Rus Articles Journal

On a visit at Archimedes (the scenario of birthday for the maturing children)

to the Daughter this year it was executed 10, and it is that age when any more pirates, searches of the card and treasure in a chest do not inspire. Therefore we decided to stop on an “adult“ subject - natural-science experiences and experiments. Archimedes was a key character, he also conducted us on the way of knowledge of secrets of world around.

Me was always admired by idea of a holiday of Tanya Lavrenova “Secret of brothers of Mongolfye“ so our scientific researches smoothly taxied on a problem of a separation from the earth by means of the balloon. I long and painfully thought how to connect Archimedes with aeronautics, did not find magic words in one encyclopedia yet:“ Carrying power of a balloon is created by the gas concluded in a cover (or heated air) with a density smaller, than air density (according to Archimedes`s law)“. And all got up on the places at once.

A as a form we used Tatyana`s idea from “Day of riddles and tests“ and her outstanding computer applet. So both Tatyanam many thanks for ideas and inspiration!

of All 10 children, from them 8 10 - a letok participated in a holiday, one - is slightly more senior also one - is one few years younger. This time we were at home (but not outdoors, as usual) since constantly used any equipment and experiences demanded “house“ conditions.

to Guests were distributed in advance by the stylized invitations with a courageous Archimedean profile on a cover.

We began with

a holiday with viewing of an animated cartoon “Kolya, Olya and Archimedes“ - such Soviet story about travel of pioneers to the Ancient world and comprehension in practice of the law of Archimedes. In our case it was introduction to a subject. By means of Movie Maker at the end I inserted credits: “Attention! Urgently insert paper into the printer! To you the letter from Archimedes“. The letter, certainly, was in advance sent to the press therefore as soon as paper was inserted, the printer printed out the message. I will not bring him completely, but the essence him was reduced to the fact that Archimedes from time immemorial addresses children and invites them to the world of physical laws. He will communicate with them by means of the computer for what they need to find the Archimedes file on a desktop and to start it (that applet of Tatyana P.) . And as the assistant he sends to them the pupil and doctor Grigorius`s friend (our father Grisha wrapped in a white sheet, the most real physicist).

Children fast found

the file and started an applet (naturally, with the changes which are previously made to it). The greeting sounded so:

“Today you are waited by experiments, tasks, experiences and tests. After each experience you will have to answer my question and to enter the answer into the computer. If it is faithful, then you will be able to receive the following task. You will enter codes in turn, there begins a birthday woman. But for a start I have to check your intelligence and erudition. You are ready? If yes, that press any key“.

Children press a key and receive the first task:

Find
  1. an envelope No. 1 (Where? We specify the secret place). Read statements and guess, the truth it or not. For each correct answer (“Yes“ or “No“) you learn one letter. Guess what country and its capital are hidden in the turned-out offer, and enter them capital Russian letters through a gap (at first the country, then the city).
the Envelope No. 1

B is mute

- the list of statements. The task is borrowed Tatyana P., there it is possible to look at questions and the correct answers.

I prepared for

For this test a special form. The required offer was written down on a big leaf by a pencil (tonenko that did not appear through). Each letter was closed by two leaves. On top number of a question, on the second (besides, tonenko) - the correct answer (“Yes“ or “No“) was written. That is, we read the statement, for example:“ Children can hear more high-pitched sounds, than adults“. Children discussed, the truth it or not, and issued the group decision. We lifted the first leaflet and watched what on it is written - “yes“ or “no“. If their answer was true, we lifted the second leaf under which there was a letter. If the answer is incorrect, but the letter remained closed.

In our case did not manage to open all letters (though it is necessary to notice that children from the first gave more correct answers, than I when for the first time read these questions), but they appeared enough to guess remained.

our offer was it:“ Franz and I concluded a bet, Jacques is the witness“ we found the country In it - France and the capital - Paris. These are “catches“ on the future (since history of aeronautics begins in France). We enter code words into the computer, we pass to the following task.

  1. Good fellows, you perfectly coped! Now find an envelope No. 2 (we specify the place where to look for). There you will find the description of several physical experiences. All necessary - on a table. Attentively read descriptions of experiences and only then carry out them. Do not forget to invite doctor Grigorius - he will be your faithful assistant. Discuss how it turns out thanks to what? Enter this word, it is a code.

Despite simplicity of all offered experiences, I would advise at first to try to carry out them as in all there are some nuances.

Before each description, and only then to start its performance.

All necessary equipment is collected by

on a small little table. From there children take that it is necessary for them for carrying out this experience.

Envelope No. 2

Experience 1.

to

the Equipment - a glass, a bottle with water, dense paper, a basin

Take a glass, a bottle with water and a leaf of dense paper.

Pour in a glass water to the edge. Cover a glass with a leaf of dense paper and, holding paper with a palm, quickly turn a glass up a bottom. Now take away a palm. Whether water from a glass will pour out?

needs to Make experiment over a basin.

If water is poured by

up to the top, paper rather dense and is pressed properly, then water does not pour out, and the leaf is as if pasted to edge of a glass.

Experience 2.

the Equipment - a bowl, the tinted water, a stopper, a glass

Take

a tall glass and a bowl. In a bowl pour the tinted water (that water level was about 5 - 6 cm), put in it a stopper and put directly on a stopper the glass turned upside down. Whether there was under a glass the same water level, how in a plate?

This experience is called “a diving bell“. If a glass rather high, and water is poured very little, then under a glass of water does not remain at all, the stopper lies at the bottom of a bowl. And out of a glass level increases a little. It is possible to tint water a little (for example, potassium permanganate) that experience looked more effective. But it is possible to use also usual transparent water.

Experience 3.

the Equipment - a plate, water, a candle, a lighter

In a plate pour a little water (it is possible tinted). Accurately put in a plate a candle (“tea“, in a metal mold), light it. Cover a candle with a glass so that it concerned a plate bottom. What will happen to water?

When the candle will go out, water will be soaked up in a glass. That experience looked more effective, better to pour very few water. Then it all will be soaked up in a glass, and the plate out of a glass will be dry. If to take not a plate, but a small saucer, then it in general “will be pasted“ to a glass, and the glass can be raised together with a saucer.

Experience 4.

the Equipment - a transparent bottle with water, a stopper, a pipette

Fill a bottle with water, having left two - three millimeters to edge of a neck. Take a pipette, gather in it a little water and lower in a bottle neck. It has to be up the top rubber end to standard or slightly higher than water level in a bottle. At the same time it is necessary to achieve that from a little push a finger the pipette plunged, and then itself slowly emerged. Now close a stopper and squeeze bottle sides, take a little. What will happen to a pipette?

At compression of a bottle the pipette will fall by a bottom. For this experience it is very important to check how many water it is gathered in a pipette. If it is not enough, it will be required to squeeze very strongly a bottle, children`s forces will not be enough for it. If it is more water in a pipette, the bottle is enough to be squeezed absolutely slightly - slightly, and experience looks much more effectively.

we discuss

After all experiences what action of physical force they to us illustrated. It is necessary to notice that children appeared rather “advanced“ and almost did not need the help of doctor Grigorius.

by

It is entered into the computer the code word - pressure. We receive the following task

  1. Find an envelope No. 3 (place). Make experiments. Thanks to what force it turns out? Enter a code.

Envelope No. 3

Experience 1.

the Equipment - a plate, water, a paper strip, scissors, liquid for washing of ware

Pour

in a plate of clear water. Take scissors and, holding a narrow strip of paper over a plate, cut off from it small small squares, trying to do it so that the pieces falling in water settled down on water a ring on the middle of a plate and did not touch to each other, edges of a plate.

Take

soap (or liquid for washing of ware) and drip one drop in the center of a plate. What will happen to pieces of paper?

They will promptly scatter to edges of a plate.

Experience 2.

the Equipment - a plate, water, an edge, a needle, buttons whether the magnet

Can float metal on water? Very carefully take a razor edge (it is very sharp!) also put it on a water surface. What has happened? Try to weight an edge, having carefully put on it a needle and 1 - 2 buttons. Try to put a needle on water. What will turn out if previously to magnetize it?

If an edge to put

on water accurately, it will not drown, and will float on a water surface. At its weighting (a needle and buttons) it is possible to see how it is a little pressed into water, but all the same does not sink. If previously to magnetize a needle, the compass will turn out. It is also possible to try to drive an edge or a needle on water a magnet.

Experience 3.

the Equipment - a glass, sunflower oil, spirit mix, a pipette, a pan

Pour

in a glass of sunflower oil. Pour in a pan of a little spirit solution. Take a pipette and it is accurate, on a droplet, you enter solution into oil. What happens to it? What form is taken by liquid? Why? Continue to add solution so far... Will not occur yet what?

took

Ya usual vodka, the content of alcohol appeared sufficient. It is possible to take medical alcohol and to part with water.

Spirit solution gathers in a beautiful sphere which hangs at a surface. When it becomes rather heavy, it beautifully and smoothly falls by a bottom. For this experience it is better to take not a glass, but a high glass on a leg. So will observe from below easier to see a sphere.

we Discuss

how all this turns out - pieces of paper run up, the edge floats, alcohol gathers in a sphere. The key phenomenon - a superficial tension. We enter the word a tension, we move to the following level.

It seems to
  1. , my friends, you were tired a little. You need to be supported and have a rest a little. Eat an entertainment and write whether it was pleasant to you.
we Do to

having a snack (sandwiches, juice), we write “yes“, we move to the following level.

Find
  1. an envelope No. 4 (place). Make experiments. What action of force is illustrated by these experiences? Enter a code.

Envelope No. 4

Experience 1.

the Equipment - 2 eggs (boiled and crude), a plate

Untwist both eggs on a big plate. You see that eggs behave differently. How to understand what of them boiled?

Boiled egg turns, and crude - no.

Experience 2.

the Equipment - a glass, a card, a coin

Take

a glass. On it put a card, and on a card - a coin. Sharply click on a card. What will happen to a coin? (It will fall directly in a glass), That will be if slowly to pull a card? (The coin will move together with a card)

Is discussed, we enter the word “friction“, we move to the following level.

Find
  1. an envelope No. 5 (place). Make experiments. What changes in water what its characteristic? Enter a code.

Envelope No. 5

Experience 1.

the Equipment - three banks, spirit solution, salt, water, egg, ice

Take

three capacities. Pour in one spirit solution (there was not enough fortress of vodka, a little bigger is necessary. It is possible to use not alcohol, but the cheapest cologne); in the second - water; in the third - salt solution. Put in the first capacity (with spirit solution) egg and a piece of ice. Shift them in the second capacity (with hydrochloric solution), and then in the third (with clear water). What happens to them? How to explain it?

In alcohol both ice, and egg sink, in salt both float, in water egg sinks, and ice does not.

Experience 2.

to

the Equipment - a wax ball with weighting, a glass, salt, water, a transparent bottle with water

Take a wax ball. Put it in the container with water (capacity has to be filled somewhere half). The ball is a little weighted (it of the size of large grape, inside at it is 2 - 3 paper clips) therefore it sinks. Prepare salt solution (dissolve salt in a glass of water until it ceases to be dissolved). Add to water gradually saturated solution of salt and slightly mix. What happens to a ball?

It emerges. Regulating an amount of water and hydrochloric solution, it is possible to achieve that the ball will hang in the middle of capacity.

we Discuss experiences, we enter the word “density“. We receive the last task:

  1. you Remember the basic law which I opened and proved? The body shipped in liquid or gas is affected by the pushing-out force! Many centuries people tried to use this force to come off the earth and to rise in the sky. How the first aircraft on which the person rose in air was called? Enter the name capital letters.

we Enter the word “balloon“ (I consciously did not take “balloon“ since it, in - the first, too simply, in - the second, is not absolutely correct from the scientific point of view) and we receive the farewell message from Archimedes:

“Really, the balloon (or the balloon as we got used to call it) achieved dream of the person to come off the earth. I was not fated to see it with own eyes, but I precisely know that it happened. Find the Balloon file on a computer desktop and listen to history of aeronautics and the first flights of the person. And at the same time remember about France! Who knows, maybe, you will even manage to construct the balloon!

A I, Archimedes, say goodbye to you. I send you hi from the remote past, I wish new most interesting opening and all the best!“

about balloons I found

a tremendous resource in which history of aeronautics is stated laconically In information searches, but is very substantial, the text easy for perception and is followed by incredibly beautiful pictures. It is the website of the Kiev aeronautic society. Surely thumb through all 9 pages!

Based on this article I prepared the small presentation in Power Point. The text was at least there (generally pictures), I tried to tell itself and on the course to give to children any tasks that did not start missing. For example, when we reached the first passengers of a montgolfier, 3 volunteers had to represent them a pantomime (without sounds!), and the others - to guess who (a ram, a rooster and a duck). And so on.

After the presentation we undertook construction of own balloons (once again thanks to Tanya Lavrenova for idea!) . But for a start it was necessary to make passengers. We did rope little men. They match rather just from two strings, one is slightly shorter (this basis - the head and legs), the second - are slightly longer (these are hands and a body). And it was possible to draw and cut out, for example, the portrait or to stick together passengers from plasticine.

Then we were engaged in baskets. Small baskets (probably, a cache-pot, about 12 cm in the diameter) I bought in advance (absolutely cheap, 15 rub) we tied strong strings of identical length to them.

to me managed to find

really huge balloons (about a meter in diameter) which we inflated with helium (in advance bought a cylinder that in Moscow - not a problem).

Previously children were paired by

off, and each couple did one balloon. It was connected not only with limited amount of gas (it just would not be enough for 10 such spheres), but also with what alone to cope was difficult.

To spheres an adhesive tape were attached by the threads attached to baskets.

Attention! The adhesive tape cannot be unstuck at all from a sphere since it can burst. We so lost one balloon!

In baskets we put the passengers, and also put notes in which on one party the wish was written to the birthday woman (it was sounded by authors), and on the second - own treasured desire (remained in a secret). Then we amicably went outside also into the account “time - two - three!“ started the balloons. And long monitored their flight in clouds - the benefit, weather was clear. , of course, it a little grieved p to release

the works of art, but helium from spheres all the same would disappear per day, and our beautiful spheres which are torn in the sky would turn into the rumpled rags. And so all of us - both children, and adults, and passersby - received the mass of bright impressions!

A of the house us was waited by an entertainment - pizza and birthday cake.

By the way, children did pizza. Thereby we solved a frequent problem - when one guests come earlier, and others are late. Until the holiday began yet, we invited all comers to join production of pizza. Children with delight kneaded and told the dough (made, of course, in advance), put a stuffing on the taste (sausage, tomatoes, mushrooms and any other delicacies were in advance small cut and spread out on plateaus) and generously strewed with cheese.

I Wish all excellent holidays!