Rus Articles Journal

Winter-hardy plum

in the middle of the 17th century from Western Europe in an imperial garden situated near Moscow in the village Izmailovo “garden overseas trees and vegetables“, including several saplings of large plum were delivered. Trees got accustomed and gradually extended on the regions of Russia, favorable for them. There passed years, and plum became an integral part of garden landscapes of Moscow area.

However, the culture turned out insufficiently winter-hardy, low-yield and differed in poor quality of fruits. At the end of the 19th century selection work with plum there began I. V. Michurin. In the XX century it was continued by other selectors among whom the Dr.Sci.Biol., professor H. K. Enikeev and the agronomist is S. N. Satarov`s pomologist. Within 40 years they were engaged in selection of house plum, using interhigh-quality and trans-species hybridization, and created the grades differing in good recovery ability after severe winters with rather qualitative fruits and regular fructification. It is known that the regularity of fructification of plum is defined by degree of a samoplodnost of this or that grade. Quite often high-self-fertile grades (Morning, Early yellow, Egg blue, Timiryazev`s Memory and Blue gift) well fructify even in years with extreme weather conditions during blossoming.

the Most successful crossing in trans-species hybridization. This grade surpasses all available grades of plum in winter hardiness house. It served the selector Crimean is skilled - selection station of G. V. To Eremin a maternal plant for trans-species hybridization with the best grades of a cherry plum as a result of which grades of the Russian plum - a hybrid cherry plum were received. For rather short term the cherry plum was recognized not only in the south, in Krasnodar Krai, but also in a midland of Russia.

Enikeev and Satarova`s Other, not less valuable achievement, - the grade of plum of Yakhontovaya received from crossing of a trans-species grade Eurasia 21 with Smolink`s grade (it is selected by the selector I. V. Popova - of the Editor`s note ). Plum of a grade of Yakhontovaya differs in high winter hardiness of floral kidneys (during supervision to 2005 it well postponed returnable frosts of 28 - 33 ° C in the middle and the end of winter from 1991), big productivity and quality of fruits. The grade is skoroplodny, enters fructification for the third year after landing, fructifies regularly on a one-year gain, buketny branches and shporets. Average productivity in four years made 48 kg from a tree. Fruits are large, weighing 30 - 35 g, it is bright - yellow, as if washed by a freckled flush and slightly strewn lightly with a wax raid. Taste sourishly - sweet. The stone of the average size, well lags behind pulp. The best pollinators of a grade - Skorospelk`s plum red, the Hungarian Moscow, Timiryazev`s Memory. Unlike many other plums the grade of Yakhontovaya is steady against a drought and against the most harmful mushroom diseases - gray fruit decay and a klasterosporioz (perforated spottiness) and is unreceptive to various viral diseases. The tree which is quickly growing and high (5 - 5,5 m), with spherical, compact krone. But its height can be reduced considerably a grade inoculation on a dwarfish stock: VVA - 1, felt cherry, 2 - 17, Alexy (a grade of house plum). Plum of Yakhontovaya well breeds an okulirovka and an inoculation, it is patented and recommended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia.

of the Recommendation about landing and leaving

the Best time for plum landing - early spring. On well lit high place (level of ground waters has to be not higher than 1,5 m to a soil surface) dig out a hole 80 - 90 cm wide and 50 - 60 cm in depth. Establish in it a sapling and fill up roots with mix of the cespitose earth with organic and mineral fertilizers (15 kg of the rerotting manure or compost, 1 kg of simple or 0,5 kg of double superphosphate, 0,1 kg of chloride potassium or 1 kg of wood ashes). When filling the sapling is slightly stirred up, and the earth is carefully condensed. The root neck after landing has to be 3 - 5 cm above than the level of the soil. Around a sapling do a hole and water (1 - 2 buckets of water). For moisture preservation the soil is mulched peat or humus. The sapling is tied up from North side to a stake. In the next years in the spring under a tree bring urea - 20 g on 1 quarter. m, and at the introduction of plum annually on each square meter of a pristvolny circle add to fructification 10 - 15 kg of the rerotting manure or compost, 25 g of urea, 60 g of simple or 30 g of double superphosphate, 20 g of chloride potassium or 200 g of wood ashes. Urea, nitrogen fertilizers are used in the spring, by phosphoric and potash fertilizers - in the fall. During the whole season, especially before maturing of fruits, the soil in a garden is supported in moderately damp state and periodically loosened. Depending on acidity of the soil once in six years bring extinguished lime: 400 - 800 g on 1 sq.m

Form plum in the form of a tree with shtamby 25 - 40 cm high and krone of 5 - 7 branches which are successfully placed on a trunk. Shortening of these branches in the first years is applied to their taxonomy, the prevention of formation of forks, by changes of the direction of growth. Through three - four years when plum enters full fructification, over the first top well developed lateral branch delete the conductor to create krone in the form of a bowl or a glass. Such krone is well illuminated by the sun. If necessary carry out the sanitary and thinning-out cutting of trees. Delete “on a ring“ (without leaving penk) the dried, frozen slightly branches, and also young growths and branches which are growing in krone, interfering with each other and forming sharp (less than 40 degrees) of a fork. At a scrap of the branches growing in krone it is not necessary to delete the small acquiring branches (to 30 cm). If a gain weak (less than 25 - 30 cm a year), carry out the shortening cutting, or stamping: cut off the main branches departing from a trunk over the next strong lateral branch.

to plum are most dangerous by

From diseases monilioz (gray fruit decay) and klasterosporioz, from wreckers - a plum plant louse, a black plum pililshchik, a plum fir seed moth. To reduce risk of damage by wreckers, before blooming of kidneys dig over the soil under crowns, cut out and burn the damaged branches. Before blossoming on a green cone, and also after blossoming and before harvesting trees spray the preparations Biot`s Spark, Inta - vir (on 1 tablet on 10 l of water) go fufanony (10 g on 10 l of water). At defeat moniliozy and klasterosporiozy cut out escapes with the unblown “burned“ flowers. During a leaf fall trees spray 1% bordeaux liquid. Cut out the struck escapes, burn the damaged leaves. Collect and destroy the rotten and mummified fruits.