Problems in study. The syndrome of chronic not success
the Psychological syndrome of chronic not success develops at the end of preschool or at younger school age. The interpersonal situation of development at this syndrome is characterized by discrepancy between expectations of adults and achievements of the child. The risk of its emergence appears when with the child systematic occupations which results do not suit parents and/or the teacher begin.
As a rule, at younger and middle preschool age adults do not show keen interest in that, how successfully the child copes with these or those tasks. The attitude towards him, its assessment as “good“ or “bad“ is defined absolutely by other criteria - whether well he behaves, whether obeys parents and the teacher, etc.
during preparation for training at school or a little later, at the beginning of school training, the attitude of adults towards progress and failures of the child changes.“ Good“ is first of all that child who knows much, successfully studies, solves problems with ease. To difficulties and failures, almost inevitable at the beginning of school training, parents often are negative sharply.
the Children needing the correctional help (in connection with touch defect or a delay of mental development), quite often appear in a similar situation already at three-year age. The same effect is possible also at the overestimated expectations of the parents anxious with achievements of the child since the early childhood beginning to teach it to read and to write in three years and dissatisfied its with insufficiently fast achievements.
the Reaction of a social environment specific to chronic not success is a constant negative assessment, remarks, discontent of parents and the teacher.at the child results from
and the high level of alarm is supported. At it self-confidence falls, the self-assessment decreases. The position of the younger school student with chronic not success is an idea of itself as about hopelessly bad pupil. The main features of a psychological profile at this syndrome are that.
Natural consequences of high level of alarm is an unproductive waste of time on insignificant details, derivation from work on reasonings on that, “as it will be bad if at me again nothing turns out if I receive the two again“, refusal of tasks which seem to the child too difficult already in advance.
Constant fear to make a mistake distracts attention of the child from sense of the tasks performed by it; it is fixed on casual trifles, losing sight of the main thing. Fears force it to check repeatedly the work that leads to an additional unjustified waste of time and forces. Not possession of effective ways of check does it besides senseless as it all the same does not help to find and correct an error. The aspiration to make work as is possible better (perfectionism) as a result only worsens business. Low productivity (an inevitable consequence of a constant condition of alarm) is the central feature of activity at chronic not success.
So the vicious circle develops: alarm, breaking activity of the child, conducts to failure, negative estimates from people around. The failure generates alarm, promoting fixing of failures. The farther, the it becomes more difficult to break off this circle therefore not success and becomes “chronic“. The more responsible work is performed by the child, the more he worries. If the level of alarm is already increased, then its additional increase (nervousness) lowers results of work even more. From - for it responsible control and examination-papers are performed not better, and it is worse than daily tasks. There is a dependence surprising many parents and teachers: at increase of motivation achievements decrease.
Krom of the increased alarm, one more condition without which chronic not success does not arise exists. It is rather high degree of a sotsializirovannost of the child, installation on sense of duty, a poslushnost, noncritical implementation of requirements of adults. If there is no such installation, then discrepancy of its achievements to expectations of adults is more or less indifferent for it. Of course, and at such child alarm level, but for other reasons can increase.
About presence at the child of installation on sense of duty are often told by parents, telling as long he sits at lessons (though at the same time can constantly distract from the performed tasks). In psychological inspection the underlined orientation of the child on exact implementation of requirements checking, and also aspiration to leaving from unusual and ambiguously certain tasks which are estimated by the child as especially difficult is shown.
to Ania B. 9 years. She studies in the third grade and the second year has a reputation for “dvoyechnitsa“, but still both parents, and the teacher with it were for some reason reconciled. Now the patience of the teacher ran low. She told that it is necessary either to keep Ania in the same grade, or to transfer to school for mentally retarded.
Psychological inspection showed that at Ania the level of intellectual development, low, but normal for her age. The stock of knowledge is slightly lower than norm, but not so to make impossible training at mass school. Increased fatigue, is reduced working capacity. Possibly, this consequence of an overload: the father of the girl tells that she has many additional classes - it is, in his opinion, the only way to teach her to what is demanded by the school program.
the Main psychological feature of Ania - very high level of uneasiness, concern. She is afraid to make a mistake all the time. From - for it sometimes she refuses at all performance of tasks which to it quite on forces. Sometimes, nevertheless having undertaken a task, she pays so much attention to trifles that on the main thing it does not have neither forces, nor time any more. Drawing, it uses an eraser, than a pencil more. It does not make special sense as the new line drawn by it usually is not better erased, but time for each drawing is spent twice or three times more, than it is necessary.
Primary reasons resulting finally in chronic not success can be various. As the most widespread prerequisite serves the insufficient readiness of the child to school leading to difficulties from the first days of training. So, for example, the underdevelopment of small motility (ability to operate the thin movements of fingers and a hand) causes failures when training in the letter at once. Not formation of any attention results in difficulties in the organization of all work at a lesson; the child does not remember, “turns a deaf ear“ to tasks and instructions of the teacher.violation of learning ability (a delay of mental development), discrepancy of the applied methods of training in the child`s opportunities becomes frequent
the reason of the first failures. Further on this basis there is a chronic not success, and even if the delay is already compensated, educational achievements do not increase: now they are supported by the increased alarm level. At especially deep delay of mental development and the more so at intellectual backwardness the syndrome of chronic not success does not arise: in these cases at the child criticality is reduced, and he just does not notice own failures and lag from other children.
In certain cases the “weak link“ starting a vicious circle. Normal, average school progress of the child who was considered as “child prodigy“ are perceived by parents (so, and him) as failures. Real achievements are not noticed or highly appreciated insufficiently. As a result the mechanism leading to growth of uneasiness and thereof to real poor progress begins to work.the option when the increased alarm level originally is formed not from - for school failures, and under the influence of the family conflicts or the wrong style of education Is possible
. The general uncertainty in itself caused by it, tendency to react in panic to any difficulties are transferred later and to school life. Further there is already described syndrome of chronic not success, and even at normalization of the family relations uneasiness does not disappear: now she is supported by school poor progress.
Irrespective of the initial reason development in type of chronic not success proceeds approximately equally. Finally in all cases the combination of low achievements, sharply increased uneasiness, uncertainty in itself and a low mark of the child is observed by people around (parents, teachers).All these violations are reversible
, but until they are overcome, progress in study, certainly, continues to decrease. Often parents, trying to overcome the difficulties which arose at the child, arrange daily additional classes (that we saw on the example of Ania). It increases astenisation and, therefore, increases the general trouble of a situation, even more slows down development.to
For the psychologist as the major indicator demonstrating existence of chronic not success serves “disturbing“ disorganization of activity (that is the violations of planning and self-checking caused by the increased alarm level).“ Disturbing“ disorganization should be distinguished from initial not formation of the organization of actions. One of characteristic indicators that disorganization is caused by increase of alarm is deterioration in results at increase of motivation. (Unlike initially low level of its organization) point the numerous symptoms of alarm both observed in behavior, and which are shown in tests to “disturbing“ disintegration of activity.If the alarm is high
, but the expressed violations of the organization of activity are absent, then it is possible to say only about threat of emergence of chronic not success, that the child is in a zone of the increased risk, but not about the developed psychological syndrome. Chronic not success - a nevrotiziruyushchy psychological syndrome. During its development neurotic very often joins primary psychological symptomatology: tics, persuasive movements and thoughts, enuresis, sleep disorders, etc. Sometimes (but, certainly, by no means not always) emergence of neurotic symptomatology paradoxically promotes overcoming of an initial syndrome. The parents anxious with an illness of the child cease to pay so much attention as earlier, to its school failures. This change of reaction of a social environment disconnects the vicious circle maintaining chronic not success. From category “poor“ the child gets to category of “patients“.
Other frequent consequence it is long the developing chronic not success falling of educational motivation, emergence of negative attitude to school and the doctrine is. In this case the initial high sotsializirovannost of the child by the end of younger school age can be replaced by asocial installation.the constant failure leads
At many children to emergence of pessimistic approach to reality and to development of a depression over time. Symptoms of a depression are characteristic of the begun chronic not success long ago. As a rule, they appear by the end of elementary school and mark formation of a new psychological syndrome - total regress. This syndrome is in detail described below.Total regress
At teenage age at children with chronic not success is quite often made by
transition from a position of the bad pupil to consciousness of hopelessly unsuccessful personality. It marks formation of a new psychological syndrome - total regress. Among features of a psychological profile the depressive background of mood begins to play the central role. Activity is characterized by refusal of any manifestations of activity, of communication both with adults, and with peers. In the answer and a social environment “turns away“ from the teenager that deepens a depression and strengthens idea of the otioseness.
to Alexey P. 17 years. He is the only child in a family, lives with parents. Within the last year Alexey does not study and does not work. Practically he spends all the time at home, listening to “hard rock“. In the past he read much, but for a long time stopped this occupation. It has no friends, and he almost does not communicate with parents. At the same time he often addresses them with these or those requirements: to buy it more modern tape recorder, more fashionable clothes, etc. (concerning purchase of clothes parents express bewilderment: why it to it if it does not go anywhere?) . Parents find it difficult to define when there were manifestations disturbing them. According to them, he “always badly studied, but was a good, obedient boy“. At teenage age he began to shirk school, as served as the reason of the first rather serious family conflicts. First parents were afraid that it “got to the bad company“, but soon understood that it has no company - neither “bad“, nor good - (though earlier it had several friends). Alexey was threatened with an exception of school for truancies, but a year ago he, without waiting for an exception, itself finally ceased to study.
Psychological inspection revealed presence at Alexey of the expressed depressive tendencies. The young man perceives life as deprived of sense, has no plans for the future. It is very egocentric, is not capable to change the point of view and to understand a position of other people (in particular, own parents). The self-assessment is lowered. Alexey estimates the prospects very low.
Total regress - one of the heaviest psychological syndromes of teenage and youthful age. Not only the stop in development, but also loss of former achievements is typical for it (than and its name speaks). It is well visible on the given example: so, if in the past Alexey showed high interest in reading, then now this interest is absent; the contacts with peers which were available earlier were lost too.
Total regress - a nevrotiziruyushchy and psikhopatiziruyushchy psychological syndrome, and with even more expressed nevrotiziruyushchy effect, than at chronic not success. Quite often it develops against already available neurosis. Leaving in an illness which at chronic not success sometimes leads to a reduction of an initial psychological syndrome does not carry out similar function at total regress. On the contrary, it can lead to deepening of a state, in addition reducing activity of the teenager. This syndrome is fraught with also serious violations in formation of the personality.
of the Recommendation to parents at chronic not success at the child
Main that adults at such “diagnosis“ have to make, is to provide to the child feeling of success. For this purpose at an assessment of its work it is necessary to be guided by several simple rules. The main thing from them - at all not to compare its very mediocre results to a standard (requirements of the school program, samples of adults, achievements of more successful schoolmates). The child needs to be compared only to him and to praise him only for one: for improvement of its own results. If in yesterday`s control he correctly made only one example from ten, and in today`s - two, then it should be noted as real success which has to be highly and without any condescension or irony is estimated by adults. If today`s result is lower yesterday`s, then it is only necessary to express strong confidence that tomorrow`s will be higher. > It is very important to p to find
though some sphere in which the child can be successful, realize himself. This sphere should give high value in his eyes. What it was successful in: in sport, in purely household household chores, in computer games or in drawing, - it has to become a subject of keen and fixed interest of parents. It is impossible to blame of the child failures in school affairs at all. On the contrary, it is necessary to emphasize that time he learned to do something well, will gradually learn also all the rest.
Sometimes it seems to adults that the child has no abilities to anything at all. However actually it practically never happens. Perhaps, he well runs? Then it is necessary to send him to section of track and field athletics (but not to say that on it it has no time because he does not manage to make lessons). Perhaps, he is able to work with fine details accurately? Then he should register in an aviamodelling circle. It is necessary not simply to praise the child suffering from chronic not success more and to abuse less (that is obvious), but to praise then when he does something (but not when passively sits, without disturbing people around).
to Parents and teachers needs to recover from impatience: it is necessary to wait for progress in study long as decrease in uneasiness cannot happen in one week. And then still “tail“ of the collected gaps long will have an effect on knowledge. The school has to remain very long the sphere of the sparing estimation reducing alarm (that already in itself some improvement of results gives). It is necessary to be ready to the fact that school affairs can and remain out of the sphere of children`s self-affirmation therefore morbidity of a school situation has to be reduced by all means. First of all it is necessary to reduce the value of school marks (but not knowledge!) . In especially serious cases it is necessary to go for depreciation and some other school requirements and values (for example, to close eyes to the fact that homeworks are not completely performed). Thanks to these measures at the child the school alarm and as he continues to work at lessons, also some achievements collect gradually decreases.
It is important that parents did not show to the child the concern in his educational failures. That, sincerely being interested in his school life, they at the same time shifted focus of the interests to the relations of children in a class, preparation for holidays, watches on a class, excursion and campaigns, but were not fixed on area of failure - school marks. As extremely significant, highly valued and sharply them interesting that field of activity in which the child is successful and can ego-trip, find the lost self-confidence has to be allocated expressly. Such revision of traditional school values allows to warn the heaviest result of chronic not success - abhorrence of the child to study which to teenage age can turn chronically poor child into the finished hooligan. At the same time there is no other frequent consequence of chronic not success also - the total regress resulting in deep passivity and indifference. Generally, the more parents and teachers fix the child on school, the worse for his school progress.
we will return to the question raised by Ania`s parents in the end: whether it makes sense to keep the child with chronic not success in the same grade or to transfer to auxiliary school? The answer to this question, certainly, is negative. Abilities of the girl are quite sufficient to acquire a training material. It is only necessary to make occupations more live and interesting and to cease to abuse continuously it, causing in it approximately that state which arises at a rabbit at the sight of a boa. Then she, certainly, will manage to get out to the troyechnitsa level that is already quite quite good. Leaving for the second year only still will lower her self-confidence (though there is no place to lower it almost), still will deepen chronic not success.
Especially should not send Ania to school for mentally retarded (or for children with an arrest of development). These schools are intended not for children with sharply increased uneasiness, and for those at whom the level of intellectual development is lowered.
At some children in chronic not success is resulted by violation of learning ability. In this case the special school will be useful and, perhaps, transfer to such school will appear enough for overcoming of the arisen difficulties. But Ania has a reason of difficulties another, so, and measures have to be taken others.to parents at total regress at the child
At this psychological syndrome can make
of the Recommendation “house means“ little. It is extremely desirable to direct the child to psychotherapy. Most often at this syndrome of the relation in a family in general are broken so seriously that the family psychotherapy is necessary. If at the child the depressive symptomatology is strongly expressed, then consultation at the psychiatrist is necessary.
Anyway needs to try to convince parents to belong to the teenager as much as possible tolerantly and kindly, understanding that his state is not normal with psychological (and it is possible, and medical) the points of view.