We climb, we climb, we climb...
All plants need light and that to reach it, plants climb up. All and not all. Those who already rather highly got, for example, on the separate rock where the sun blocks nothing are able to afford to creep on the soil and without special efforts to catch light more. Or, say, on fruitless sand where it is a little competitors, it is possible to turn into a graceful rug and to blossom in the pleasure. The rest needs a stalk stronger to lift the mass of leaves on height and to substitute them to the sun.
As is shown by evolution, plants try to reduce a consumption of “building materials“ on the bearing designs therefore for billions of years fat trunks were replaced by stalks and small stalks. But though many plants, especially monocotyledonous, form leaves and tsvetonosa in general without stalks, the majority “in the old manner“, has stalks. And here, saving “building materials“, some plants instead of creation of a strong design use “make-shifts“: the neighbors and other support, climbing up them by means of different devices about which we will also talk.All climbing plants can call
lianas though in our daily representation lianas are something tropical and exotic. And meanwhile even in Moscow area of such plants much. Let`s begin with what to cling to a support they manage not only stalks, but also leaves, roots and inflorescences. And even the same stalk can be used differently.the “laziest“ plants in general of any devices do not form
. They just last in dense herbage or among others branches and hang on them as ropes. Among wood plants currant Alpine which on freedom grows as an uncombed bush with the hanging thin branches up to 1,5 - 2 meters long so behaves. In thickets of other trees it turns in 5 - 6 - a meter liana. The spread wide small branches of currant Alpine get stuck among tree branches - the owner and to pull out it from there very difficult. In Ukraine the solanaceous bush litsium often meets (dereza). On freedom it grows as a bush too, and in thickets forms direct elastic escapes which even before formation of lateral branches and even leaves put between others branches, and then begin to branch, being fixed thus on the owner. Are interwoven into others branches and some real jasmines. And here among herbs forest zvezdchatka act this way. In dense herbage the soft, easily hanging stalks of this plant just rastopyrivat large leaves and get stuck them among stalks of neighbors. The usual geranium marsh climbs on neighbors also. Its blossoming soft stalks can rise by height to one meter, and here without support they immediately fall. Meter length is reached also by a usual three-colored violet (wild pansies) if it grows in a dense steppe grass.
For convenience of fastening to the owner some plants have numerous thorns or prickly branches. So many dogroses and blackberry climb up. Allow to stick to Shipiki on stalks and leaves in herbage to lady`s bedstraws. And one of Veronika`s types - Veronika shlemnikovy - has for this purpose unique leaves with the teeth directed in the opposite direction to the leaf basis.
in the Same way also the biggest plants in the world - rotangovy palm trees climb. Usually they are not mentioned at the indication of the highest plants as they long, but not high are not able to stand at all. Stalks of a rattan reach in length of 180, and according to some data, and 300 meters. In case of need the young plant can stand up some time straight, but the thin stalk, no more than 9 cm in the diameter at the largest types is more often, creeps on the Earth`s surface, will not come across yet a support on which it gets by means of prickles and plumose leaves having on the end something similar to a long barbed wire. Such ends of leaves, and at some types and “wire“ inflorescences hold a rattan among branches of other trees. Rotangovy palm trees, perhaps, only of plants which use for an inflorescence lasagna.One more way to get without efforts is above
- use of the curling stalks. In the beginning the tip of the curling escape rotates in search of a support. Strangely enough, it is not so easy to find it. It is simple to twist very thin stalk, but it will not sustain liana weight. To a thick support such weight not the hindrance, but even such powerful plant as hop, cannot clasp a trunk more thickly than 10 centimeters. Therefore the curling lianas always twist only young trees. Hop has on this case an extra - epidermis outgrowths, very sharp, similar to anchors, on a stalk which seize bark and allow it to keep even on very thick trees. If the liana has an odrevesnevshy stalk and grows on a live plant, after a while between the owner and the guest fight begins. The owner`s trunk, being thickened, stretches a liana stalk. And a liana trunk, being thickened too, squeezes the owner`s trunk. From this situation there are only two exits. Quite often the owner perishes, then after destruction of its trunk a stalk of a liana it is necessary to hang huge “corkscrew“. Also more rapid growth of a stalk of the owner is possible, then his wood crawls over a liana stalk, breaks off and crushes it, forming big flows. Usually manage it quickly growing trees, such as the young maples and ash-trees and which are thickened slowly, for example a birch, under wood lianas perish. One of Far East lianas and is called - drevogubets and quite justifies the name. Only in 20 years of my work in a botanical garden drevogubets strangled several birches, two big maples and incalculable quantity of bushes of a hawthorn and barberry. On large trees which this liana cannot twist it climbs up, clinging to bark prickly lower cheshuyam of kidneys. They very sharp are also directed down as an edge of a fire hook. In any attempt to tear off escape from a scales trunk only seize bark more strong; these do not stir scales the growing escape as edges of kidneys are directed aside, opposite to the direction of growth.
the Top part of escape of a climber rotates always in the party defined for this look, for example, hop twists clockwise, and bindweeds, beans, an aktinidiya and a birthwort - against. The movement “by the sun“ as at hop, - the rarity, in midlatitudes so climbs still a magnolia vine Chinese. The only plant which can curl in any party, - a nightshade with pleasure - bitter however the direction of rotation of each such plant is always constant. At some plants rotation of the growing tip of a stalk is noticeable with the naked eye; the same hop does a whole revolution a little more, than in two hours. But there are plants rotating whole two days, usually it is lianas with odrevesnevshy trunks. To turn a stalk, cages of these lianas grow and share on the one hand quicker, and as a result the stalk turns.
Curling - the thickest among lianas. If the long climbing rattans have stalks not more thickly than 9 centimeters, then at the largest of our lianas - aktinidiya sharp with a length of “only“ 30 meters stalk thickness at the basis has a diameter of 20 centimeters.
Some plants, for example all numerous family pumpkin (among them there are pumpkins and cucumbers), form special escapes for a lasagna. Very seldom on them it is possible to see rudiments of leaves. Moustaches as it is also necessary to escapes, often appear from sheet bosoms. They behave as well as the usual curling stalk. It is often possible to see a short mustache which near a support will be curtailed into a spiral. It is the shock-absorber on a case of strong wind or a sharp push. Instead of tearing, such spiralka only stretches and again comes back to a starting position. The former stalks are also grapes short moustaches, rudiments of leaves here - an everyday occurrence. That it was more convenient to short mustache to look for a support, grapes always grow from the end of escape lowered down, then the short mustache sticks out forward or up and freely looks for a support. As a result of the second from a top the short mustache grows almost perpendicularly to top, and if it did not manage to be hooked while was top, it looks for a support already sideways from a plant that allows escapes to extend not only up, but also in the parties. That the short mustache was not unwound from a support at breakthrough, it “is always tied“ by a small knot, being twisted after a support with several more rounds.At the close relative of grapes - the partenotsissus known maiden grapes are more often than
under the name, on the ends of short moustaches there are special small pillows - “suckers“. Fast cell fission of a small pillow allows a tip of a short mustache to grow into the smallest cracks of a support and to stick as if to it.
the Next way to get upward - use of leaves. As well as in the previous cases, options are possible here. One of them: use of the clinging scapes. At contact with neighbors the scape of the growing leaf is twisted around a support and holds a stalk. From well familiar types the nasturtium and klematisa act this way. In nature a nasturtium big - the perennial clinging to a support scapes of leaves and reaching length 5 meters. At a klematis both the general scape of a ternate leaf, and a chereshochka of its shares can grab a support. Large wood lianas of a klerodendrona cling scapes at the beginning of growth of escapes while stalks still soft and gentle, and then let out numerous short branches with inflorescences and are kept already just by leaves.
One more adaptation for a lasagna - the leaves in whole or in part transformed to short moustaches. They are especially widespread in family bean though it is one of the most “climbing“ families can do also without short moustaches, remember the same beans and haricot with the curling stalks. Classical “moustached“ leaves grow at usual peas. Short moustaches at this plant represent modified median veins of the leaf and its leaflets.the Mechanism of the movement of short moustaches same, as well as at a stalk, and chances for something to be hooked by
- above: there is a lot of leaves and the stalk at such plants usually has many lateral escapes. Besides, at the majority of the climbing plants short moustaches branch that gives the additional chance quicker to find a support. Therefore they meet more often in dense herbage where there are a lot of suitable stalks. Wood lianas with moustaches are far not so numerous as grassy; besides, as we already spoke, moustaches at them most often - the former escapes. At many usikonosny plants short moustaches grow so that to hide from light, that is towards a possible support.
can cling To a support also roots. If a surface damp, roots carry out at the same time and the feeding function. So, roots the beautiful liana of a tekom growing in the Crimea and Transcaucasia clings (kampsis). This plant is capable to drive tips of roots into absolutely imperceptible cracks on a surface of the concrete or brick house. Grow into stones and bark of trees and roots of a Far East hydrangea petiolar. In suitable conditions in Transcaucasia and in Ukraine the ivy forms because of the huge area “carpets“. The fastening mechanism at an ivy same, as well as at “suckers“ of a partenotsissus, tips of roots, but not short moustaches only expand.
And to find a support, the ivy grows not to light, and from it. Grow not only its roots that needless to say, but also young ananthous escapes. Such shade tolerance of this plant contradicts opinion that all lianas reach for light. And here for blossoming and fructification the ivy is simply obliged to get on something, it increases chances of pollination of flowers, and fruits become more available to birds. By the way, many lianas have the fruits adapted for distribution from height. At a klematis and lastovnya are fluffy short meetings. At a nasturtium - just falling down large seeds which, falling from height, jump up several times on the soft cover reminding a ball and slide on the Earth`s surface. At bean - the cracking beans scattering seeds that too it is more convenient to do “from a high belltower“. And at birthworts openwork boxes of fruits are supplied with such device which allows them to be shaken where - nibud is higher that seeds flew far away. So there is a lot of reasons to get up at plants and as they do it, you already read.
to the Gardener - on a note. Supportare suitable
For the twisting lianas as a support for climbers vertical bamboo laths, colored water pipes with a diameter of 2 - 3 centimeters or thick synthetic cords. All cross connections in such support carry out a constructive and decorative role.to
to the Lianas clinging short moustaches or sheet scapes will suit wooden lanes from thin levels, metal lattices or plastic grids with a large cell on a frame better.
to the Climbing plants which are attached by additional roots in particular of a hydrangea petiolar, special support are not necessary. Young escapes of this liana fix for a while to a tree trunk or a stone wall by means of an adhesive plaster or plasticine.