Fifty with superfluous years back in Moscow there were only 16 logopedists. In 1951 the defektologichesky faculty of the Moscow state teacher training college (now - university) let out 30 specialists in correction of shortcomings of the speech. Now in our country thousands of logopedists - graduates of the Moscow pedagogical universities, and also teacher`s colleges of the regional and republican centers work. And still the problem of speech frustration remains actual to this day. In each preschool institution, at each school there are children with speech shortcomings. For children with difficult speech frustration special kindergartens and schools are created. And there is a lot of such schools. In what business? How to prevent violations of the speech at the child? This shortcoming prevents it to study safely, to be sure of the forces, complicates choice of profession.
the Speech - function of a brain
of Special bodies of the speech at the person is not present. The speech is realized by means of an articulation and devices of breath, chewing, swallowing providing processes of a phonation. The central link of all device of the speech - a cerebral cortex (at right-handed persons - mainly left hemisphere, at lefthanders - on the contrary) where representations of the dominating hand, recheslukhovy and kinestetichesky (muscular) analyzers are concentrated.
At the child development of the speech is divided into three periods. The first - preparatory - includes shout, festivities and babble. Shout the baby gives a signal to parents, for example, that it is hungry. And thanks to the voice reactions of festivities (to type sounds “hey“, “eu“) which are gradually getting various intonational coloring acquires intonational system of language, copies intonations of the people surrounding it. Festivities - a consequence of incidentally arising positions of future articulation device - lips, language, a soft palate, a throat and a throat. Children of the whole world it have identical. It is observed also at deaf babies who had no sound contact with mother.
K of six - to eight months of life the kid will read to murmur, say sounds like “ma“, “pas“, “oh“, “on“, “di“ (“go), “yes“ (“give“), etc. Sound structure of babble - result of kinestetichesky “setup“ of the articulation device on acoustical, acoustic imitation of the speech of people around. At the same time the child masters the elementary syllabic structure of the word consisting, as a rule, of one syllable. If the festivities did not turn into babble, parents should begin worry, whether all as it should be at the baby with hearing.
In the second period, approximately from eight - nine months of life, the kid begins to perceive globally sounding of some words, “to answer“ with a look or index gesture the questions “where father?“, “where birdie?“ . He rejoices that it is understood, imitates adults in games with toys, in a manipulation a spoon, a cup. There are no words yet, but intonations - exclamations already vary: feelings of pleasure and discontent vowelize, being followed by characteristic sounds “and - and - and“, “at - at - at“. Babble becomes more for a long time, intonational coloring is enriched, sounds begin to repeat (“oh - oh - oh“, “ma - ma - ma“) and turn into words which, in turn, become thinking components. And though the pronunciation of words is still very imperfect, the child puts in them a certain sense. Seeing that mother came or leaves, he pronounces the word “ma-ma“. These are so-called words - offers. By the end of the first year of life there are imitative words like “av - av“ (“dog“) “, bi - bi“ (“car“) “, a tic - so“ (“hours“).
In the third period reckoning from second year of life, the kid already understands the speech turned to it, by the word carries out simple instructions. It has a purposeful index gesture accompanied with sounds with intonation of the requirement which mean: call. The child persistently moves an index finger from one subject on another, several times comes back to already “passable“ objects, “will not be sated“ with consciousness that different objects have the different name yet. The period of active index gesture is big jump in formation of the first stage children`s specifically - the figurative thinking connected with primary allocation aurally of a sound cover of the word. At this time the passive dictionary of the child is put. Rapid development of understanding of the speech for several months advances development of oral speech. Quite often the pause meanwhile when the child began to point a finger at this or that subject, and the moment when he pronounces the word designating a subject totals five - eight months. At last, there comes the turn when the kid does attempt to connect two words in the phrase (“mother, give“).
the Hearing child, perceiving the correct, not lisping speech of mother, begins to speak in 14 - 18 months since birth. At different children development of the speech can proceed differently. At one the statement is quite slowly formed of two - four words, but such kids approximately by year and eight months seize a pronunciation of almost all sounds of the native language. At other group of children the speech melodics violently develops, they say long phrases, but operate with several syllables, do not utter many sounds. In such cases only mother can sort that was told by her kid. It is noticed that girls begin to speak before boys; possibly, it is caused by their more plastic nervous system.
By one and a half years the first period of questions “what is it?“ arises . In the active dictionary of such little man already 30 - 35 words consisting of one - two syllables and said by means of six - eight sounds with different syllabic variations which not any adult, but it already understands communication with the help of the speech.
By two years the dictionary of the kid reaches about 300 words. He actively uses adverbs and verbs. On the third year of life acquires the first grammatical forms, builds verbose phrases with compound and subordinate clauses, pretexts, adjectives, adverbs, interrogative words. After two and a half years the child, except abundance of adjectives, has participles, difficult pretexts “through“, “lengthways“, etc., and by the end of the third year of life - copulatives and pronouns. The main formation of the speech comes to an end, but its improvement continues on fourth and fifth lives. It is the period of questions: “why?“, “what for?“ .
of the Reason of a delay and violation of the speech at preschool age
If the child was born
healthy, the delay of his speech development can arise from - for wrong actions of adults during the preparatory period: at insufficient speech communication with the kid, an inattention to his acoustical perception, imitation sounds and words of the adult, at untimely development of intonational expressiveness of the speech and semantic communications between the word and a subject.
Before starting talking, the kid has to train muscles of organs of articulation. It occurs when he babbles, murmurs, breathes, swallows, sucks a breast, chews. It is noticed that the children who were on breastfeeding meet speech difficulties less often than bottle-fed babies, and those who were in due time acquainted with firm food, speak much more accurately than peers who nearly to school were stuffed with liquid porridges and the wiped vegetables.
Violation of the speech are caused by the different reasons: congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, a cerebral cortex, the sky, language, defects of nasal breath and decrease in a muscular tone of a soft palate (such pathology results in twang), a mental trauma (for example, at children, impressionable, inclined to neurosises, reaction of a fright can provoke stutter), etc.
the Child who was born the deaf or lost hearing as a result of an illness in the first weeks and months of life will not learn to tell
until he surdopedagog (the expert training deaf children of the speech) trains it in “reading from lips“, will teach to say separate sounds, and then words with a support on tactile, kinestetichesky, and also visual perception. Such occupations need to be begun with three - four-year age.
Development of the speech and thinking is in close connection with development of small motility and coordination of movements of fingers of hands. The children working with the designer, who are going in for origami, a molding from plasticine, embroidery and other types of needlework are able to argue, as a rule, logically. They enough developed memory and attention.
It is frequent leads the child`s reeducation to a delay of speech development and violations of the speech - lefthanders to do all by the right hand. Modern mothers know that babies cannot be swaddled. Any restriction of movements of the baby brakes not only formation of movement skills, but also timely development of speech functions. The right-handed person has actions of all mobile parts of a body and especially fingers of hands, the speech, articulation device (a throat, a throat, language, lips, a soft palate) are genetically put in the left cerebral hemisphere, at the lefthander - in the right hemisphere. If to the lefthander not to allow to work actively the left hand, then he will have spatial withdrawal pains of formation of movements: the movements of the right, nonbasic hand will be stimulated, and the main, leading hand will remain without stimulation. Retraining the kid to hold a spoon or a pencil in the right hand, parents thereby shift congenital functions of its leading right hemisphere on left in which it has no “projective“ base for thin movements of fingers and the articulation device. As a result the speech developing on the basis of acoustical perception “does not know“ in what hemisphere to it “to settle“. For this reason quite often lefthanders whom since childhood diligent forced everything to do by the right hand begin to speak later, incorrectly say many sounds, are awkward in the movements, are not able to dance, are deprived of ear for music. But it is not less important what is broken emotionally - the strong-willed sphere of the child. It is known that any action causes counteraction. The child becomes either stubborn, or broken: weak-willed, hypochondriac, diffident. Begins to fix attention on the speech difficulties, deeply worries on trifles. For this reason at it stutter can develop. And it is difficult to overcome it. The kid - the lefthander needs to give a freedom of action, and he will learn to do a lot of things by both hands.
Development of the speech and thinking
the English philosopher, the teacher and the psychologist of the 17th century John Locke in the monograph about education of children very precisely noted that consciousness of the person, his character, culture, good breeding and thinking depend on what parents put in it to five-year age.
the Most important period of emotional and intellectual development of the child is the share
of age till three years. The newborn from the first days of life reacts not only to tactile perception of maternal hands, bright light, but also to sounds, a timbre of a voice of mother and other people, and, above all - to intonations (it is known that the most tender words pronounced with the menacing intonation even of the adult can plunge into fear). With an ulterior motive from time immemorial, song lullabies which calm pass from father to son, lull the baby. It is very important that the child from the first days of life listened to mother`s singing of lullabies or national songs. It has to be silent, but legible. The current trend to replace mother`s singing with tape recordings of classical or popular music does not stimulate perception with the child of a melodics and lexicon of the native language. Such concerts just deafen him by a time.
Surely respond to crying of the child. In the first months of life he only this way can tell you that he feels discomfort that to it it is cold, wet or getting very hungry. Besides, shout or crying is also attempt of communication. The kid lets you know that he missed and wants to see the native person.
with the baby literally since his birth, competently, slowly and accurately pronouncing words, without any syusyukaniye. No matter, that he does not understand sense of your words yet, but sensitively reacts to intonation and perfectly catches it. All actions - - accompany bathing, disguise, feeding, etc. with similarity of conversation. For example:“ Now I will look what is not pleasant to you why you spin, cry“. The speech has to be slow, tender. The newborn best of all perceives the melodious vowels said drawlingly. It is important that the kid saw your mimicry, the movements of lips. Especially carefully you say sounds “about“, “and“, “e“. Subsequently many children pronounce them indistinctly, sometimes replacing with others - “at“, “e“. From - for it at school they write words with the letters “about“, “i“, “y“, “e“ (“e“) with mistakes. Talking to the baby, always you remember that on you the responsible task lies - to impart to the son or the daughter congenital literacy. Thanks to active communication in yet not differentiated slukhorechevy memory of the baby that outline on which speech experience of the child will blossom, appear in the future is put, his first babble will appear.
to parents to keep the diary, writing down in it when the kid began to murmur when he started talking when began to creep, go when at it the fontanel grew. These data at deviations in development can be necessary for the doctor - the neuropathologist or the teacher - the speech pathologist.
the visual and acoustical attention is Very important to bring up
at the earliest age at the child, suggesting it to find the direction of the sounding toy (a rattle, the peeping rubber animals), loudly ticking hours moved on the room, etc. At three - the four-year-old kid the visual attention is formed in the course of occupations with a picture lotto or puzzles. The carelessness at one children is explained by their excessive activity, restlessness, fieriness, inability to listen and observe, at others, on the contrary, some slowness, slackness, not concentration, a disorganization and absent-mindedness. At school these difficulties lead to the fact that children are inattentive at a lesson, cannot monitor instructions of the teacher, begin to work impulsively, without having listened to the end up to the end of a task, hasty or very slowly carry out it. The teacher every time is forced to do them remarks. As a result at the child the desire to study vanishes. It it becomes resistant poor.
As soon as the child will master circulation, teach it to dance. The rhythmical movements promotes development of hearing, so, and speeches.
Attention of the child - lefthanders and his orientation in space can be developed, suggesting to show at first the objects drawn in the book to the left of the center then in the center and on the right. Ability to control acoustical attention, in time to slow down physical activity are perfectly cultivated in games on lifting and lowering of hands on questions: “Who flies?“, “Who runs?“, “Who swims?“ etc. For example: “The bird flies? The sofa flies? The butterfly flies?“ . The child should be taught fast switching of attention at display of objects of use, parts of the face, bodies. By two and a half years at children violently develops specifically - figurative thinking with imagination elements which should be encouraged in the course of games: “Guess a riddle“, “Whose it is legs?“ (show to the child only the lower part of the picture with the image of some animal), “Learn who I am“ (draw a contour of a small animal or a simple subject by means of points, ask the child to connect all points one line to learn who hides in your points). Involve the kid in creativity, suggesting to draw or compose together the fairy tale. Since three years of well speaking child it is possible to begin to train in a game form in reading the words made of the alphabet on cubes. At this age he already has an idea of number (one, two, is a lot of), is capable to remember by heart verses, to work with the designer, “to investigate“ that at a bear in a stomach or as the machine is arranged, to go with a carriage, imitating mother. Everything is interesting to it. He learns the world and learns that a teapot hot, scissors caustic, the glass glass and therefore broke. Realizes alternation of generations and the fact that some event was yesterday, even earlier or davny - long ago and that a lot of things still have to happen in the future. Your task consists in that an udovletvorto ityit curiosity of the kid, to answer all it “why?“. Aged from three till five years it is time to acquaint kids with the Russian national fairy tales, but avoid tales of Ivan the Fool, of Emel (“By magic“) as they sing of laziness, inaction, life for someone else`s account. You learn by heart with the child fragments of wise fairy tales of A.S. Pushkin, read him verses and K. I. Chukovsky, S. Ya. Marshak, A. L. Bartho, S. V. Mikhalkov`s fairy tales, fairy tales of brothers Grimm, Andersen. At the same time explain to the kid unclear turns of speech, for example: “both the wood, and a dale of images are full...“. To school stories about athletes will become interesting to it (Ilya Muromtsa, Dobrynya Nikitich, etc.) about feats of the people protecting the country from strangers. He with pleasure will listen to myths of Ancient Greece.
If to four - five years the child did not master pronouncing sounds of “l“, “r“, the whistling, hissing sounds or all ringing sounds says deafly, and firm - is soft, surely address the logopedist as at school it can confuse these sounds. Occupations with the logopedist demand very many forces and time therefore it is desirable to resolve this problem at least one year prior to receipt in school when the child is not loaded by lessons yet.
On methodical grants parents can also help to get rid to the child of some defects of the speech (for example, three-year-old kids quite often instead of a sound “sh“ say a sound “with“, instead of “r“ - “l“). It is necessary to begin with statement of separate sounds, applying a peculiar gymnastics of organs of articulation.
can already tell
to the Child of five-year age about features of life and customs of the people of the different countries, about inhabitants of the seas, rivers and woods, about stars and planets. Show it on the globe or a map how many continents, the seas and oceans on Earth where there is a country in which he lives. Very attentively select transfers of television. Do not allow to watch to the child animated films of horrors at all. They interrupt the child`s sleep, do it nervous.
In the same age fixes knowledge of seasons and of time of day. The kid begins to face such phenomenon as a word polysemy, learns, for example, that the word “cage“ designates not only a cage for a tiger in a zoo, but also material drawing on a dress that “in a cage“ there is a notebook. The preschool child can already be acquainted with such concepts of linguistics as a synonym (the word, coincident or close with other word, for example, “way“ and “road“) and an antonym (the word opposite on value to other word, for example, “light“ and “dark“). Once in the regular bus I observed how mother played with the six-year-old son in words. She pronounced some word and asked the son to call the words close or opposite on value. To an adjective the “fast“ boy took from memory of the word “fast“, “prompt“, “quick“, “brisk“, “quick“, and after a short pause added: “bright“. Mother added the list with words: “shibky“, “zealous“, “nimble“. Antonyms appeared less:“ slow“, “silent“, “turtle“, “slow“, “slow“. Then other tasks followed, and it seemed that mother with the son can infinitely play this fascinating game. It was very pleasant to watch them. I thought: it will be easy for this boy to study at school, he obviously does not suffer from poverty of the speech, tongue-tie.
For the prevention of mistakes in the letter, for improvement of perception of a rhythm of the speech “conduct“ when your kid reads the poem, sings or dances under singing, beat off cottons in palms number of syllables in the word, but do everything in the form of game.
I last council. Always you praise the child for his resourcefulness, diligence and diligence and do not abuse for mistakes and misses. Then he will become your friend, will please you with the inquisitiveness, observation and good progress at school.