Special thinking of the preschool child. Part 1
“Why blows wind?“, “From where the rivers undertake?“, “That in the radio receiver?“ ... Tens and hundreds of questions bring down on the heads of adults 4 - 5 - the summer kid. As a rule, in a hurry, in vanity we just wave away from them, sometimes, occupied with the thoughts, something we answer, sometimes they set us thinking. Really, how to explain to the child from where there are children why a grass green?
there Will pass years before the child is ready to perception of a scientific picture of the world, learns and will understand those “internal mechanisms“ which are the cornerstone of the phenomena puzzling him. But the kid cannot and does not want to wait: it is necessary to answer it now, without postponing.Process of active knowledge, development of the world, thinking begins
long before our child becomes a preschool child. There is a one-year-old kid, having picked up some sharp object, excitedly scratches them furniture, wall-paper, here 2 - the summer child attentively takes a toy to pieces: and what inside?
“That inside?“ - it is also the main objective of human thinking. To understand internal communications of the phenomena, to glance for a surface externally visible, tangible - the perception cannot cope with it, the inquisitive, comparing, measuring, everywhere getting human thought is necessary here. In the beginning, in the first years of life of the child, the thought cannot do without hand yet: 2 - the summer kid “thinks of hands“, sorting, scratching, breaking, - the word, in a form available to it transforming objects. The thinking of the child so far is only evident - is effective - it is shipped in direct and active action, change of things. In it is its force, and in same - limitation. The thinking one-year-old and 2 - summer is occupied only with the fact that nearby that can touch, feel, taste, unscrew or to be sorted.
But already at this time, imperceptibly and gradually, in thinking of the child “great revolution“ prepares: at the kid means by means of which he can call, designate, so, imagine and represent the phenomena and their communications are formed. And the most powerful of these means - the speech. To 3 - m to years the child actively acquires several thousands of words, is able to transform grammatical them, to connect in offers. The world in which there lives the child as if doubles: now it not only the outside, visible, heard, tangible world, but also the world reflected in words, representations, concepts. The world which as if passed in human consciousness.
of the Possibility of thinking unprecedentedly increase. Now it can capture all “Universe“: not only surrounding objects, but also natural phenomena, space, both sphere of the social relations of people, and sphere of mentality. A star and the planet you will not touch, it is impossible to sort the head and to look where there is a dream. But to ask about it is it is possible. And the preschool child asks, asks, asks endlessly...
But in order that it is skillful, clear to answer, should be known what are waited for the answer from us by the preschool child. To know that “language“ which the thinking of the child “speaks“. In other words, to know features, regularities of children`s thinking.
A that if to try to ask the questions interesting the preschool child, to him? The thought is at first sight unexpected, but only at first sight. To answer the child, it is necessary to find out that he already knows and that he - yet is not present. And not only that, but also as. How the child thinks? Jean Piaget raised this question still in 20 - e years of our century: he asked children of different age to offer an explanation for natural phenomena and space, to the mentality phenomena, to tell about the device and the reasons of operation of the elementary devices and cars... Also found a surprising thing. >
it Turned out p that children, answering these questions, often spiritualize the nature, attribute to inanimate things ability to think, feel, wish. The sun shines in order that to people it was warm also light-; wind blows to adjust sailing vessels, night comes that people went to bed. The phenomena prirod as if know about needs and needs of the person, want to make so that was to him well and conveniently. Jean Piaget called this feature of children`s thinking animism (from armor. animus - soul). Originally children spiritualize everything, even lifeless objects (if to strike a stone, it will be painful to it), a bit later - only those which move, then - only the objects and the phenomena capable to the independent movement (water, wind), at last, attribute ability to think and feel only to animals and the person.
From where there is this surprising feature of thinking of the preschool child - to see life, soul, mentality where, from the point of view of the adult, them to see ridiculous? Many found the reason of children`s animism in that unique vision of the world which develops at the child by the beginning of preschool age. For us, adults, the whole world is ordered, classified. In consciousness of the adult there is an accurate side between live and lifeless, active and passive objects, in most cases we unmistakably distinguish events external, objective and the events which are taking place in our own mental world.
For the kid of such strict borders it is simple is not present, the phenomena and objects of an outside and inner world are not divided by an impassable side yet; not only inanimate, in our opinion, objects for the child can possess mental properties, but also the internal, mental phenomena possess properties of external, material things: so, the dream, according to the kid, comes to it from the outside, can enter eyes, the head, to leave it and to pass to other person. Like a material subject, it moves in space and takes in it a certain place. This unsteadiness, instability, blurring of borders between external and internal, physical and mental is also the cornerstone of “animistic“ thinking of the preschool child.it would Seem to
, quite clear explanation. And still... “From where this blurring of borders undertakes? - the reader will ask. - Whether there is it independently, with inevitability of the spontaneous phenomenon, or it - a consequence of training, education?“ Questions true. And really, the preschool child not the newborn, for 3 - 4 he passed a long and difficult way of mental development. His thinking - the successor of the riches which are saved up during infancy and the early childhood. Whether not there the source of children`s animism is covered?
we Will remember our first games with one-year-old and 2 - the summer kid, we will pay attention to forms of speech communication:“ The doll wants to eat “, “ the bear went to sleep “, “ the squash asks that it was eaten“... All our speech turned to the kid literally is sated with “animistic“ designs. Of course, we do not put in them such sense at all, we do not want to impart consciously to the child tendency to a spiritualizing of inanimate things at all: it is simple to speak so - easier, more clear. Besides is more effective. The two-year-old submits to a request of Buratino who is put on fingers, than the direct order of the adult much more willingly. whether
Yes only in communication with the child we sate the speech with animizm?“ The rain goes “, “ the sun ascended “, “ water spilled“ - we say the friend the friend as if and really the rain, the sun, water can show activity and will. For us it is convention; we - that understand that behind these turns of speech spirituality of objects is not meant at all. And 2 - the summer kid? He takes words literally. The metaphorical context of our speech is hidden from it. If the doll “wants to sleep“ - means, it really “wants“ if the vacuum cleaner frightening the kid, according to mother, “good and kind“ - means, he is really free “to make“ good and bad acts. Here also leaves: the animism of thinking of the preschool child has nothing to be surprised. On the contrary, it would be necessary to be surprised if it was not.it Is good
or it is bad? Practice of our communication with the child - the preschool child answered this question long ago. We read to the kid of the fairy tale? We watch animated films? We play with it role-playing games? But the world of the fairy tale, animated film, game is full of the “live objects“ unusual the phenomenon. Animals speak and act as people, lifeless objects possess mentality and soul, the most surprising events, unusual transformations are ordinary in the fairy tale or game. In this special, animated world the preschool child easily and just masters communications of the phenomena, seizes a large supply of knowledge which scientific, “adult“ understanding is still inaccessible to it. Really how scientifically to explain 4 - 5 - to the summer kid a wind origin how to answer why stars do not fall to the ground how to enter it into the world of fight between the good and evil? And in the fairy tale, in game it is easy and simply.
In other words, the fairy tale, game is a special way of development of the world, the way allowing the preschool child to appropriate, understand in a specific form and in own way to systematize that stream of events which falls upon it from all directions and which does not want to wait until the thinking of the child becomes “scientific“. And such, let unscientific, let temporary, systematization is necessary for the child: it reduces “intensity of misunderstanding“, harmonizes consciousness of the kid, does the world clear, so, pleasant and convenient. Does it by the world in which it is interesting to live which wants to be investigated better and more deeply to understand.But we will look at
on things on the other hand. Thought of the preschool child global questions not always interest. As well as the child of younger age, he continues to master actively objects of the situation surrounding it, for hours is ready to dig in a new difficult toy, to potter in sand, to start up ships on water. Experimenting with objects available to it, the kid not only asks questions, but also itself tries to explain the reasons of operation of mechanisms, properties of a magnet floating or sinking in ph. water