And all because P - vitamin properties very many vegetable substances - flavonoids possess, but most of all them in a citrus. Recently “handymen“ received next derivative a kvertsitin which is 10 times weaker, than kvertsitin, and sell under the name “kapilar“ (quite so) 10 times more expensively. At kapillyarotoksikoza (inflammations of walls of capillaries) the preparation venorutin in ampoules is applied. whetherAlways ascorbic acid is safe
As for recommended (and even several big) doses, they not only are useful, but sometimes and are necessary as the need for ascorbic acid increases at any stresses, physical and mental tension, almost at any diseases.
But except avitaminosis exists and gipervitaminoz (excess of vitamin). For some, for example A, D, K vitamins, is an illness, for the majority, including vitamin C, - trouble. Excess of ascorbic acid can lead to its accumulation in the oxidized form when she becomes oxidizer. Digestion of glucose is at the same time broken - there is pseudo-diabetes. The necessary, it seems, decrease in coagulability of blood can lead to bleedings, the increased content of ascorbic acid in blood breaks results of researches of some of its biochemical indicators, in particular glucose, bilirubin, activities of transferases (enzymes), etc.
Can be trouble and other sort. The most part of ascorbic acid after oxidation is restored, but smaller - is removed with urine in the form of oxalic acid. Even if grams, but only 3 - 4 days - one conversation are removed. But if surplus constantly is removed every day moreover and at shchavelevokisly diathesis, then it is possible to hammer with stones not only kidneys, but also a bladder.to
It is shown that long (three months) reception of ascorbic acid on 500 mg a day reduces contents in cages of one of the most dangerous endogenous mutagens - 8 - a hydroxyguanine. It is good! But reception of ascorbic acid in the same dose within six months increases the maintenance of an active mutagen 8 - a gidronsiadenina. And this is already bad. Though it is considered that positive influence outweighs negative, but you should not risk.the Interesting story about ascorbic acid is connected by
with a name of the Nobel laureate L. Polinga. In 70 - x years of the last century the message that the ascorbic acid in high doses, 1 - 3 gram a day accepted at the first signs of ORZ including flu, can interrupt or at least weaken a course of disease appeared. The Poling, the person not only uncommon, but also fond, lit up this idea. He decided to convince on own example mankind that ascorbic acid prolongs life for what daily accepted it in high doses. Yes, Poling lived 93 years. But it absolutely nothing does not mean. If it was enough for the proof, then my grandmother, having lived 94 years, even not knowing about vitamin C existence, proved that it is not necessary at all.to
It is obvious, the truth in dispute of Polinga with my grandmother lies somewhere between them, but is closer to the grandmother.