Creators of the future
Boris Pavlovich Nikitin called “Creators of the future“ children. And itself became the pioneer of the Russian family pedagogics. He created unique system of training and education and by that laid a right way to parents, teachers and tutors for many years ahead.
Nikitin`s Experience was criticized, called into question and condemned. His courageous family had to listen to constant reproaches and cautions contrary to which all seven children grew up the healthy, strong, tempered, benevolent and well-mannered people, good pupils and worthy workers with enviable intelligence. Over time unacceptable then Nikitin`s ideas somehow imperceptibly removed to norm and, undoubtedly, will be used by teachers, parents and doctors for a long time. What was given a hostile reception once sounds correctly now and is not exposed to special doubts, is standard and familiar. Applying to the child`s breast right after the birth, the free mode of feeding, carrying the baby on hands, the admission of the kid to crawling on all apartment, a hardening and physical culture, long air bathtubs - the experiments made in a family Nikitinykh. Early training, joint household chores, children`s independence...
What else can be gathered from experience of a large family of Nikitin what to argue on and what to accept?Helping to Begin
with the beginning to the child “to do exercises“ till the birth, Nikitin continues studies and after appearance of the kid on light. He opposes lying of the child “poleshky“ and urges to do with it gymnastics from the very first days of life.
For example, Nikitin turned process of capture of the kid on hands from a bed into the present circus number. It seemed that the baby only holds by a hand of the father and, having sat down, jumps out of a bed. And so in everything: vigorous communication with the newborn, training of “basic“ and “hvatatelny“ reflexes, training in falling only the started walking kid.
Shy to the baby, afraid to take the first steps and to come off a sofa, Nikitin gave a sheet of paper in the handle. And it was the real support for the kid, he went! The movement was considered in this family as a life basis.Boris Pavlovich established to
in the room of children the whole sport center. Children defined loading, being engaged on it only at will, rising by height available of“ Only the child, - Nikitin writes, - can define so thinly the borders useful to an organism“.needs to force to work with
skeletno - muscular system: if it is rather developed, then the kid will have a healthy heart, good digestion. Respiratory, blood and all other systems of an organism will perfectly work.Creating
to children of a condition for various movements, allowing them to move as they will want, we develop muscles, we strengthen internals, we promote intellectual development.the Frost and the sun
Nikitin urges to temper
children, to put on them easy clothes, to take out on the sun from first months of life, to allow to go barefoot and to be guided at the same time only by health of the kid.
the Adaptive behavior, ability of the newborn to adapt to environment has very high rate. The newborn “is designed“ by the nature with good margin of safety not for comfort of city apartments, and for severe living conditions on the planet Earth, with a heat and frosts, differences of temperatures, a rain and wind. Really, that the person, for example, did not die of bleeding, in its blood in 500 times more of a trombone (the substance causing folding), than it is necessary for fibrillation. But it is important not to miss precious time. If the kid is born in a heat, the temperature regulators, all means rescuing an organism from overheating, and if in cold join, then from overcooling the immune system joins. In inaction, at the birth in the warm room, sterile diapers, bathing in water with the temperature of 37 degrees, a huge number of adaptive and protective systems of an organism are unnecessary and will gradually atrophy. Then any error in the mode and food, easy overcooling can constitute the true danger to the kid.
the Basic principles of a family Nikitinykh
- Easy clothes and a sports situation in the house: sport shells entered everyday life of children from the earliest age, steel for them habitat on an equal basis with furniture and other household things.
- Freedom of creativity of children in occupations. Any special trainings, zaryadok, lessons. Children are engaged how many they want, combining sports occupations with all other kinds of activity.
- our parental unindifference to that as as at kids it turns out, our participation in their games, competitions, the life.
the Inoculation against traumatism
the Safety issue of children: always concerns their careful parents and grandmothers. The set of bans falls down the head to the kid: “Not to take a match!“, “To give sharp sticks, scissors, nails to mother!“ And parents feel the constant tension and responsibility for the children.“ Do not leave children unguarded “, “ you drive for the handle“ as long as possible and care for the child, thereby having removed from him care of own safety. Nikitin considers such way of fight against traumatism unproductive and momentary, not considering consequences to which conducts. He claims that the protection of children and promotes traumatism growth.
Another matter if to show to the kid dangers with which he can face, teach to communicate with dangerous objects, to help it to be strong, dexterous and bright and to show a measure of opportunities of the kid. The people of India have a saying:“ Clever parents sometimes allow the children to burn fingers“. This principle also directs Nikitin in questions of children`s safety. He suggests to do to children “vaccination“ - to allow them to those objects which attract them as if a magnet and to let know on own experience that, for example, it is better not to approach fire - hotly, it is possible to burn. Nikitin advises even to place “traps“: on the table edge to put a cup with cold water (that the baby did not pull ware from a table from now on), to help to fall to a chair at the right time, and to a needle slightly to prick a finger.“ Let small trouble will warn big trouble“. And at this moment, at the first meeting with danger we will be near.
However the mass of situations (open windows, transport) in which experience of “small doses“ is impossible is. And here Boris Pavlovich found a way out, noteworthy: it is simple to be frightened to the adult. The child will feel danger and will connect it with these circumstances. Many parents, on the contrary, at brisk intersections of the city run with children between cars (strong holding them by a hand for safety).
during research of international experience in the field of pedagogics Nikitin came to a conclusion that, just as people learned to do once diamonds, they can learn to do talents. He called the first condition of successful development - the early beginning.“ Depriving of the child … timely and full development in the infantile and preschool childhood, - Nikitin wrote, - we thereby doom him to low rates of development, to enormous expenses of forces and time and for the low end result“.were engaged in Mental abilities of children of the spouse of Nikitina in
that is called from the cradle. And all situation in the apartment said that here children not only grow, but also actively develop. The world map, the globe, the thermometer and hours for children, Mendeleyev`s table, scores, a joiner`s workshop, measuring devices, musical instruments were supplemented with the unique games which are thought up by Boris Pavlovich: “Unikub“, “Put a square“, “Put a pattern“, “Bricks“, etc.the simple, having various degrees of complexity and the mass of variants of tasks called “creativity steps“ today can be bought
of Game without special problems.“ Etoigra unusual, - Nikitin writes, - they were born in communication with children and with their direct participation. It is possible to play them on the second year of life as tolkomalysh begins to distinguish a form and colors, and they with pleasure are played by teenagers and even adults“.
Questions of education
In Nikitin`s family could show consideration for children`s requirements and problems. Parents have to lead life of children, empathize and penetrate into their needs, but not use stock phrases and the fulfilled preparations like “How many time to speak to you!“ “Stop immediately“. For the child there is a big difference between the phrase, for example, in case of the lost compasses: “Again did not put back!“ and a monologue - game:“ There are I on the room, suddenly hear: who - who cries and is so bitter - bitterly. I look - here it, small, complains of some girl and about a case of drawing instruments something peeps... I want to go, and it clings to legs - I nearly stumbled! - also speaks: “Take me with yourself, a pozha - and - a luysta, I home want, to mother - a case of drawing instruments, to it without me it is bad“.In a family Nikitinykh played much. One of simple games - a hide-and-seek. In foamy water during washing of ware the spoon is lost: “Where it? Where was gone? Here it!“ The simple game for children about one year allowing to wash the dishes together with the child. The kid can become an assistant even before the first birthday: a tax for cleaning potatoes on a table or to open a door before mother bearing heavy bags. And this help plays an important role in formation of the identity of the child. It is necessary to give the chance to the kid to help, to feel pity, be sorry... He has to feel feedback since small years: not only parents to it, but also it to parents.
the Famous rules of education from Nikitin`s system:“ It is impossible - means it is impossible, it is possible - means it should not is possible“ “To be too many prohibitions“ - again and again psychologists and teachers remind parents. And they were formulated more than 40 years ago.Here only in our country Nikitin`s system only 5 - 7% of parents prefer to use
was Solved in the family by Nikitin and a question how to feed the child. No, he did not begin to lay beautifully the table, to persuade the kid, to entertain him and to lead discussions about advantage of products. The reason of desire is first of all hunger is! If the child does not want to eat, let wait before the following meal. The exception can be made only for kids. Nikitin`s children never suffered from a small appetite.
Nikitin could solve the mass of problems: how to find time for occupations with children when it is necessary to punish and how to praise, where to find the middle between excessive attention to the child and abandonment. Its books are published in many countries, Japanese made Nikitin`s system of one of programs in kindergarten. In Germany there is Nikitin`s Institute...
In our country use this system of only 5 - 7% of parents. But Nikitin`s ideas deserve more attentive to themselves the relation.