“Anything, only not drugs!“ - parents of teenagers conjure. Scary most of all what you do not know, and drug addiction became at us obvious not so long ago. The research “TO“is involved by
15 - 20 years ago that is when we, parents, were teenagers, about drugs if was told, then in a whisper and with a mark “at them...“ . Present teenagers hear about it and in a school corridor, both in a disco, and in songs of favorite bands. And not only hear, but sooner or later collide with well debugged car of drug trafficking. To this car all the same whom “to place“ - the child, school, the city or even the whole country. So, for example, at the beginning of 70 - x there was intentionally a narkotizirovana Holland, it is used now as a sales market. “At first the market of the Netherlands was flooded with cheap heroin and when achieved mass consumption, submission of the victims, instantly inflated the price. Russia to some extent was lucky that its economy is unstable and the ruble long time was inconvertible. But these times pass, and the international drug mafia anticipates the superincome from such huge country“ (from the book “School without Drugs“, SPb, 1999). On the other side of barricades - parents. But also we have ways to save the children from drug addiction.“ The home“ collected all most important and necessary information on this subject.
- Be quiet, you behave. Do not shout and do not arrange hysterics! It was difficult to child to make a similar confession, he waits for understanding and support, but not a nervous breakdown.
- Thank the child for trust. Accurately designate the position: “I love and I accept you, but I do not do the use drugs!“ Learn
- how long in what quantities and what substances the child accepted. What does he receive from the use? But only do not forget that it is conversation, but not interrogation. call
- After conversation on phone of “the hot line“, describe a situation, listen to all recommendations. Be ready
- that the child will begin to underestimate a problem and to shift fault to others. Do not play with it similar games, explain that it is its responsibility.
- Pass inspection, take a blood test. To define whether dependence was created, only the expert can. The diagnosis “drug addiction“ yet not a sentence - just accept need of treatment. Remember
- ! The detoxication and removal of chemical dependence are only preparation for treatment! Further the rehabilitation course is necessary.
we Look for the reasons
Some try drugs and do not become addicts. Others get to a trap from the first time. It depends on what risk factors influence the person. Scientists divide these factors into groups:
Congenital, biological factors which the child cannot affect. Here alcoholism or drug addiction at parents or close relatives, the use of drugs, alcohol and nicotine by mother belong during pregnancy, natural amount of endorphin in an organism.
today the researches saying that they the expressed toxicosis of pregnancy of mother, unreasonable application of anesthesia on childbirth, reception of some medicines during pregnancy increase risk of drug addiction at the child Are. The organism of the child gets used to a dose of toxic substances and then needs “feed“ by them. For the same reasons children who had sharp or chronic diseases at which they had to use high doses or long courses of some types of drugs get to risk group.
of Feature of character, property of the personality. Psychologists claim that is more often than others drug addiction people moods irritable, subject to frequent changes, or, on the contrary, constraining, closed, somewhat eccentric get sick. Besides, demonstrative, inclined to theatrical effects, seeking to prove to be to the best advantage. All this signs of weakness and not formation of character of the person, and drug addiction - just an illness of the unripe personality.
Environment: a family, friends, culture level in society, religion. Even the residence matters. For example, in the large cities there are whole networks of drug traffic - in one less, in others it is more. And here drugs only begin to get into rural areas where alcoholism still blossoms, and mainly into those villages which adjoin to large automobile routes and railway tracks.
Sometimes the reasons lie in a family: shortcoming or surplus of attention, nervous relations between family members. The divorce situation, especially is very dangerous if the child is not five years old yet or it is in teenage age (15 years and are more senior).
Children take divorce extremely hard even if the relations between parents in marriage were difficult. In a condition of a stress incidentally found effect of drug can become rescue, leaving from painful thoughts.
But too sponsored children who literally on a step are not released enter into risk group also. It occurs because their independence is suppressed, psychological immaturity, inability to make own choice become result of what. And sometimes - desire to do something to spite, contrary to bans.
Unsatisfied requirements of soul - the strongest motive to become the addict, and very few people from parents seriously think of it. Teenagers need trusting in unknown, to feel the participation in something bigger. They tensely look for meaning of life and build a scale of values, reflect on morality, on conscience, on treachery and beauty of the world. If real life does not give answers to these questions if in the immediate environment nobody understands the teenager in his searches and does not talk to it on these subjects, it can soon come to drugs. Any dependence is nothing else as attempt to fill sincere vacuum, to find means quickly to eliminate spiritual hunger.
Besides the deep reasons which slowly but surely increase risk of drug addiction, there are momentary occasions to take drug which even the most successful child can give in. And we have to on each such occasion have “antidote“.I will simply try
- of Ya what is it
the Child is confident that, having taken drug few times, he at any time will be able to refuse it.
Conclusion: the child has to know how drugs influence his organism. If to the child of 10 - 12 years, as if by the way and to the word tell it about how drug addiction destroys into whom addicts turn and as quickly lose human shape. At this age of “horror story“ can quite work as the protective mechanism, later they will not help any more.
- What means it is impossible?
Energy of youth pours out in a protest, and a protest - in dependence.
Conclusion: time to order to the child passed - time to agree and look for compromises came. Moreover, the your bans will be more strict, the probability that it will break them is higher. “You will try drugs - I will kill!“ - having told it, you only worsen your relations and aggravate a situation. me could not be done to
- A? If leisure of the child is not organized by
or, on the contrary, adults tortured hated pianos and tutors, the child finds an outlet on the street where drugs can be the best way of entertainment.
Conclusion: occupy the child with what is pleasant to him. Best of all - the sport, active recreation loved by business. Moreover, a habit to the organization of the time (beginning from daily obligatory (!) hygienic procedures) - too prevention of drug addiction. The person who automatically carries out a certain set of rules (gets up early, washes, cleans the room, runs in the mornings etc.) has less chances to become the addict. It is fashionable
Clothes, music, a slang - the youth always seeks to be in the fashion. And the personality who only ripened in such situation can tell “no“.
Conclusion: you seek to intellectual and spiritual growth of the child. He has to become that who dictates fashion, but not that to whom it is dictated. Do not suppress his will, do not dictate it the decisions and respect his opinion, allow it to be such what it is, but not the embodiment of your dreams. In order that the child did not try to make impression by means of drugs, to be dear, help it to become the leader in something another. The best means - sport. Me badly
- accident. It is possible to go from problems with parents and peers to other reality which is given by drugs. The first love and treachery of the friend do the child unfortunate, and not all can endure similar tragedies alone.
Conclusion: avoid the conflicts in presence of the child, help it to overcome difficulties of teenage crisis and personal tragedies. Encourage and support him. Try not to reprimand, listening to him. Then he will trust you the feelings.
- It is weak?
Frown, wry smile: “You are with us or how? Poorly to you, kid?“ Of course, each school student knows that drugs are harmful! But to it it is not weak - and he is ready to prove it.
Conclusion: it is necessary to bring the child to thought that ability to refuse to eat force sign, but not weaknesses. Accept it “no“ and in response to your words, thereby having granted it the right not to agree.
In 14 - 15 years even the most minor problem seems to
- the State drunk, and the smell of alcohol is absent.
- Sleep disorder, appetite.
- Sharp changes in character, mood swings.
- Isolation, reserve.
- Loss of old friends, does not acquaint with new. By phone tells
- shortly, always locks cases and boxes.
How to speak about it
B one of days it will occur.“ Give nyukhny“, - someone will tell the child, and further will depend on as far as he is ready to this meeting. It is the best of all to lead the first discussion at the age of 10 - 11 years. Conversation has to take place in a quiet, friendly situation. Take an interest: whether it is known to the child what is drugs? Whether he knows their names? Be not surprised, having received an affirmative answer. Then tell the child that drug addiction is an illness, incurable and deadly. The only way to avoid it - not to allow the first time. If you suspect the child of the use of drugs, then you should become attentive and very accurate detective for a while. Drugs always leave marks. You look at how the pupil reacts to light: from psychotropic drugs the pupil will remain identical. Observe whether the behavior of the child changed. Check his clothes, turning attention to things of unclear appointment.
- Hashish - from 500 rub for 1 g
- Amphetamine - from 1000 rub for 1 g
- Marijuana - from 350 rub for 1 dose
- of an acid - from 800 rub for 1 brand
- Heroin - from 1200 rub for 1 g
- Cocaine - from 3000 rub for 1 g
- Mack - from 700 rub for packing
- the Mescaline - from 700 rub for 1 dose
A as about soft drugs like marijuana or hashish? People smoke them for years and continue to lead a usual life.
It is valid, mental or physical dependence on cannabis long time can be weak. But it concerns only adults with steady mentality and excellent health. Teenagers, people with poor health and unstable mentality become dependent much quicker, sometimes instantly. Besides, “soft“ drugs lull into a false sense of security, create illusion of fitness of an organism - and most often become the base for “rigid“ drugs like heroin. And the last does not leave any chances any more.
A you know that drugs awake creative energy therefore they are used by musicians and artists?
This popular belief was popular in the USA and Western Europe in 60 - 70 - x years. However later, when consequences became visible, these ideas began to decline. Researches of scientists confirmed: drugs give surge in mental activity, generally at the expense of hallucinations. But, as soon as intoxication comes to an end, the mentality comes to a depression. And over time working capacity sharply decreases, and all talents of the personality go only to one: how to get the next dose.
Than drugs it is worse than alcohol, and you use it?
to Argue on it is all the same what to decide from what floor it is better to be thrown out - from the twentieth or thirtieth. The daily bottle of vodka paves the same way to a grave, as well as a daily prick of heroin or a handful of tablets. But there are serious differences. In - the first, sale of alcohol is regulated by laws (children are forbidden to sell), in - the second, for purchase and storage do not put in prison.
Than we play about? Psikhostimulyatora`s
General information about types of drugs
: amphetamines and the connections containing them - efedron, pervitin, fenamin, caffeine. Ecstasy. (slang: AIDS, speeds, hair dryer, amf, drugstore)
External signs. Extraordinary surge in energy, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, aspiration to communication, expansion of pupils, an incoordination. Ecstasy: an opportunity to dance several hours.
Characteristic objects. Unfamiliar tablets of different flowers and forms, sometimes with drawings.
of the Consequence. Violations of a warm rhythm, up to heavy arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions. The death from cardiac arrest is possible. Impotence. Ecstasy: from - for suppression of feeling of thirst there is dehydration.
hemp Preparations: marijuana, hemp, hashish (slang: grass, shala, gandzh, bashik, heel, check, plasticine, piece, milk)
External signs. After excitement and fun - apathy and drowsiness. Tendency to a privacy. Expansion of pupils, red hypostases under eyes, the increased appetite, special thirst for sweet.
Characteristic objects. Small seeds in pockets, cigarettes “Belomor“, bottles with an opening in the lower part, “plasticine“ balls, plates, drops Vizin or Naftizin - for removal of redness of eyes.
of the Consequence. Easing of memory, attention, coordination. Damage of internals, lung cancer. The birth of children with congenital pathologies. Immunity easing. Aspiration to try stronger drugs.
Heroin, opium, morphine, codeine, methadone, pethidine (slang: dose, number 2, paste, white, gerych, bayan, shirevo)
External signs. Traces of pricks on hands, legs, in axillary hollows, between fingers, in a groin, a deep long dream, the slowed-down reaction, pale skin, dacryagogue, nausea, the narrowed pupils, constant cold.
Characteristic objects. A needle, the syringe, a plait, a cord, a belt, the burned covers from bottles, the smoked spoons, transparent bags, cotton wool pieces, old plastic cards. From the house money and valuable things disappear.
of the Consequence. Damage of a brain, attempt of a suicide, damage of a liver, impotence, is frequent - death from overdose. When using one syringes: high risk of a disease of hepatitis and AIDS.
Psikhoaktivny substances: the mescaline received from cactuses and the psilocybin received from psilotsibinosoderzhashchy mushrooms (a slang: mushrooms)
External signs. Unpredictable behavior, the incoherent speech, cold hands and legs, a strong smell of sweat, laughter and crying without the reason, vomiting, severe gripes in a stomach.
Characteristic objects. The unclear dried flavourless plants, parsley in to packing, green powder in plastic bags, mushrooms.
of the Consequence. Frustration of a dream, depression attacks, change of sexual behavior. Damage of a brain, death from accident, including from poisoning, heavy psychological violations.
Psikhoaktivny substances: An acid - synthetic drug in the form of powder or flavourless liquid. To a thicket it is applied on brands or paper small squares (a slang: brand)
External signs. The most severe hallucinations, often are followed by fear. The greased speech, small trembling of a raduzhka of eyes. The fluent choking speech, gloss in eyes, sharpness or the increased smoothness in the movements.
Characteristic objects. Colourless pieces of sugar (can be wrapped in a foil), transparent capsules, paper small squares with drawings, unexpected hobby for stamps.
of the Consequence. Same, as well as from the use of a mescaline and a psilobitsin, but is much stronger. Irreversible changes in structures of a brain. Mental violations, up to full disintegration of the personality.
Cocaine (slang: coke, snow, the cook, anthracite, maraft, chalk, silver dust, plague)
External signs. Pale skin, shiver, fever, temperature increase. Euphoria is replaced by a depression. The speeded-up pulse, expanded pupils, an incoordination. Hyperactivity. Cold.
Characteristic objects. White crystal powder in plastic bags or small small bottles from - under drugs, aluminum foil, plastic cards or calendar cards, a pocket mirror, a fragment of glass.
of the Consequence. A depression, chronic cold, obsession of suicide, the increased arterial pressure. The sudden death from a heart attack or a stroke is possible.
Opinion of the expert
Alexey Nadezhdin, the addiction psychiatrist, to. m of N. the head of office of children`s narcology of Natsionalnogo federal State institution of scientific center of narcology, answers the questions “TO“.
One of the most tested and checked programs of treatment from drug addiction is called “12 steps“. It is created still in 40 - x years of the last century in the USA and is successfully applied around the world. The program is created as free, voluntary and not allowing application of drugs.
Is important! Many centers offer disposal of chemical dependence, an exit from abstinency (withdrawal pains) by means of other preparations. But it has to become only the beginning of rehabilitation which disposal of psychological and social dependence surely has to follow. Otherwise failures are inevitable.
TO: Whether the number of addicts at us in the country and what types of drugs use more often today changes?
Alexey Nadezhdin: From 1993 to 2001 in our country there was just storm growth of the use by teenagers of drugs - the number of addicts increased in tens of times. Then, in 2001 - 2003 - m, stabilization, then - even some recession, and now - again rise, however, any more not such intensive, as those years happened. On our polls the drugs made on the basis of hemp dominate today. On the second place - psychostimulators: tablets which are generally applied in discos and parties.
TO: Whether it is possible to cure the addict?
of AN: If we deal with the created dependence, then after the termination of the use of drugs the organism will not become such what it was before. So the speech not about full treatment, and about remission. But, if ask for the help at the very beginning of this way (when dependence did not develop yet), can quite there be a speech about recovery. Efficiency of treatment depends on disease severity, on a condition of heredity and many other factors. As for teenagers, on the one hand, the personality at this age is vulnerable therefore it is more difficult to work. And on the other hand, it is age of plasticity when it is easier to restore the lost functions. And, of course, a lot of things depend here on what is called “the social power of the environment“ in which there lives a teenager. How the people surrounding it treat it and what means have. Any narcological treatment and any actions against the use of drugs demand money. And considerable.
TO: Treatment in various centers costs from $500 to $10000. These programs are how effective?
of AN: I will not comment on any of the techniques offered in the market. But I can tell only one: mostly authors of these programs and those who realize them make obviously overestimated promises.
TO: And what really works what you can recommend to parents?
of AN: I am engaged in creation of the supporting networks much now for those who use drugs, I am the research supervisor of the www resource. narkonet. ru. On the Internet we create such places where both teenagers, and parents can get advice of experts. Of course, here will not appoint the medical program, but will support and will direct.
In general, my personal advice to parents: it is necessary attentive, not turning into paranoia, reasonable control of behavior of the child. To give it information in due time and in the right place. If every day at breakfast to speak to the child:“ If you use drugs, then you will die“, - you will not rescue from anything. But minutes of confidential contact influence can be effective.
TO: What do you think of the movement for marijuana legalization?
of AN: I treat badly. Ten years ago, when the legalization movement blossomed, in the English-speaking press there were almost no articles devoted to harmful effects of marijuana. And now more and more scientific information on impact of marijuana on informative abilities of the person appears - it very strongly stultifies. And the enthusiasm in the world was about it reduced.