History of carriages
of the Carriage... In lists given for the kid, widespread on the Internet and generously passing from mother to mother, you will see this subject one of very first.
Many mothers consider a carriage as a subject well if not prime necessity, then the second precisely today. Having gone outside even the smallest city, you with a high probability will meet the young mothers walking with carriages. However today centuries-old traditions of carrying children in slings (baby slings) come back and more and more actively force out a carriage from objects of daily use. And there is no wonder: unlike history of baby slings, history of carriages not so of a vpechatlyayushch also contains much more modest number of years - only about three centuries.
the Royal past
the Very first baby carriage was created in 1733 by William Kent, the English landscape architect. He designed it at the request of William Cavendish, the third Devonshire duke, the father of six children. Actually, it was not the carriage in our understanding, and the small children`s vehicle in which the goat or a pony was harnessed. The first users quite justified the efforts spent for them: if the customer - the father did not grow up on service above the deputy of Ireland, then from the kids riding in a carriage the senior, lord Frederik, served to the field marshal`s rank over time, and younger, lord John, to the Minister of Finance. Kent`s model was to the taste, and soon carriages extended among the upper class of the European society. At that time they represented truly a work of art. Average and lowest estates were not able to afford to get such expensive toy, and for even more than hundred years the carriage remained an improbable wonder.
Really the fashion on carriages arose in 1840 from an easy hand of the Queen Victoria, the loving mother of nine children who wished to walk samolichno with the children on royal park. As well as it is impossible to call all carriages of that time, a carriage of the queen really convenient: it was too high and unstable, it had no handles in this connection it needed to be pulled for itself. After royal family carriages all wealthy people at first in England, and then and worldwide began to get.
By 1840 ponies were replaced by nurses, however and they continued to drag this cart for themselves. Lack of need to care for the child became a sign of a well-founded and safe family which number of servants allows to raise the child. So the carriage entered life and became a sign of the huge distance dividing the child and mother of the highest estates. And even names of models of carriages of that time reflected their privileges: the Duchess and Princess models were most popular.
At you a carriage? Raise the driving license!
Revolutionary jump took place in 1853 when Charles Burton patented a carriage with the handle behind. It sharply increased both controllability of children`s crew, and review degree for the little passenger. However the appearance repeating outlines of adult crews completely remained, and together with it there was also an idea that the child has to sit in a carriage. It very much narrowed the sphere of its application: it was suitable only for the grown-up children. As for kids, cases of their loss from “crew“ were not a rarity. Only in the last third of the 19th century the carriage finally lost lines of similarity to adult crew and turned into a cradle on wheels. However even this metamorphosis did not change the relation to a carriage as to a type of transport and because it gained mass distribution, the police of London in 1873 forbade to carry it on sidewalks. Besides, in 1880 the demand to all kolyaskovladelets was made - to equip children`s crews with red and white lamps. When the fashion went to the first cars, there were both autocarriages, and parents began to demand from nurses together with recommendations and the driving license. However fast distribution of motor transport and a gas contamination of streets made all this unnecessary - the carriage was forced out in parks and squares, there, where it stays and now.
at the end of the 19th century in Great Britain the very first company on production of carriages - Silver Cross appeared. It was founded in 1877 and then produced the first models. Since then Silver Cross is considered the oldest and most prestigious company making carriages in England.
of Baby - the boom dictates the terms
on June 18, 1889 William Richardson with the idea which made the next revolution in the history of carriages came to Baltimore patent bureau. He thought up reversive model of a carriage, i.e. the child could sit in it as facing carrying a carriage, and a back to it. Besides, William included axes in the model that added to a maneuverability carriage. Up to that time of an axis and a wheel were tselnolity, it did not allow them to turn separately. Wheels in Richardson`s carriage could rotate by 360 degrees absolutely independently from each other.
With the end of World War I in anticipation of baby - boom the market of carriages considerably extended, and became available practically to all, except poor segments of the population. Carriages underwent some changes. They had footboards, kolyasochny “basket“ became slightly deeper, and carriages are lower, especially inventive kids quite often got out of carriages and made a trip to the next earth.
Here, for example, Travel carriage sample - E - zee (1920 - e of the USA). It is one of the earliest models rather easy and compact, carriage walls, tarpaulin, wheels completely metal, “dressed“ in rubber tires. One more distinctive feature of carriages of that time - gradual replacement of wooden and wattled parts of a carriage on rubber and plastic. Expensive copper hinges are replaced with cheaper chromic.
more and more companies on production of carriages Begin to appear. Here is how one of the companies, oldest in Europe, - producers of baby carriages Emmaljunga (Sweden) writes about itself:“ Emmaljunga carriages - it is more than just a carriage. It is family tradition which arose in 1925 when the founder of Henry L Persson began to produce the first baby carriages“. In 1930 carriages produced manually, by means of the simplest tools. Nevertheless, producers received only positive comments about the production.
1940 - e years were the period of political instability in Europe, however, despite it, demand for carriages remained invariable, and requirements to quality of production were imposed rather high. Gradually old production shops were replaced with new modern factory buildings, production was more and more automated.
Model 1940 - x years (Stroll - o - chair, the USA) already had beautifully curved arches which remind of relationship with English “fellows“, and the white steel case. For covering of top synthetic fabrics with a waterproof slip are used. Wheels stopped being tselnolity and in them spokes appeared. They could also be removed and put on. The most popular companies in the USA on production of carriages of Stroll steel - o - chair later renamed into Babyland, and Babee - Tenda.production of carriages was considerably reduced the price by
By 1950, and they became available to any family, even with small prosperity.
we Will walk?
B 1965 the aviaengineer of Owen Maclaren brought a considerable detail in improvement of carriages. Listening to the story of the daughter about her travel from America to England and that she constantly had to drag for herself a carriage, McLaren decided to apply the knowledge and invented easy folding model of a stroller - stroller. He used aluminum designs which easily could be given to a compact look. The stroller quickly won sympathies and strongly pressed former models. Maclaren founded the company which makes a wide line of the most various carriages now - from inexpensive titanic to elite, worth 3000 dollars.
the Running carriage disperses a family at sports speed
B 1980 Phil Bechler (Phil Baechler) decided to arrange jog together with the little son. However, because usual carriages would not sustain the speed of run of the adult, Phil decided to improve model. So there were three-wheeled carriages.
of Idea of Bechler were picked up by producers of carriages, and in 2006 the German company Kinzel K1 together with design - Jahn studio - Design presented new generation of carriages: the crossover, SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) - a sports carriage for children and parents. You sometime ran with a carriage?. Now you can be engaged in it.well is suitable
K1 for the speeds reached on roller skates or the bicycle which the carriage joins in the form of the trailer.“ Our model offers parents much more options of active recreation with children in absolutely safe way“, - claim in Kinzel.Here what to you precisely had not to see earlier
, so it is opportunities to fasten a carriage behind to the bicycle: you pull out one bolt, you remove a forward wheel, and the same bolt and a fork you attach K1 to “bike“. That nothing happened to the kid in this wild (for baby carriages) an extreme, it is fastened 5 - a dot seat belt to an ergonomic seat, in anything not inferior to children`s automobile chairs.Now carriages are popular
not less, than 50 years ago. Modern models much easier and convenient in use are also supplied with many additional improvements, for example, an awning from the sun, a grid from insects, various baskets under transportation of the accompanying things or products. They have even electric drives!the Interesting facts
- First in the history the exhibition of ancient baby carriages took place in the American city of Billings. The unique collection, collected 46 - the summer local, the insurance agent James Leykott became a basis of an exposition. Within ten years the collector literally ransacking on attics and cellars managed to collect more than fifty samples of carriages and independently restored them. Among all variety of forms and designs the greatest interest of visitors was caused by the German baby carriage to which put a dog.
- Venice - the only city in the world in which of wheel automobiles only baby carriages are resolved.
of the Carriage in Russia
When the first samples of carriages in Russia appeared, in accuracy it is unknown. However, in a picture N. And. Udaltsova “On a balcony“, dated 1942, we already see one of copies of that time - a big, wide carriage with almost vertical handle. >
It is considered p that industrial production of the Russian carriages was begun in 1949 when under the government order from Germany the sample of the German carriage was brought. The carriage was studied in detail, and on its image and similarity began to create the Soviet models of carriages of that time. By order of Ordzhonikidze over all country 50 shops were open for production of “children`s transport“.
Judging by pictures of artists of that time, type of carriages, similar to a carriage of 1942, long enough remained the most widespread...
But here very ridiculous carriage of 1956 very far on the design from the foreign contemporaries. Very low, on tiny red castors, the steel tube from two parties bends around kolyasochny sides, turning into the handle.
In other picture a similar carriage - same small and low, on the same tiny castors and oval sides. However here we can already observe some improvements: a convertible top and in a different way the fixed handle. The girl represented right there has a carriage too - toy, in it the hare sleeps. Toy carriage wattled. Such carriages were also for children.
of the Carriage were expensive, and only rather wealthy parents were able to afford to buy them. To buy a carriage to a usual family, to it not one month was necessary to save up money.
Galina Aleksandrovna, Tomsk: “We lived is rather poor, and the carriage (as well as beds) at us was not. However in the city I saw carriages, they were low, oblong, similar to the rocket. Carriages at that time were a rarity, but all had convenient sledge. On the sledge fastened a wooden box and children carried since the birth. Many sledge was self-made and very beautiful. For example, my friend had sledge made of the bent hollow pipes very similar to a sedentary carriage“.
Alternative option to “store“ carriages were wattled which could be both on castors, and on runners, like the sledge. Such carriages of “manual production“ remained long enough: quite often used them even during reorganization.
However, and wattled carriages were by no means expensive therefore they instead of big carriages bought walking more often - they were cheaper, and absolutely still carried babies on hands.
Both types of carriages (both big, and walking) still keep two features: low landing and small castors. Such carriages will pass through all the sixtieth.
at the beginning of 60 - x years there is a stroller of new type - with high landing, on big wheels in which it is already impossible to lie, and it is only possible to sit, having deeply leaned back. Squared carriages with low landing are still widely used, but carriages with a high road gleam appear.
To the middle 1970 - x years of a carriage stopped being a rarity and became available to each family. At that time two types of carriages - Soviet and import were (GDR). Perhaps, it were carriages of the world famous German company “TsEKIVA“, but at that time simple Soviet people seldom paid attention to a brand. Our carriages were bulky, heavy and inconvenient. In 1975 on DMZ “KAMOB“ (The Moscow Region) essentially new baby carriages which got the Quality mark and a gold medal of ENEA were created.
Natalya Vorontsova: “Personally I to the son bought a carriage in 1984, in December. Also I remember that no Soviet remarkable carriages at that time still existed. All “hunted“ for the German - they were more nice, much easier, at them wheels did not fall off. They below had a basket for bags on which the Soviet women literally went crazy because the Soviet women, holding the child, also were dragged on shops in which too everything was deficiency, and therefore in successful day products were enough with packs and kilograms. And there was no place to put all this. So the kolyasochny basket helped out very much. And still the German carriages had windows! I bought just such - a blue German carriage with windows for 120 rubles. At that time I earned such sum in a month so purchase was the road. Our carriages cost rubles 70, it seems. In a year I sold the carriage with ease - second-hand German carriages went in great demand too“.History is surprising and paradoxical
: baby slings which history contains thousands of years in many cities and villages perceive as a wonder, but as it is possible to do young mother without carriage, many do not represent any more. Well forgotten old becomes new, and new becomes habitual and nearly the most necessary. The fact that, despite the wide range of children`s transport, traditions of carrying children on hands revive pleases, and any mother can choose when and than her to use: baby sling or carriage.