Vitamins: to drink or not to drink? That vitamins are vital we learned
at school. Their absence in food causes avitaminosis - rather serious pathology with bright characteristic manifestations. From the same school course we learned that vitamins can be also a prophylactic of a number of diseases.
But whether it is worth doing of them panacea? Also today`s hobby for vitamin complexes is how proved?Put
the last days
pleasantly to realize that the key researches which led to understanding of a role of vitamins were executed by domestic scientists. In 1880 N. I. Lunin during experimental works established that in food there are unknown at that time of the substance extremely necessary for life. When laboratory mice were fed with whole milk, they well grew and were not ill. But if as food they were given mix from the main components of milk - casein, fat, lactose, salt and water - began to be ill and quickly enough died.
the term “vitamins“ (vita - life, lat.) appeared only in 1912. Long time these biologically active agents remained only in medical maintaining, however with 60 - x years of the last century the real vitamin revolution began.Today we are surrounded with
the mass of the most various vitamin preparations, and they can be registered both as medicines, and as dietary supplements - dietary supplements (dietary supplements on the American and European terminology).
the Size matters
the Pharmaceutical companies and producers of dietary supplements had to order to Zurab Tsereteli a monument to Laynus Polingu for a long time. From pure gold. Of the size of a monument to Peter I. Because the winner of two Nobel Prizes, the ingenious chemist and the scientist - the Encyclopaedist opened for them a pot of gold.
“The corresponding amount of vitamin C prevents emergence of cold“, - declared Poling. At the same time “corresponding“ he considered the dose in hundreds, and even thousands of times surpassing the recommended daily. So vitamins escaped from hands of doctors and directed closer to consumers - in supermarkets, nonprescription departments of drugstores and other readily available places.
But the ingenious scientist was mistaken, he constructed all the theory on initially wrong postulate. The most interesting that found out it at Institute... Laynus Polinga who was created especially for development of ideas of the Nobel laureate. There under the leadership of the director of institute, professor Baals Frei data on hundreds of researches on thousands of volunteers were collected worldwide. The conclusion to which scientists came shocked them. Really, hyper doses of ascorbic acid approximately reduce duration of cold by 20% and soften its symptoms a little. But only in case you already got sick. And preventive effect of them any.
absence of preventive effect is confirmed also by the kokranovsky review (which is to Kokranovsky library and it is executed according to all requirements of evidential medicine) doctor R. M. Douglas and coauthors (11 350 patients are included), the added last time in May, 2007. By the way, data on therapeutic effect of vitamin C at these authors differ from results of institute of Polinga. In the kokranovsky review it is emphasized that not only the preventive, but also therapeutic effect of an askorbinka in comparison with placebo is noted.
So vitamin C is not a guarantee for cold though you eat it with kilograms. However, kilograms all the same will not turn out - it is established that long reception of high doses of ascorbic acid can lead to concern, sleeplessness, unmotivated feeling of heat, insulin synthesis oppression, an adverse effect on kidneys and increase of arterial pressure.
I the small note about Polinge. Some, so to say, unfair sellers of the polyvitaminic complexes (which are especially registered as dietary supplements) “press the authority“, claiming that Laynus Poling got the Nobel Prize for discovery of effect of high doses of vitamin C. It`s not true. Absolutely not so. In chemistry the scientist got a Nobel Prize in 1954 “For studying of the nature of a chemical bond and its application to an explanation of a structure of difficult molecules“. And its second Nobel Prize (1963) was a world Award. And here Poling was fond of ascorbic acid in the doses considerably exceeding recommended only at the end of 1960 - x.
More - does not mean better
Unfortunately, Polinga had hundreds of followers who developed his theory and extended it not only to an askorbinka, but also to all vitamins in general. Especially it concerns “neighbors“ of an askorbinka in extremely fashionable group of antioxidants - the substances protecting cages from the damaging influence of free radicals. Antioxidants and it is free - the radical theory of aging gave a new impetus died away was to race of vitamin arms. There is a wish to be young and healthy as long as possible.
the Speech about vitamins A and E. Both of these vitamins of a rastvorima in fats, and, so can collect in an organism and influence a condition of its bodies and systems. And it is not always favorable. The proof to that is rather juicy scandal with clinical tests a beta - carotene, the predecessor of vitamin A.
the American researchers studied influence of vitamin supplements with a beta - carotene on oncological risks at smokers. In particular, it was supposed that lung cancer at the people protected a beta - carotene, will develop much less often.
After eight years of supervision over 15 thousand smokers accepting a beta - carotene, research had to be stopped. Results threw scientists in shock: in experimental group the frequency of cancer not only did not decrease, it increased for the whole 18%!by
In one and a half years stopped other similar research which recorded 28 - percentage jump of new growths in lungs. Still nobody could explain why so occurred. But one is obvious - are vitaminno contraindicated to smokers - mineral complexes with a beta - carotene. And others should beware if the dose of this substance in a preparation exceeds the recommended daily.
However, there is more to come vitamin A misadventures. The Swedish scientists became interested in too big frequency of osteoporosis among the population of the country. Having studied clinical records more than 66 thousand women aged are more senior than forty years, researchers came to a conclusion that the reason is covered in a diet. More precisely, in high content of vitamin A in traditionally Scandinavian food - fat grades of fish (a herring, a salmon), cod liver, and also in milk (Sweden in addition enriches skim milk with vitamin A). And at the same time Swedes still are fond also of reception of vitamin preparations.
Only 1,5 milligrams of vitamin A a day, according to the obtained data, reduced density of a bone tissue by 10% and increased risk of a change twice. And it only double excess of the recommended daily dose. Later results of this research were confirmed also by the American scientists. Besides, it became clear that at excess receipt in an organism of Retinolum the need for vitamins C and For 1 increases , symptoms of deficiency of vitamin D amplify, and sometimes there is also a specific damage of a liver.
Separately should mention vitamin A at pregnancy. The fruit has data on teratogenny action (that is formation of congenital defects) its hyper doses. It does not mean that it is not necessary to accept the vitamins appointed to future mother by the doctor. And from the food rich with vitamin A, it is not necessary to refuse too. It is only not necessary to be engaged in self-diagnostics and self-treatment and on own initiative to accept some additional preparations containing this vitamin. Once again we will remind - it treats fat-soluble and possesses ability to collect in an organism (generally in a liver). Experts still cannot precisely answer - what dose of vitamin A (above recommended) can be considered as safe.the Situation with vitamin E is better than
for the little. It is known that abuse of this substance can lead to increase of arterial pressure.
So antioxidants - a thing, of course, fashionable, but at unlimited and uncontrolled use not only useless, but also, at confluence of a number of circumstances, dangerous.
generally, as well as any powerful biochemical substance, vitamins can be not only medicine, but also poison. A difference as it usually also happens in medicine, only in a dosage.
Is or not?
One of the main arguments of supporters of continuous reception of a large amount of vitamins - a devitaminization of modern food. Even if the person eats is balanced and is physically active, he lacks vitamins all the same. It is connected with what, really, fresh products in our diet becomes less and less, prevail frozen, preserved, concentrated and processed in other ways. It becomes, in - the first, for increase in period of storage, and in - the second, for reduction of time for preparation.
One more argument of “kruglogodichnik“: on average, nine months in a year Europeans eat the vegetables which are grown up in greenhouses or after long storage. Such products have much lower level of content of vitamins in comparison with vegetables from an open ground.by
Besides, after three days of storage of products in the refrigerator loses about 30% of vitamin C. At the room temperature this indicator makes about 50%. And if to put the cleaned potatoes in water, then the askorbinka will leave it in several hours. If to speak about heat treatment of products, then in this case it is lost from 25% to 90 - 100% of the remained vitamins. And on light vitamins collapse.by
Besides, energy expenditure of the modern person was considerably reduced, and the need for vitamins developed by millions of years of evolution remained former.by
From all above draws a conclusion about need of continuous reception vitaminno - the mineral complexes containing impressive doses of active agents.All this
, of course, true, but only partly. Yes, it is valid if to eat one fast - foot, to earn gipovitaminoz not so difficult. And, really, it is necessary to fill a vitamin deficiency medicamentally. There are seasonal fluctuations of content of vitamins B vegetables and fruit - it is the truth too.But without grounds should not be approved by
about absence in food of vitamins. It is possible to store products in the refrigerator not three days, but one. Or to bring from the market fresh greens - cucumbers - tomatoes and at once to make salad.
Besides needs to consider additional vitaminization of food. It concerns, first of all, the enriched juice, cereal flakes and the most various dairy products. For the sake of scientific interest the author studied packing of the first comer under a hand of fruit juice. If to trust information on a label, the liter of this drink covers 70% of daily need for vitamins E, In 1 and In 6 and 60% of daily need for vitamin C.to Drink or not to drink
?Most of researchers are inclined to consider
that all - vitamins should be accepted. Even if you have no reasons on it except “I so want“. But in vitaminization, as well as in other good causes it is the best of all to do without fanaticism and to consider some moments.Year-round reception of vitamins is necessary to
- only in case of the proved gipovitaminoz on this or that micronutrient at this specific person. Usually rather preventive courses, say, quarterly within 3 - 4 weeks.
- should not exceed the recommended daily doses, especially on fat-soluble vitamins. Therefore carefully study structure chosen vitaminno - a mineral complex, especially a column of “% of the recommended daily dose“. If there figures from 150 are found and above - postpone such preparation, it has to be applied in therapeutic, but not in the preventive purposes in any way. However, in the USA, on attestations of eyewitnesses, on free sale there are banks on 500 capsules of vitamin E which each capsule contains 1113% of a daily dose.
- Before accepting vitamins, it is desirable to consult with the dietitian. It will help to define what substances are necessary to your organism and in what look they need to be entered into a diet.
However, for clarification of a vitamin situation the doctor will be guided more by clinical manifestations, and they are brightly expressed only at avitaminosis. It is almost impossible to suspect gipovitaminoz on symptoms. Blood tests can give the most exact answer, but specialized analyses in Russia are meanwhile available only in single clinical laboratories and were not widely adopted yet.
of Chemistry and life to Synthetic analogs of vitamins is required to correspond toKeep in mind
precisely not only a chemical formula, but also spatial structure.
Natural food contain the necessary isomer, and here by chemical production ill-matched mix which needs to be cleared and emitted only the “correct“ vitamins initially turns out. For this purpose the technological and expensive equipment is required. Unfortunately, not on all domestic (and not on all foreign) the enterprises it is.
If all requirements are observed and coincides not only chemical, but also spatial structure, then is deeply indifferent for an organism from where to receive vitamins.
that on gipovitaminoz often write off chronic fatigue, drowsiness, apathy - though they are characteristic of a number of diseases. And a doctor`s advice “drink vitaminka“ can be only a polite form of expression “go from here, you have no pathology, you already from ears to heels were examined, these hypochondriacs got, my forces are absent any more“.
- can practically conduct a Spring preventive course all (behind very rare exception). Sometimes carry people with “an allergy to vitamins“ to these rare exceptions. And so, in the majority a case allergic reaction arises not on an active component at all, and on all fragrances, dyes, preservatives and other improvers of appearance, taste and period of storage. Such people can recommend just to replace a preparation.
? The choice now huge, pharmaceutical racks dazzle with tens of multi-colored and various boxes. It is desirable to use production of the large and well proved pharmaceutical companies.here what should not be done to
A, so it to use vitaminno - the mineral complexes registered as dietary supplements. In - the first, dietary supplements are not checked for compliance to the declared compoundings - both qualitative, and quantitative. The main thing for regulators - that in an additive was not poisons, drugs and other toxic substances.
In - the second, in most cases about any balance of structure it is not necessary to speak. And, the most unpleasant that nobody will bear any responsibility for it - you bought not medicine, and dietary supplement to food. About what, by the way, it has to be written on a box. Twist packing in a drugstore, look whether this information is not small letters on the preparation chosen by you. You doubt - ask the druggist behind a counter.
Well, also do not forget that vitamins are found in normal food too. And vegetables - fruit - milk - meat - not the worst of possible sources of nutrients, necessary for our organism.