The magnificent hydrangea of
From trees and bushes at the end of summer almost blossoms nothing unless a hydrangea. Gentle inflorescences of this fine plant decorate gardens to the late fall.history has some
a plant, Popular with gardeners of the whole world, received the name efforts of participants of the first French round-the-world expedition which was directed by Louis - Antoine de Bouguenvill: the French doctor and the naturalist Philibert Commerson and future Russian admiral of Nassau - Siegen.with
the Prince of the Sacred Roman Empire Karl - Heinrich Nassau - Siegen (1745 - 1808) in 20 years voluntarily went to accompany Bouguenvill on his round-the-world travel. Later got acquainted with the lightest prince Tavrichesky, the general - the field marshal G. A. Potemkin also was invited to the Russian service. Ordering a rowing flotilla in the Black Sea in a rank counter - the admiral, repeatedly broke the Turkish fleet. Took the most active part in war against Swedes in 1789 and 1790. Being in the head of fleet, won several victories over Swedes, but at the end of June, 1790 got beaten at Svenskzunda and the ambassador of a number of military failures, in 1794, resigned. Lodged near the Ukrainian city of Nemirov where died.
Long before this sad event, on November 7, 1768, Bouguenvill`s expedition arrived to the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. The crew descended for long rest on the coast. Commerson, having lodged in the magnificent estate of the managing director of Puavr`s island, spent a lot of time in the company of the military engineer Jeanne - Henri Bernardera Saint`s de - Pierre who was fond not only botany, but also madam Puavr. This beautiful young woman always wore airy dresses and loved flowers, both and in other case giving preference in that to white, pink and blue color. Once the engineer led the Parisian scientist in that part of park where the unknown bush covered in the flowers of which it did bouquets for the beloved grew. The plant which is recently brought from China during blossoming became covered by pink or blue inflorescences - spheres. Commerson understood at once that before him the unknown bush in Europe, and decided that he should name the engineer`s beloved. But that day Nassau - Siegen took part in their walk. The young prince with enthusiasm told about the sister beauty Gortenzii and showed her tiny portrait. Commerson quickly thought that he has an opportunity to cause a stir, and this Chinese flower by the name of the far princess right there suggested to call. So on a twist of fate the flower instead of being called “puavriya“, became “hydrangea“.
It is already later the European botanists - systematization renamed a plant, having named it Hydrangea macrophylla (Gidrangiya large-leaved) and having made the patrimonial name from the Greek words hydor - water and angeion - a vessel, having emphasized with it that the plant belongs to hygrophilous. But gardeners of the whole world still call by his name of the princess Gortenzii, sometimes adding an epithet “French“ to memory of the fact that the Western world learned about this plant thanks to the first French round-the-world expedition.the Most reliable hydrangeas
the Majority of types of a hydrangea are so thermophilic
that can grow only in the south. Only several species of this plant are suitable for gardens of a midland of Russia, they can be recommended for cultivation in an open ground. the hydrangea treelike (Hydrangea arborescens) coming from east regions of North America is famous for
for good winter hardiness. It can freeze slightly only in severe winters, but the plant is quickly restored, especially if to help it timely cutting and top dressing. The hydrangea treelike quickly grows and reaches 1,5 - 2 m. A bush upright, with roundish krone, large leaves (length of 15 cm) and sterile white or it is white - the cream flowers collected in semi-spherical inflorescences - guards with a diameter up to 25 cm. The hydrangea treelike from the second half of July prior to the beginning of fall blossoms. The quantity and the sizes of inflorescences depend on skillful cutting. In the fall coloring of leaves does not change.the Hydrangea treelike is better for
than other hydrangeas transfers availability of lime in the soil, but, as well as other types, is exacting to fertility and humidity of the soil.grades of a hydrangea treelike Grandiflora (Grandiflora) with large purely are Especially beautiful
- are white mi semi-spherical inflorescences and Sterilis (Sterilis) whose sprawling escapes with massive caps of the inflorescences consisting only of fruitless flowers bend to the earth.well grows at
In a midland of Russia and the hydrangea differs in special winter hardiness panicled (H. paniculata). Its homeland - Japan and China, there it reaches the huge sizes - ten-meter height. This plant in a wild look and in Russia - on Sakhalin and the Southern Kuril Islands, near the rivers, on edges and well lit slopes meets. At cultivation in a temperate climate the hydrangea panicled forms dense roundish krone up to 2 m high. Leaves oblong (up to 12 cm long), velvety to the touch, serovato - green color. In July - August on young escapes of the current year there are large pyramidal brushes - whisks up to 20 cm long and with a diameter of 15 cm, covered fruitless is white - cream flowers alternately with greenish plodushny. Fragrant inflorescences attract the mass of bees. Over time regional it is white - cream flowers turn pink or become zelenovato - red; at the end of September fruits - boxes ripen.
From all hydrangeas this look the steadiest against a gas contamination of air and marshiness of the soil, but is exacting to moisture and prefers a penumbra.the grade of a hydrangea panicled Floribunda (Floribunda) with pyramidal white inflorescences from large sterile flowers on long pedicels is Most decorative
.the hydrangea pochvopokrovny (H. heteromalla) coming from the mountain woods of Northern China is Not less attractive by
. The winter-hardy grade of Bretshneyder (Bretschneideri) which in Russia is considered as a look is especially steady and call Bretshneyder`s hydrangea. Bush height - more than 2 - 3 m. Escapes sprawling are also rather decorative even in winter time thanks to the is reddish - brown coloring and the bark exfoliating thin strips. Leaves darkly - green, up to 12 cm long, oval, pointed at a top, gear; are dismissed late - in the middle of May. At the end of June on the ends of escapes there are white umbrella-shaped inflorescences consisting of the small fructifying white flowers at the edges of which large sterile flowers are located. Through two - three weeks these flowers turn pink, and become crimson later. In very severe winters the ends of escapes can freeze slightly slightly that does not affect development of all bush.the Hydrangea pochvopokrovny is rather unpretentious
and, unlike other types, possesses high drought resistance.
It is from China also other unusual bush - Sarzhent`s (H. sargentiana) hydrangea. Unlike the previous types, this plant is less winter-hardy, its elevated part annually is frosted over, but during the season new escapes up to one meter high grow. Young escapes of a hydrangea of Sarzhent - it is dark - red; growing up, they become cut, rigidly trimmed. The dismissed leaves - pink color, adults - it is dark - green, an oval form, with the pointed top. In July from thick shchetinisty buds large inflorescences - guards with a diameter up to 15 cm appear. In the center of an inflorescence small violet flowers, on edge - large white settle down. In October, in warm fall, seeds in fruits - boxes ripen.
Put Sarzhent`s hydrangea on open places with the humidified soil. For the winter cover with fir twigs.the hydrangea Is original
petiolar (H. petiolaris). By means of air backs - suckers the plant is capable to cling to support and from a low creeping bush turns into a liana. With it it is helped also by scapes of leaves on which the liana also leans, rising up to the height of 2,5 - 3 m
In a midland the hydrangea petiolar is not really winter-hardy; at young bushes tips of escapes therefore they need shelter for the winter can freeze slightly. On open places the plant blossoms in July the large white flowers collected in horizontal guards.
the Hydrangea petiolar loves the sun and heat in combination with the trained fertile soils and does not take out remoistening at all.
I, at last, the most known hydrangea - a hydrangea large-leaved (H. macrophylla), it often call a hydrangea garden. In the homeland - in China and Japan - this beautiful bush with gear it is bright - green brilliant leaves on upright escapes can reach 4 m; at cultivation in less favorable conditions its height is much lower.
in the territory of Russia a hydrangea large-leaved can be grown up as a houseplant or to use as container culture which contains in the open air only in summertime of year.to
Knows more than 100 various grades of a hydrangea of various form, large-leaved with large caps of inflorescences, and coloring, the having 25 cm in the diameter.How to look after hydrangeas
All hydrangeas are photophilous
and prefer the open lit places, but do not love a bright sun. There can be they and in the conditions of an easy penumbra, however the it is less than light, the later there comes blossoming and the less inflorescences, are more modest than them the size. As escapes at a hydrangea fragile, and inflorescences very heavy, plant plants to the place protected from wind. The soil is more preferable poorly - or srednekisly (rn 5,5); one of structures: sheet, cespitose earth, peat and sand in the ratio 1:1:1:1. On the alkaline soil the hydrangea suffers hlorozy (leaves begin to turn yellow) that it is easy to correct, watering a bush once in 10 days with solution of the salts containing iron.
the Most suitable time for landing of a hydrangea - early spring. For two - three weeks before landing prepare a hole 50 - 70 cm wide, 40 - 50 cm in depth with friable fertile soil in mix with peat of average acidity. Further every spring bring gradually humus and peat. The root neck after landing has to be at the level of the soil. Just planted bush is plentifully watered, and the pristvolny circle is mulched peat. >
It is useful for p to water a hydrangea with weak solution of margantsovokisly potassium once a month that strengthens fabrics of plants. She loves and having watered with dung water. From fertilizers it is possible to use in the spring and in the first half of summer only physiologically sour fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate), and at the end of summer and in the fall - fosforno - potash fertilizers (superphosphate). Under an adult bush pour out two - three buckets of nutritious solution.
the Hydrangea badly transfers a drought, but also excess of moisture is harmful. In other words, constant humidity of the soil is necessary for this plant for good development.bushes of a hydrangea do not form
Till 3 - 4 years, then in the spring they annually cut off. At a hydrangea panicled and treelike flower kidneys are formed on escapes of the current year, and the largest are in the middle and lower part of a bush. In the spring escapes shorten on two thirds, leaving three - five pairs of kidneys. At the same time the old, weak and growing inside kroner delete “on a ring“ branches.
the Hydrangea panicled can be created also in the form of a tree on a low shtamb. For this purpose at a two-year sapling leave one most powerful escape, all others completely cut out. The next year this escape is shortened to the strongest kidney. From the escapes which grew on it in a year leave only two - three. The escapes which developed on them the next year cut off on two - three peepholes. So form a tree within 8 - 10 years.
At a hydrangea are slightly shortened by long escapes in the petiolar and pochvopokrovny spring, as a result they branch better and plentifully blossom. From an annual gain select several strongest escapes for the subsequent replacement old, weak escapes delete “on a ring“.large-leaved flower kidneys are stuffed up by
At a hydrangea on the ends of last year`s escapes. Cut off only last year`s inflorescences, and also the small and dried-up escapes in the spring.pristvolny circles mulch
For protection of roots of a hydrangea against an overheat and preservation of moisture wood spill, bark or peat. The mulch is scattered an even layer 7 - 10 cm thick or on a krone projection, or going beyond its limits on 15 - 20 cm. In process of decomposition this substratum will become part of the soil and somewhat will acidify it. The best time of introduction of a mulch - the late spring when the soil is still rather moistened, but is already well heated-up. In the fall the mulchirovaniye is carried out after approach of the period of steady negative temperatures.
Make multiple copies a hydrangea most often green shanks which take when escapes become flexible, but did not odrevesnet yet.“ Immature“ escapes break if to bend them, “mature“ bend freely. Cut shanks from top part of escapes of the current year. Each shank has to have one - two interstices. The lower leaves delete, top cut off half.
the Best time for successful rooting of shanks - the blossoming period (the middle of July). It is possible to cherenkovat a hydrangea and before blossoming, in June, but in this case, cutting shanks, keep small part of last year`s escape, a so-called heel. Then shanks dust korneviny or heteroauxin (korneobrazovatel) and put in an easy moisture capacious substratum of riding peat and well washed out coarse-grained sand in the ratio 2:1. For increase of a moisture capacity it is possible to add the cut moss to a substratum - a sphagnum. From above fill sand a layer of 2 cm. When landing shanks deepen in a substratum on 2 - 3 cm, having them at distance of 3 - 5 cm from each other with a small inclination, and cover with a film or a glass jar. At a temperature of 16 - 20 ° With and insignificant shading through three - four weeks shanks take roots.
Can make multiple copies a hydrangea division of bushes or horizontal layers. In the spring or in the fall the bush is dug out, divided into two - three parts so that on everyone a calf there were not less than two - three kidneys of renewal. For reproduction by horizontal layers in the spring, before blooming of kidneys, last year`s escapes bend down to the earth and fix by a soft wire in in advance prepared pole so that underground there was a part of escape with kidneys. The pole is covered with earth, having left outside top part of escapes (about 20 cm). When young escapes reach in length of 15 - 20 cm, hill them, covering on one third with earth. In the fall or spring of the next year the taken roots escapes separate from a maternal bush, land on the constant place and at first pritenyat.
of the Detail for inquisitive
At hydrangeas flowers of two types. At one - large petals and undeveloped, almost imperceptible stamens and pestles. More precisely, it is even not flowers, but brightly painted expanded lepestkovidny chashelistik. Such flowers are not capable to tie seeds, their appointment - to decorate plants, to attract insects - pollinators. They or settle down on edge, forming a bright border, or are scattered on all inflorescence.
Flowers of other type are at many types of a hydrangea in the middle of an inflorescence. Call them plodushny; they it is much less by the size, differ in coloring from sterile flowers and there is a lot of them. These real flowers tie seeds and lose the almost invisible petals. The painted chashelistik remain on branches all winter.the Hydrangea large-leaved well grows at
in room conditions. At the end of September the pot with a plant is rearranged to the dark and cool place or on a window sill under which there is no battery. The plant is occasionally watered - in process of drying of the earth, but without allowing its drying (usually 2 - 3 times a month). Optimum temperature of wintering - not higher than 6 - 8 ° With though this hydrangea can winter also at more high temperatures.
In January - February at emergence of leaves watering is increased, and with development of buds a plant feed up complex fertilizer. By May on a hydrangea the first inflorescences appear. Annually after blossoming the hydrangea large-leaved demands change.
In order that the cut-off inflorescences of hydrangeas remained fresh longer, the ends of escapes split and burn, and leaves delete.escapes of hydrangeas of panicled or treelike cut off
For dry bouquets at the end of blossoming, in September, tear off leaves and dry, having suspended in the dark aired room heads down, - so it is possible to keep a natural color of inflorescences. >
By drawing up composition it is good to p to add the dried-up branches to white flowers of hydrangeas it is transparent - a nacreous lunariya.the Hydrangea (especially large-leaved) it is possible not only to dry up
, but also “to preserve“ by means of glycerin. Solution for conservation is prepared from 6 parts of glycerin and 4 parts of very hot water. Cut under water just cut off branches with leaves and inflorescences, split tips of stalks and put in solution, having shipped on 4 - 5 cm. From time to time solution is added. Preservation comes to an end through two - four weeks. As a result of such procedure leaves and stalks gain elasticity and change the coloring a little.