Special food. A diet at diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path of
it is difficult to present such kid who would never have a vomiting or vomiting, ease of a chair or a lock, a meteorizm or intestinal colic. They are functional disorders of activity zheludochno - an intestinal path. Why there are such states as far as they are dangerous and how to fight with them?
Functional disorders of activity zheludochno - an intestinal path represent states at which the combination of various symptoms from digestive organs takes place, but at the same time there are no structural or biochemical violations. At the heart of development of functional disorders of activity zheludochno - an intestinal path three main groups of factors or their combination lie:
Immaturity of a gastrointestinal tract of the child which is characteristic, for example, of premature children and of the kids who were born with low body weight. At such children later formation of nervous regulation of activity of intestines, later activation of digestive enzymes, especially that from them which are responsible for splitting of fats, proteins of cow`s milk, bioses is observed (a kind of carbohydrates which treat, for example, sucrose, fructose, lactose).
the Raised load of a gastrointestinal tract of the kid which is not corresponding to his age. Such situation arises both at increase in total amount of food, and at the increased content of separate nutrients in a diet.
a part in development of dysfunctions in children is played by a condition of mother (or the child`s environments). It is about the increased uneasiness of family members, asocial living conditions, serious violations of a daily routine and a diet of the baby. >
during many researches it was noted by li that functional disorders of digestion considerably meet at firstborns, long-awaited children and children of elderly parents more often that, probably, it is possible to explain with bigger uneasiness and suspiciousness of parents.
At the same time, existence of dysfunction from a gastrointestinal tract can indicate not only a disease zheludochno - an intestinal path, but in some cases is a symptom of defeat of other bodies and systems of an organism. Therefore any frustration in work zheludochno - an intestinal path is a reason for consultation with the doctor.
At dysfunctions of a gastrointestinal tract the following states can take place:
of frustration, shown vomiting and vomiting;
of frustration, shown belly-aches (babies have a syndrome of intestinal colic which is characterized by a congestion of gases in intestines in a combination to skhvatkoobrazny belly-aches and shout);
of violation of a chair with tendency to locks or the periodic periods of ease.
All these manifestations demand various approaches in treatment. However in all cases of functional disorders of a gastrointestinal tract treatment should be begun with the general actions which are directed to creation of quiet psychological climate in the child`s environment.
the Most important direction of treatment of functional frustration zheludochno - an intestinal path is the dietotherapy which in some cases can be (not always) supplemented with drug treatment.
it is expedient to analyse together with the pediatrician the daily and single volume of food In the beginning and it is obligatory - liquid which the child receives, their compliance to age and the actual body weight of the kid, the mode of feeding and its equipment.
Food of children till 1 year
, optimum food for the child of chest age is maternal milk. However dysfunctions zheludochno - an intestinal path are observed also at natural feeding. At the same time paramount value gains nature of food of mother. In a daily diet of the feeding woman in the presence of dysfunction at the child it is necessary to limit gas-forming products - cabbage, onions, tomatoes, apples, pears, grapes, peas, haricot, black bread, kvass. It is also necessary to avoid sharp, smoked products, dishes containing a large amount of fats, spices and pickles. At a syndrome of intestinal colic gas-forming products are excluded from a diet of the feeding woman completely. It is also necessary to limit dairy products (to 500 g of dairy products a day, including cottage cheese, cheese, kefir, milk and so forth) as excess of milk protein of casein in the menu of the feeding mother influences structure of breast milk that can become the reason of disorder of digestion at the kid, and also lead to development of an allergy. At ease and instability of a chair at the baby of mother it is necessary to limit consumption of such products as cucumbers, beet, pumpkin, a melon, plums, and at a tendency to locks - to use less rice, grain products from high-grade flour, apples. to
For children with functional disorders of activity zheludochno - an intestinal path, being on the artificial or mixed feeding, offered now special medical mixes which the pediatrician can appoint to the kid.
At frequent vomiting recommends use of the adapted mixes containing food fibers. Thanks to fibers these mixes have more dense consistence that interferes with vomiting. On the other hand, availability of food fibers helps to normalize motility of intestines and promotes a chair regularity. As food fibers the gluten of beans of a carob tree is usually used. Treat such dairy mixes, for example, “Nutrilon an anti-reflux of“ (“Nutrition“) “, Omneo of“ (“Nutrition“) “, Frisovom“ (“Frizlend“). All these mixes exert also impact on chair frequency. And “Omneo“ and “Frisovy“ have distinct poslablyayushchy effect and are recommended at a tendency to locks. At the same time “Nutrilon an anti-reflux“ has the fixing effect and is recommended for children with tendency to a frequent and liquid chair. At tendency to vomiting and vomiting it is necessary to avoid use of acidified milk formulas which owing to lower pH strengthen vomiting and promote development of an inflammation in mucous a gullet.
At tendency to a liquid chair to the child are appointed by nizkolaktozny mixes. At a tendency to locks it is better to avoid use of mixes on a soy basis as they have the fixing effect. At locks the mixes enriched with a probiotics can be recommended (lakto - and bifidobacteria).
For prevention and treatment of dysfunctions of a gastrointestinal tract at the children who were born before the put term are recommended by specialized mixes for premature. Can be an example of such mixes “Humana 0“, “Fri - filch“, “Enfalak“, “Alpr“, “Nenatal“, “Prenutrilak“, “Prenan“, etc. Specialized mixes for premature need to be used within the first 2 - 3 months of life of the baby, and then to pass to feeding with usual or medical mixes. At good tolerance of the first mix choose whenever possible usual or medical mix of the same firm. It not only will reduce probability of emergence of dysfunctions of a gastrointestinal tract, but also will reduce risk of development of food allergy.
Food of children from 1 year to 3 years
Depending on the leading reason functional locks subdivide
into several types.
Most often at small children the alimentary locks arising at violation of the food mode, defective food, insufficient consumption of liquid and vitamins of group B take place.
diskinetichesky locks violation of motor function of a thick gut is the cornerstone of
. At the same time its reductions can be too sluggish or, on the contrary, excessively intensive (spasms).
Exist still conditionally - reflex locks. They develop if the child systematically inhibits desire “to descend on - big“ that leads to overflow of a rectum, increase in volume and consolidation of kalovy masses. Such situation often arises when the kid owing to the psychological reasons cannot descend in a toilet in kindergarten, in an unfamiliar situation or not on the pot. When the child empties intestines, the kalovy mass of large volume causes restretching of back pass that is followed by the expressed pain.
Treatment of locks demands an individual approach in each case. At recently arisen locks for achievement of a positive effect it is enough to change nature of food and to increase physical activity.
the Principles of a dietotherapy at functional locks:
Frequent fractional food. For children food 5 - 7 - single has to be more senior in the small portions than 1 year. Surely the meal mode has to be observed. Deviations from the schedule should not exceed 15 - 20 minutes.
Increase in a diet of maintenance of the products stimulating depletion of intestines. Improvement of motor function of intestines is promoted by the food rich with cellulose (wide use of various vegetables and fruit in the raw or in dishes, dried fruits, bread from coarse flour), enrichment of a diet vegetable oils, fruit and vegetable juice with pulp. Recommend prunes in any kind, including infusion, mashed potatoes from dried fruits. As plums contain organic acids, despite rather low content in them of fibers, they promote depletion of intestines at children with locks.
the Exception of the products rich with essential oils (a radish, onions, garlic) since they annoyingly affect a mucous membrane of intestines, strengthening painful spasms and slowing down advance of a food lump on a digestive tube.
Control of consumption of the products rich with cholesterol (butter - no more than 10 - 12 g a day for children from 1 to 1,5 years, no more than 15 - 17 g a day for children from 1,5 to 3 years; eggs - no more than 0,5 pieces for children from 1 year to 3 years; fat meat is excluded). Digestion of a large amount of animal fats requires high activity of digestive enzymes that sharply increases load of digestive glands and can aggravate a situation with locks. However in moderate quantities above-mentioned products can be useful as they promote office of bile. Offer the kid the products containing animal fats for breakfast, it will promote adjustment of a chair.
the Exception (restriction) of the digestible, refined products (the products received by method of difficult chemical, thermal and other transformations on production, for example candy stores and pasta from high-grade flour, corn flakes, potato chips, rice and semolina grain, etc.) .
the Food should not be uniform as existence of pieces stimulates intestinal reductions and advance of a food lump.
In food enough liquid has to be provided: waters, fruit and vegetable juice. Liquid is necessary as owing to the slowed-down evacuation of kalovy masses from intestines there is their drying that, in turn, complicates their advance on a thick gut. Let`s remind that black tea and cocoa have the fixing effect.
the Use of the fermented milk products containing lakto - and bifidobacteria. It should be noted that poslablyayushchy effect of dairy drinks changes depending on a way of their preparation and storage conditions. Dairy drinks with acidity higher than 90 - 100 ° according to Turner (acidophilic milk, curdled milk, kefir) possess poslablyayushchy action. Whole milk, on the contrary, is not recommended at locks. It should be noted that in process of storage of kefir its acidity considerably increases as as a result of processes of fermentation in it lactic acid collects and carbon dioxide is emitted. Two-day and especially three-day kefir possesses the fixing action.
If the child had a spastic lock of which are characteristic a spasm of muscles of intestines, belly-ache, dense segmented by kcal (it still call “sheep“), dietary treatment consists of two stages. The first stage (as a rule, no more than 5 days) - the period of the sparing food which purpose is to remove an intestinal spasm and to reduce irritation mucous a large intestine. At the first stage the products rich with cellular covers (vegetables, fruit, rye bread) as the food rich with food fibers can cause strengthening of pains are temporarily excluded. The sparing culinary processing is applied (dishes are steamed, extinguished, baked in an oven). Further (at the second stage) there is a gradual expansion of a diet. At first add the products containing cellulose gentle, and subsequently to food - more rough consistence.
If the kid except locks suffers from excess gas generation in intestines (meteorizm), from a diet dishes are excluded from beans, cabbage, a sorrel, spinach. From fruit juice are not recommended apple, grape.
Ease of a chair of functional character
Discrepancy between opportunities zheludochno - an intestinal path and food loading often leads
to ease of a chair of functional character. At the same time depletion of intestines is noted speeded up (more than 2 - 3 times a day). The exception of intestinal infection surely will require consultation of the doctor. Disorder of digestion (dyspepsia) often arises at “one-sided“ food. For example, at the excessive use in food of carbohydrates (sugar, honey, flour products, grapes, peas, beans, cabbage etc.) and also such drinks as kvass, in intestines conditions for development of fermentative flora are created. Fermentative dyspepsia develops (the increased gas generation, swelling and belly-aches, a frequent foamy chair with a sour smell). At the primary use in food of proteinaceous products, especially mutton, pork which is digested in intestines more slowly there can be putrefactive dyspepsia (the frequent dark chair with a putrefactive smell, can be weakness, loss of appetite from - for organism poisonings with products of rotting of proteins). Fatty dyspepsia is caused by the excessive use of slowly digested fats (a chair frequent, plentiful, with a greasy luster).
Respectively, in treatment of similar frustration paramount value is got by normalization of food according to age features and requirements of an organism of the child. The products rich with protein and fats (meat, fish, eggs) which longer are late in a stomach and demanding for processing of especially active work of digestive glands give in the first half of day. For dinner give more digestible dishes - dairy, vegetable and krupyany. During the periods of ease of a chair offer the kid such “fixing“ products as rice porridge, mucous soups. For preparation of mucous soups use rice, pearl-barley, oat, yachnevy grain. Previously touched grain is poured out in the boiling water and cooked to its full razvarivaniye. Then broth is carefully filtered through a sieve or a pure gauze, without allowing wiping of the grain. It is possible to add a little salt to mucous soup or sugar, milk. All food has to be homogeneous and surely warm. It is necessary to provide receipt in an organism of enough liquid. An indispensable condition is observance of the mode of meal.
the Syndrome of the angry intestines
This syndrome also belongs to group of functional diseases. Change of frequency and a consistence of a chair is characteristic of this state (tendency to locks or a diarrhea). Besides, the pains and discomfort in a stomach passing later defekation are noted. If the doctor made such diagnosis to your kid, in food first of all it is necessary to consider nature of violation of a chair and to adhere to recommendations of rather total amount of food, volume of single portions, the mode of feedings.
that the irregular chair demands obligatory consultation of the doctor for clarification of character from the child zabolevaniye as besides functional violations leads existence of malformations to locks zheludochno - an intestinal path, a spinal cord, sharp and chronic intoxications, endocrine violations, etc. Considering all circumstances and features of health of the child, the expert makes concrete recommendations for food, a way of life and if it is necessary, appoints drug treatment.
Impact of products on function of depletion of intestines the Products promoting depletion of intestines
the bread containing a significant amount of bran;
of grain: buckwheat, yachnevy, oat;
crude vegetables and fruit;
dried fruits, especially prunes, dried apricots, dried apricots;
meat with a large amount of connecting fabric;
kissels and compotes (especially from a gooseberry, blackcurrant, plum, a cranberry);
fermented milk products: curdled milk, acidophilic milk with high acidity, one-day kefir;
sour cream, cream;
the cooled products
the Products detaining depletion of intestines
products, containing tannin: bilberry, black tea, cocoa;
food in the wiped look;
products of a viscous consistence: mucous soups, the wiped porridges, (especially semolina and rice);
warm and hot dishes
the Indifferent substances
low-fat meat and fish in the chopped or steamed look: souffle, quenelles, cutlets, mashed potatoes, boiled low-fat fish;
white bread from the flour premiums (stale), crackers;