Popularly about intestinal infections (part 2) of
Salmonellosis is among the bacterial infections extended everywhere too. The disease of salmonellas - small mobile bacteria is caused, it is long keeping activity in external environment. They are steady against many disinfecting substances (including, and against chlorine), but boiling kills them instantly. At the room temperature well breed in meat and dairy products, crude eggs. animals, most often house (cattle, pigs, cats, dogs), birds (including hens, ducks, geese), sick people or healthy bacillicarriers can be p>
an infection Source.are diverse
of the Way of infection, the most frequent at children and adults - food (at the use in food of the infected foodstuff, most often - meat of animals and birds; eggs at insufficient culinary processing). It is possible to catch also through the polluted water - at its drink or bathing. At children of chest age as the main way of infection it is possible to consider kontaktno - household - through nipples, toys, leaving objects, dirty hands of the adults who are looking after them.
the Incubatory period can proceed from several hours to several days.
the Clinical picture salmonellosis depends on age of the child and a condition of protective forces of an organism, on a species of salmonellas, a way of infection, quantity of the microbes and their toxins which got to an organism.the disease begins
At children of chest age gradually: there are a slackness, loss of appetite, the increased temperature, vomiting, a liquid chair - at first usual color and not really frequent (to 5 - 6 times a day). If treatment is not begun in time, then the condition of the patient considerably worsens: temperature rises above 38 °C, the chair becomes frequent to 10 - 12 times a day, becomes watery and gets a greenish shade. By 5 - 7 day of an illness in excrements slime, sometimes - blood streaks appears. In the absence of treatment severe dehydration which can lead to irreversible changes of an organism develops.
Feature of a course of salmonellosis at newborns children is prevalence of the general symptoms over defeat symptoms zheludochno - an intestinal path, that is at not plentiful vomiting and a diarrhea, normal body temperature children become uneasy in the beginning, then sluggish, refuse food, cease to put on weight, skin pale, the stomach is blown up (intestines paresis - one of the most terrible complications of salmonellosis when intestines cease to work can develop, there is an intestinal impassability that comes to an end, as a rule, with a lethal outcome). At the weakened children salmonellosis can proceed in the form of a generalized infection (as sepsis) with damage of internals (a liver, kidneys, lungs, a brain), creating in them the purulent centers. The disease proceeds extremely hard, is long (weeks, months), hardly gives in to therapy.
At the senior children the disease proceeds sharply, with primary defeat of bodies zheludochno - an intestinal path, at in due time begun treatment comes to an end in 1 - 3 weeks.
Special danger salmonellosis (as well as others of OKA), represents for pregnant women as the risk of not incubation increases, the child can be born weakened. However, salmonellas do not get through a placentary barrier, and to interruption of pregnancy of indications is not present, but the pregnant woman needs to be cured completely therefore in a case she needs to be hospitalized in a hospital of the corresponding profile. Future mother is written out after absolute clinical recovery and careful (2 - x multiple) bacteriological inspection a calla and blood.Treatment is carried out by
in the conditions of a hospital. The main component is fight against organism dehydration. At easy degree of dehydration it is carried out, the so-called, oral regidratation - the child just drinks liquid, but is very frequent also in the small portions. At average and heavy degrees of dehydration vodno - salt solutions are entered intravenously.
Prevention nonspecific, that is directed to the prevention of all bacterial infections, and not just salmonellosis. It is necessary to observe strictly the correct technology of preparation and storage of products, to avoid the use in food of pair milk, crude eggs; it is correct to process nipples, toys and objects of care of children.
of II. Viral intestinal infections
1. The Rotavirusny infection
the Sharp viral infection with a primary disease of children, is characterized by symptoms of the general intoxication, defeat zheludochno - an intestinal path, dehydration (dehydration).
It is widespread in all countries, irrespective of a standard of living in them; get sick to 3 - 4 children more often than summer age, protivorotavirusny antibodies are found in more senior children in blood that speaks about the infection postponed already.
the Source is only the sick person, the activator is allocated with excrements. Infection occurs fekalno - an oral way. Vozdushno - a drop way of transfer is not proved, but also is not denied.
the Incubatory period from several hours to 7 days. The disease begins sharply, body temperature increases, vomiting, a liquid chair develops. Characteristics of diarrhea at a rotavirusny infection are: plentiful watery, sometimes foamy, a chair without impurity of slime and blood, color yellow or it is yellow - orange. The loud abdominal murmur is characteristic. False desires (tenezm) to a defekation do not happen. A chair frequent and very plentiful that can lead to fast dehydration of an organism.
Treatment a rotavirusny infection (if there is no stratification of bacterial), is directed to fight against dehydration: plentiful drink or intravenous administration of liquids.
of Complication - the usual rotavirusny infection of complications does not give. It constitutes special danger to children to 2 - x years from - for opportunities of fast dehydration of an organism. Immunity is short, but it should be noted that repeated cases of infection proceed easier.
Prevention. at the end of 1990 - x years in the USA there were data on development of a vaccine against a rotavirusny infection, but the imparted children had considerable complications from application of this vaccine that forced to refuse in 1999 its application. Therefore prevention remains nonspecific, directed to strengthening of an organism and strengthening of its protective properties. At the outbreak of a rotavirusny infection in organized collective it is desirable to separate children for 7 days.
Here, perhaps, and all information on the most widespread intestinal infections. Do not forget that any illness it is easier to warn, than to treat therefore carefully observe measures of personal hygiene, you teach it children from the earliest age, and you will be able to save yourself and the family from these diseases. And if all - the disease happened, then begin at once, to feed a liquid the patient and try to see a doctor as soon as possible.to combining jobs mother of two children.