The Serologichesky researches
Analyses on infections, sexually transmitted
It is known what danger to future mother and a fruit is represented by infections, sexually transmitted. For this reason the research revealing these diseases is carried out by everything to pregnant women.
What is antibodies?
during pre-natal development the fruit receives from mother natural passive immunity - temporary immunity to infectious diseases. At the end of the first - the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy antibodies - the specific proteins neutralizing harmful effects of alien substances against causative agents of diseases which were transferred by the woman or against which vaccination before pregnancy was carried out are transmitted through a placenta. Then the kid receives a quantity of these antibodies with mother`s milk. It provides the child with necessary protection during breastfeeding.
Formation of antibodies is one of links of the immune response of an organism to interaction with any alien substances from external environment (including bacteria and viruses) or various substances called by allergens. At the first contact with allergen the immune system “remembers“ it and is capable to distinguish this allergen further. In the course of harmonious work of a set of components of immune system for neutralization of any anti-gene (alien substance) specific antibodies (AT) are synthesized. They represent special molecules of protein - immunoglobulins (Ig) which are capable to neutralize microorganisms and viruses, to participate in allergic reactions, to strengthen or suppress the immune answer, and also can provide local protection of mucous membranes against introduction of causative agents of diseases. Several classes of immunoglobulins take part in this diverse and difficult work: And, M, G, D and E.
Among immunoglobulins of a class A (Ig A) is distinguished serumal and sekretorny. Sekretorny antibodies contain in plaintive liquid, saliva, digestive juice, secrets of bronchial tubes and breast milk. They meet by one of the first alien anti-genes and interfere with their penetration into a human body. These antibodies possess powerful antiviral and antimicrobic activity.
If all - to infectious agents was succeeded to get to an organism, an important protective role at early stages of an infection is played by immunoglobulins of a class M (IgM). They the first are synthesized in response to penetration of alien substance and come to the blood course.
At long or repeated contact with an anti-gene immunoglobulins of a class G (Ig G) engage. They are not only in blood, but also out of the vascular course, possess antiviral and antimicrobic activity. Besides, having estimated their level, judge existence or lack of immunity to this or that infection. And these antibodies get from mother`s blood through a placenta and provide protection to the child (natural passive immunity).Immunoglobulins of a class E are responsible
for development of the most widespread type of allergic reactions - hypersensitivity of immediate type (hay fever, allergic bronchial asthma, the small tortoiseshell, food allergy), and also participate in formation of the immune answer at the diseases caused by helminths (helminths).Function of immunoglobulins of a class D is insufficiently studied by
now. Most often they meet at chronic inflammatory processes.the Research objective the total of antibodies of all listed classes, and also level of the antibodies which are formed in an organism in response to introduction of this or that activator allow to determine by
of the Possibility of modern laboratory diagnostics
. Such antibodies are called specific, and the researches necessary for this purpose, serologichesky. These methods allow not only to judge existence of a disease, but also to estimate, primary this infection or secondary, and also to define activity of infectious process and, in certain cases, presumable term of infection. Diagnostics of allergic processes and various diseases is so carried out: viral hepatitises, HIV - an infection, syphilis and other viral and bacterial infections. There is it as follows: the reactants containing obviously known anti-genes (for example, various allergens or anti-genes of causative agents of diseases), interact with serum of blood of the examined person If ever immune system of an organism “met“ this anti-gene (the postponed disease, vaccination), then at blood there are antibodies to it, In this case the result of the analysis will be positive. the Assessment of level of antibodies of various classes is widely used by
in akushersko - gynecologic practice. It is connected with the fact that through a placenta not only protective antibodies from mother`s blood are capable to get - unfortunately, it is a pronitsayema for various bacteria, their toxins and viruses which exert negative impact on development of a fruit, In Other Words, definition of presence of level of antibodies is carried out to find out whether there is in the woman`s organism an activator which can do harm to a fruit, Consequences of influence are various and depend on pregnancy term. The most serious they can be at infection of a fruit on early terms of pregnancy when there is laying of the main bodies and systems, the Forecast worsens and in case the organism of future mother for the first time meets at this time the infectious agent. The most significant in this situation are TORCH - infections (the name it is formed by the first letters of Latin names of causative agents of toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), a rubella (Rubella virus), tsitomegalovirusny (Cytomegalovirus) and herpetic (Herpes simplex virus) of infections. To reduce risk of impact on a fruit to a minimum, examination should be conducted when planning pregnancy. It will give the chance to diagnose diseases and to resolve an issue of need of carrying out medical or preventive actions. If during pregnancy planning these examinations were not conducted, then carry out them in the first trimester (1 - 12 weeks), it is desirable as soon as possible. This inspection is included into the standards of conducting pregnancy approved by the Ministry of Health and has to be carried out by everything to pregnant women.
the Assessment of results
will help to Estimate results of the research conducted to you the doctor. The general rules of treatment of results are given below. In each case some features are possible.by
If at the same time found immunoglobulins of classes M and G , so the immune system interacted with this infectious agent for the first time, i.e. it is about primary infection. Let`s remind that in this case the woman and her kid are exposed to the maximum influence of bacteria or viruses as “reliable cover“ is just formed. Protective function of antibodies consists in formation of communication with an anti-gene and its neutralization. In initial stages of a disease immunoglobulins still poorly contact anti-genes. In process of development of immune process communication amplifies. The characteristic of durability of communication of specific antibodies with the corresponding anti-genes carries the name of an avidnost which definition gives the chance allegedly to define the infection period. The avidnost is higher, the more time passed from the moment of introduction of the activator in an organism. Different laboratories of norm are various therefore the actual result and range in which the studied indicator does not cause concern is specified in results.
At repeated contact with the infectious agent (secondary infection, an exacerbation of the existing infection), as a rule, of concentration of immunoglobulins of a class G increases. Level of immunoglobulins of a class M does not change or increases slightly . It is reliable it is possible to diagnose activity of process only at an assessment of indicators in dynamics. Researches of serum of blood of the patient are for this purpose used twice. The first analysis undertakes at the beginning of a disease, the second - in 10 - 12 days, Diagnostic value has significant increase in level of antibodies of a class G (at viral infections - by 4 times and more). It testifies to sharpness of process. To the contrary, reduction of concentration of IgG or disappearance of IgM is an indicator of decrease of the activity of a disease.
Detection only of insignificant increase in concentration of IgG demonstrates or existence of immunity to a concrete disease (for example, to toxoplasmosis, a rubella), or about the latent (hidden) carriage of a virus (tsitomegalovirusny, herpetic infections).
clamidiosis also belongs To perinatal infections (diseases which arose from - for infection of a fruit in the pre-natal period in the course of childbirth or after the birth) along with TORCH - infections. At inspection in this case estimate the level of specific immunoglobulins A, M and G. It allows to reveal the sharp chronic or erased disease forms. At any deviations of indicators carrying out additional inspection is appointed.
In spite of the fact that when carrying out serologichesky researches it is possible to obtain the sufficient volume of information, it is necessary to estimate it in a complex with complaints, results of survey and other methods of inspection. It is connected with a possibility of receiving false positive results of the analysis against cross reactions with the antibodies directed to anti-genes of other activators and also in the presence the person has system diseases, metabolic disorders or at reception of some medicines.the doctor will determine by
After an assessment of results of inspection further tactics of conducting pregnancy depending on its term and the found infection, and also terms and the plan of inspections necessary further, and in case of lack of immune protection against these or those activators will tell about prevention of infections.