Long way to a beautiful smile of
the Toothbrush so strongly entered our life that it seems as if it existed always. And it almost so. The light thought to look after the teeth to prolong their life, deleting the food remains, came to mankind long ago.
So, the Stone Age left in inheritance such exotic ways and recipes as the stones pounded in powder, the crushed glass, ashes and the wool impregnated with honey, wood ugl and plaster, roots of plants and grain of cocoa, pitch and salt, and many other things.
Not less inventive in a question of hygiene of teeth also. They gave to teeth a whiteness, applying powder from a dry incense, Myrrha, branches of a mastic tree, a mutton horn and raisin. Other so exotic medicine was mix from ashes of the burned interiors of a bull, Myrrha, a pounded egg shell and pumice. Ancient papyruses are advised to rub teeth with onions to achieve their gloss and a whiteness. By the way, and the first toothbrushes appeared in Ancient Egypt. It were sticks with a fan on one end and pointed by other end. And in Babylon for 3 thousand years B.C. used a toothbrush - a stick.did not remain
away from tooth progress India and China. India made hygiene of an oral cavity part of the philosophy. Buddha not only educated in this respect people around, but also itself used a special “stick for teeth“ for these purposes. China used a stick with one split chewing end and another - sharp with which deleted a raid and the remains of food. Made such sticks of wood with a pleasant smell. Also successfully worked with metal toothpicks and scrapers for language. But the first full-fledged toothbrush with a natural bristle was found in China. It is dated 1600. And as a cleaner - both in India, and in China - applied the sinks pounded after roasting, horns and hoofs of animals, plaster, and also powdery minerals.
Relay of further development of tools and ways of hygiene of an oral cavity were picked up by ancient Greeks and Romans. Hippocrates for the first time described diseases of teeth and advised to apply toothpastes which famous recipes belong by 1500 People of the second millennium used BC tooth-powder from pumice with addition in it wine vinegar or wine acid. Ancient Greeks can even be considered as pioneers of chewing gum - they actively chewed pitch, from bark of a so-called “rubber tree“. Greek women highly appreciated this pitch as a way of cleaning of teeth and giving of freshness to breath.
By the way, in antiquity already far predecessors of modern dentists existed. Roman “stomatologists“ mastered ability to connect together the loosened teeth and to hold artificial a gold wire. Romans early left the teeth, however showed the dazzling smile, inserting themselves gold artificial limbs. Perhaps, it was difficult to chew such work of art, but the prestige and the status increased repeatedly. In Ancient Rome there was already a lead tool for removal of teeth. Applied goat milk to freshness of breath. The antique stomatology is rich also with exotic recipes. Such as rubbing in of ashes of the burned parts of animals (among recommended “lucky persons“ - mice, rabbits, wolves, bulls and goats) in gums. Rinsing of teeth blood of a turtle three times a year was recommended as very effective remedy from all tooth diseases. Progressive Greeks and Romans sported necklaces from a wolf bone which protected them from a toothache and rinsed a mouth with pure white wine or infusion of urine.
As people after fall of the Roman Empire brushed teeth and whether they did it in general - and until now the secret covered with a gloom. However at excavation the instructions for care of an oral cavity relating to 1000 were found in Persia. They advised to apply powder from mix of the pounded cervine horn, the crushed sinks of snails and mollusks, the burned plaster, mixes from various dried parts of animals, herbs, honey, minerals, aromatic oil and other things. Also these managements warned against use of too solid powders.the tooth elixirs made by monks and doctors were popular
In medieval Europe. Some of them lived almost up to now. So, for example, the elixir of monks of Benedictines invented in 1373 could be met in drugstores and at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the 16th century the surgeon Ambroise Pare advised obligatory hygiene of an oral cavity, propagandized removal of a scale and bleaching by weak solution of nitric acid.
B 17 a century poor segments of the population brushed teeth salt by means of the stick which is wrapped up by a rag. Also the recipe of toothpaste from 1,5 ounces of drakony blood, the same quantity of cinnamon and 1 ounce of the burned aluminum remained. Who knows, maybe, from - for so zealous aspiration of our ancestors to a whiteness of teeth dragons also disappeared from the face of the earth?
Peter I by order recommended to boyars to brush teeth pounded chalk and a damp rag. And the people everywhere used coals from birch wood which perfectly bleached teeth if carefully to rinse a mouth after procedure. And the court stomatologist of Louis XV accustomed all French nobility to use the soft sea sponge moistened in salty water.
the Grandmother of all European toothbrushes were found by the German archeologists at excavation on the place of the former hospital in the city of Minden. Its age makes 250 years, and length of ten centimeters. It was made of a bone of an animal and was similar to the predecessor found earlier therefore experts came to a conclusion that in the middle of the 18th century in these vicinities there was a workshop which made bone brushes with the pork bristle fastening by means of a wire. Then its triumphal procession - apparently, from - for the fact that rich Europeans included sugar in the diet began.
In England of the end of the 18th century toothpaste began to be let out in an extra packing - in ceramic capacity. Wealthy people applied paste on a brush, and those who for a brush did not have enough money used own fingers. Despite of the fact that dentists, doctors and chemists were authors of recipes such rough abrasive substances as brick dust, the crushed porcelain, clay splinters, soap and chalk were a part them. It is possible for this reason such powders did not make success among a wide range of consumers, and magazines were advised to brush teeth of times in two weeks the stick smeared with weapon gunpowder.
the American chewing gum is obliged by the origin to Indians who taught the first colonists to chew fir-tree pitch. At the beginning of the 19th century the chewing gum was put on a stream of commercial production when pieces of chewing pitch officially were on sale in Eastern States the USA. Tooth-powder it is proud marched in the 19th century where it was placed in paper bags. It had to not only delete a raid, but also do breath fresh for what added extract of strawberry and glycerin which did these means by more tasty to it. Toothpaste of cherry color with a carmine which painted teeth became a star of the Victorian era. The fiftieth years presented, in the person of the stomatologist John Herrisa, swept as material for production of tooth-powders in the union with plant extracts and essential oils. Besides, then in the USA the sweetened paraffin wax forced out fir-tree pitch. In the sixties lacteal juice of the tree a sapodilla growing in South America became a basis of chewing gum. Juice to a chikla possessed a soft and viscous consistence and longer kept the taste therefore quickly forced out both fir-tree pitch, and sweet paraffin.
the Second half of the century was marked by creation of full-fledged toothpastes when the thinnest cretaceous powder was compactly distributed in jellylike weight. Binding substance at first was starch of which on water solution of glycerin did special paste, and then sodium salt of organic acid which stabilized chalk suspension.the New era for toothpaste began
in 1873 when the druggist with now well-known surname Kolgeyt let out on the American market the flavored toothpaste in a glass jar. However its recognition by public could drag on from - for inconveniences of packing. But at this time the dentist from Washington Sheffield noted the invention of the American artist storing the paints in tin tubules. Washington decided that such tubules can become a universal find for toothpaste, ointments and creams. It adjusted release of tubas with toothpaste, having left the primary activity. But he made a mistake, without having patented the find in time. About wonderful packing Mr. Kolgeyt heard, immediately took of it advantage and became the lawful owner of a novelty. Since 1896 Mr. Kolgeyt began to let out toothpastes in tubes on own technology, popularizing both a tube, and paste, and daily hygiene of an oral cavity both in America, and in Europe.actively used
at the beginning of the 20th century not only toothpastes, but also special solutions for rinsing of a mouth. The chlorophyll for giving of fresh aroma of greens often was their part. In 1915 as a part of means extracts from some trees of Hugo - east Asia, for example, of an eucalyptus appear.
B 1938 the toothbrush replaced natural “head of hear“ on synthetic, and in a year experts started tests of her electric girlfriend.
Before World War II soap, despite all known then side effects is a part of the majority of toothpastes. Later development of chemical industry and technical progress allowed to replace soap with laurylsulphate of sodium and ritsinoleaty sodium.
Tooth-powder was late in the USSR on three quarters of the century. Toothpaste still long time after the emergence remained the rare guest in shops. In this area of consumer goods tooth-powder which developed the spheres far from the direct purpose of the sphere undividedly dominated - washed with it windows, cleaned canvas footwear, polished metal ware to gloss. Only in 1950 the first Soviet paste in a tube appeared and began to force out tooth-powder as means of toothbrushing gradually.
Now in the course at inhabitants of the globe more than 20 types of various toothpastes. Data of the research company Nielsen demonstrate that toothpastes make 62% of the world market of means on care of teeth. The pastes protecting from caries, paste for complex protection of teeth and bleaching toothpastes enjoy the greatest popularity. Modern toothpastes on nature of their application can be divided into four groups: hygienic, lechebno - preventive which can intend for daily and course use, professional and medical. Hygienic pastes only clear teeth and refresh breath.Lechebno`s
- preventive pastes in addition render treatment and prevention of stomatologic diseases. You should not use daily toothpastes with aggressive antibacterial components, such as triklozan, and the active bleaching agents, for example, carbamide peroxide. Besides, their indicator of abrasivity on a scale of RDA has to make no more than 100, and 70 - 80 are better. There are also special toothpastes for children, including, for the smallest.
But all these achievements of a civilization are intended for those who are able to use a toothbrush. And how kids, really about them forgot, and their teeth are fated to remain unaddressed? Progress in the field of stomatology long avoided small zubastik. From time immemorial parents or nurses after feeding cleared teeth of kids the damp rag or a gauze which is reeled up on a finger, nothing the best just was. So proceeded up to 2003 when the practicing children`s stomatologist from the USA doctor Ray Wagner offered absolutely new means - the dental napkins of Spiffies having pleasant taste and a smell.
But progress does not stand still. What will be offered to us by stomatologists tomorrow?