How to develop attention and memory of
Ability to operate with several concepts at the same time, to perform one operation and at the same time to remember what has to be the following step, are necessary at the most different types of activity. When reading it is important not to forget the beginning of the word while you read it up to the end, at recalculation it is necessary to remember how much was going to take while you speak by phone, not to forget about the running-away milk, and slamming a door, to remember about keys.
How to teach it the small child? How to develop at it these abilities?can offer
For development of attention and memory the following tasks given in a complication order.by
- Before starting more difficult tasks from this section, be convinced that at the child idea of constancy of object is created, and he really looks for the toy hidden at it in the eyes in that place where it was put.
can consider, call after that
- , and then to hide at it in the face of two familiar small toys under the turned glasses or to clamp them in fists and to suggest the child to open that toy which from it is asked. When he learns to find toys, it is possible to offer him the same task, but with use of cards.
together with the child and call with use of the corresponding gesture two pictures on cards, and then turn them in the face of the child and ask: “Where dog?“, “Where pussycat?“ etc. the Child has to open the necessary card.
- Hide in the face of the child under glasses three, and then four small toys and ask, for example: “Where machine?“. The child opens the necessary glass, considers and rolls the machine. Then again close a toy a glass and ask: “Where pussycat?“ When the child will learn to find toys, it is possible to offer him the same task, but with use of cards (toys, products, animals, clothes, furniture etc.). Consider together with the child and call with use of the corresponding gesture three, and then four pictures on cards, and then turn them in the face of the child and ask, for example: “Where chair?“ or “Where cup?“ etc. the Child has to open the necessary card. Validate performance of a task: “Yes, the good fellow, is a cup!“
- Can consider and turn two cards and to ask the child, showing on the closed card: “What here?“ . The child answers with the word or using gesture, and then opens a card and checks correctness of the answer.
- you Ask the child to bring to
any subject which is out of its field of vision, for example, in the neighboring room. It is good to diversify such requests, every time asking to bring something brand new. The child has to understand that he is asked to make, go to other room, to find the necessary thing and to bring it. with
- Attract the child to the help with economy. He can act, imitating you, for example, together with you to clear ware the table or to carry out personal small errands. If the child does not carry out your assignment, make what you asked together with it. Such activity can promote development of the speech also. Discuss the events. Especially allocate the emotional moments:“ oh, a pool “or“ oh, fell “, “ oh, it is hot“, “hard“ etc.
- Implementation of the instruction from two steps or two significant words. Training in it is on a joint of logopedics and cognitive development and demands an appropriate level of understanding of the speech. It is important that the child understood each word separately.
Long instructions have to become usual part of everyday life. You can appeal to the child “long“, including two consecutive steps, a request to bring two subjects at the same time or designating signs of the necessary subject. To be convinced that the child really remembers the instruction and follows it, but does not arrive habitually or on a situation, offer him paradoxical (“hooligan“) instructions. For example:“ Bring a cube, put in a pan “, “ bring a cup and socks“. Give to
- Seat a big and small doll at the table and lay out on a table, for example, cups, plates, spoons and forks. Offer instructions of type: “Give to this doll a cup and a fork“, “Dai a big doll a plate“ etc.
- Offer the child a doll and a bear, a hairbrush and a fork. Ask it to comb a bear a fork or to feed a doll with a hairbrush.
- Increase in time of preservation of attention. When the child asks something from you, it is possible to satisfy sometimes not at once his request, for example:“ To pour to you juice? Now, I will wipe from a table and I will pour“. Such expectation teaches the child to keep attention for some time. The waiting time for the small child has to be rather short and can make several minutes. Gradually it considerably increases, and the grown-up child will not forget that he wanted to watch the animated film even if to postpone viewing for hour
- Kommentirovanny drawing. Draw series of the primitive, symbolical pictures reflecting some business known to your child. For example, it is possible to make “book“ “My day“ or “We walk“. Ask the child to tell what he does on each of these pictures, lead him to increase quantity of details.
- Playing with the child of performances - fairy tales “Kolobok“, “Turnip“, “Teremok“. They demand storing and repetition of chains of characters or their remarks. For a performance it is possible to use plush toys or the characters who are cut out from a cardboard.
- Game activity is the main for the child. Pay attention of the child to what occurs around. In game it is possible to model all the child meets in everyday life: kindergarten, a visit of policlinic, visit of a hairdressing salon, a usual visit of shop, a trip in the train etc. Fill these games with “details“. It helps the child to understand the purpose and sequence of the actions made in real life, develops memory and associative thinking and gives him those elements which it can include further in own subject games.
- Include the child in all kinds of activity in which other family members are engaged. He has to master household skills gradually. Very good period for this purpose when the child himself wants to help you, imitating, performing the same operations, or performing separate operations at your request. For example, when you cook soup, ask the child to get a pan and to carry it on a table. When cutting vegetables it is possible to give it a plastic disposable knife and to suggest to cut them together with you. The same needs to be done when cleaning, mopping, washing of ware, washing, work in a kitchen garden etc. You speak with the child about everything that you do.
all instruction entirely and if the child experiences difficulties, repeat it all entirely again, without breaking into steps. If development of the speech allows, it is possible to ask the child to repeat the instruction before its performance that promotes development of the internal speech.
- Implementation of the instruction from three steps or three significant words. Take big, small and average nested dolls, plates of three sizes, a set of calculating material on the subject “Vegetables and Fruit“ (certainly, it can be replaced with nutlets, sunflower seeds, horns, fasolina etc.).
- Deliver to
before the child of nested dolls on growth and plates and ask:“ Give to a big nested doll a small plate“. Then lay out on a table, for example, four cucumbers, two tomatoes and two lemons. The offered instructions: “Give to this nested doll two cucumbers and tomato“, “Dai to a big nested doll a lemon and tomato“, “Put a cucumber, tomato and a lemon in this plate“ etc. Give all instruction entirely, and if the child does not carry out it at once, repeat it all entirely again, without breaking into steps. It is possible also to ask the child to repeat the instruction before performance, or to help it the directing and specifying questions. For example, if the child executed only part of the instruction “Give to this nested doll two cucumbers and tomato“ and gave to a nested doll only two cucumbers, it is possible to ask him: “What else did the nested doll want?“, and then “Tomato or lemon?“ .
- Implementation of the instruction containing several significant words or steps. Certainly, it is more natural to fulfill training of the child, without sitting at a table, and in everyday situations. It is possible to appeal to the child “long“, including three consecutive steps, a request to bring two subjects, designating a sign of one of them, or the place where he is. To be convinced that the child really remembers the instruction and follows it, but does not arrive habitually or works on a situation, it is possible to offer him paradoxical instructions. For example:“ Take a fork and a cube, put in a cap “, “ bring a cup and red socks “, “ take a spoon under a table, put in a bed“. Long instructions have to become usual part of everyday life. If the child does not cope with an assignment, repeat all instruction entirely, without breaking into steps and if it does not help, ask the child to repeat what he has to make, or lead it.
- Ask the child that it did yesterday that is going to do farther. “We go for a walk. What will you put on? Still that?“ If he gives formal or incorrect answers, lead him and specify details. It is possible to ask, for example: “You for breakfast ate porridge or soup?“, “Soup was for lunch or for breakfast?“ etc.
with the child in syuzhetno - role-playing games. Include in them what happened to it in real life, in game. Help the child to fill his games with various details. For example, dolls came on a visit, cake on a table, and there is no tea. How to prepare tea? Try that feelings of your child and feeling of other people were also reflected in game. They can rejoice, become angry, take offense, be afraid, miss etc. For example, the doll asks to buy ice cream, and do not buy by it, the doll took offense. Or a doll put to bed, and the doll does not want to lay down and is capricious, “mother“ becomes angry. Try that the child called these feelings.
- you Ask the child most to carry out any economic affairs. They have to consist of a chain of actions and demand rather long time to spread out, for example, toys in places, to wipe and spread out devices in a box or to water flowers in all rooms etc. of