Perigor`s treasures of
perigorsky truffle, or Tuber melanosporum is considered the Real masterpiece of the nature. Such definitions as black diamonds or “the whimsical prince“ with which he is habitually awarded by French at all beauty and emotionality do not give a true idea of the subject of national pride. And meanwhile it is a high time to make it. A season of hunting for truffles in the heat.Aristocrats of a mushroom kingdom
As they grow at
, nobody saw. Even those who bring together them from generation to generation. Because all life of truffle passes underground and is in a complete dependence from trees or bushes which roots become the real supporters of these mushrooms, sharing with them reserves of carbohydrates. However, it would be unfair to call truffles parasites. The web of threads of a mycelium enveloping plant roots - the owner, helps it to extract additional moisture and, besides, protects from various microbic diseases, for example from a phytophthora.
the Mycelium, a body of a mushroom organism, lives long if nobody destroys it, and periodically forms the fruit bodies containing the disputes necessary for further reproduction. At usual mushrooms everything is simple. The care of their distribution is undertaken by wind and water. And here continuation of an underground truffle sort depends on whether they will be found, dug out and eaten by animals that disputes, having passed through intestines of forest gourmets and having fallen to the earth, could sprout on the new place. For drawing attention of eaters truffles have the one and only bait - the aroma which developed in the course of evolution to unimaginable limits. However, not all truffles smell appetizingly. In the majority they exhale the stench similar to a smell of tar, rotten herring or the decaying onions. And some kinds of underground mushrooms among which the place of honor is taken by black perigorsky truffle, cause the strengthened formation of gastric juice in the person.
the Main conditions for growth of truffles are the warm climate of a moderate zone and the mixed wood. To these conditions there correspond the midland of Russia, the Crimea, a set of places in Spain, Portugal, the South of Germany, Croatia, France and Italy. Actually, in all listed areas they are also found. There are they and on the Pacific coast of the USA, in the woods of California, in Australia and North Africa - Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.two Govern
in a truffle kingdom. The first is a white Italian truffle, the region Piedmont specialist programme which is found extremely seldom. Any Italian will tell that he is better than others. Both will be at the same time and it is right, and is not present. Its aroma is so thin and diverse that it can devote one recipe-book volume.
Second - his immemorial rival - black perigorskiya. If to compare them though it and is not absolutely correct, and all the same not to avoid such comparison, white pyemontets gives the bright, almost not subject to discussion composition of smells which is associated with concept to “a dolcha of Vit“ is stronger, than the Gucci brand and a motor scooter of “Vesp“ whereas perigorets - a reason for thoughts. Combinations of various products to white truffle are always effective as salute while with black some of them can seem unforgettable, others terrible, the third - ordinary. Thanks to richness of a smell of black truffle it is equally good both with veal, and with chocolate.
Mushroom pickers are hunters
the Main animals on truffle hunting - dogs and pigs. And still... flies. Truffle flies are not the name of a look. In each country they are the. But makes related their love to truffles. They are flown on a smell and lay eggs to the soil in the neighbourhood. Eggs leave larvae, make the way to the next fruit body, bite into it and eat, will not pupate yet. Soon from dolls hundreds of flies at the same time hatch. Their swarming in a sunny weather allows to find truffles easily: the swarm forms the column indicating directly a native nest in air. As a rule, in a nest only one mushroom, and the others - whole is surprised. Plus such search - the minimum expenses. Minus - is too much competitors with much more productive assistants - pigs and dogs. Therefore widely “hunting for flies“ is applied only in the Middle East. France reserves it for tourists. Pigs, as well as flies, it is not necessary to train on truffles, they feel production for 20 m, run and dig out to regale, - only hold. Therefore search pigs are driven on a lead, and at once after the pig “makes a rack“, award her with something tasty, for example sweet corn or haricot to distract from a mushroom delicacy. Pigs have also other shortcoming: except gluttony they quickly are tired, especially if nests are scattered far apart.
Therefore the most widespread type of hunting for truffles - with a dog. Breed does not matter, train both mongrels, and thoroughbred dogs. Equally well both sheep-dogs, and small dogs work, such as poodles, dachshunds and even they are terriers. Puppies are trained with 2 - 3 - monthly age. In the beginning for achievement of effect of storing of a smell add truffle infusion to milk. Then learn to bring aport, rubbed with fresh mushrooms. Then the task is complicated, digging in it to the earth. The most responsible stage of training of a young “truffle“ dog - “nakhazhivaniye“ along the route developed by coaches on mushroom places. These classes are given at dawn, at big humidity of air, temperature 10 - 15 ° With and constant moderate wind. The direction of the movement is maintained so that the dog went against wind all the time. Training of such dog - business laborious and expensive, and therefore it makes cost not less than 5 thousand euros. However the real mushroom pickers - tartufayo do not stint. Year - another, and the dog with interest will cover all expenses on her acquisition and will begin to bring in the income to the owner. With development agro - gastronomic tourism some truffle dogs should carry out functions of guides or animators - inventors. For example, to serve excursions on the truffle wood with strangers. But they also cope with it.
Property of the republic
Perigorsky black truffle very expensive. It is not simple to find it even in places of habitual dwelling. With 60 - x years of the last century nothing, for example, is heard about truffles from Charente. As experts speak, black truffles have black times.Needs only to be surprised with
to figures of old statistics. A little more than hundred years ago France made annually 1 320 t of black truffle. And during the season 1999/2000 years recognized fruitful the general result of sales did not exceed also 30 t!are called
of the Reason of such falling different. One experts point to consequences of World War I when production of truffle was nearly the only source of earnings, and thousands of people who did not have before any relation to “black diamond“ began to rummage feverishly and with gross spelling mistakes in the earth, bringing any possibility of regeneration almost to naught. Others expostulate on reduction of the areas of the oak and beechen woods and environmental pollution. Both those, and others are right, probably.
And therefore the prices of the truffles which became already a certain wonder are unreasonably big. Though keeping of the prices at the certain level is promoted also by mushroom pickers. They watch that the harvest was not too big and the prices of truffles did not fall. Collecting has to teeter on the brink of deficiency to cause excessive demand in the buyers ready to lay out for one kilogram of truffles from 400 to 1 000 and more than euro.
the Most generous woods on truffles are in Perigor and Kersi which today not to find on the political map of France. But there are departments Dordogne and Lo. Just here the well-known black truffles also grow. Know all about it: both French, and visitors. However locals will not confirm for anything it. Because location of truffles - great secret. So it is accepted in these parts - not to tell about truffles of all truth.
Hereditary truffles hunters treat one and all visitors as to malefactors who only and think, as if to plunder treasured treasures and to beggar them.
I nevertheless, efforts of visitors of enthusiasts perigorsky truffle finds the any future. One of those associates - Hugo Martin (Hugues Martin). He arrived to Dordogne at the age of 15 years and since then is engaged in truffles which cultivation became business of his life. In the beginning it worked as the forester in various local nurseries. Then, in 1996 - the m, bought a truffle farm. And in 2001 it was appointed the commissioner on quality of the truffle market of the city of Saint - Alver (department Gironde to Hugo - the West of France). This position on the powers can be compared in this country unless to the mayor`s position. And the fact that this position was received by the stranger, speaks about much.
of the Farm - the last hope of Dordogne. Truffles tried “to cultivate“ long ago. As a matter of fact, the truffle “Golden Age“ which fell on the end of the XIX century was result just of such agrotechnical experiments when instead of the vineyards struck with phylloxera epidemic oaks were planted, and acorns were sowed mixed up with the soil taken from the places rich with truffles. And here with 60 - x years of the last century such farms began to appear here again. It is one of the slowest branches of agriculture. It is possible to wait for the first harvest in 15 years. And there is no guarantee that it will appear. Truffle - a mushroom whimsical. They say that it goes to hands only to the one who respects him. And if it so, then to Hugo Martin has to carry surely.
As these treasures of the nature look? All of them, without excluding also black, are very ugly. Fruit bodies their roundish and at the same time slightly some angular, with large warts, have black or is reddish - brown color. The pulp - reddish, by a maturity blackens, is penetrated by white streaks. Black perigorsky truffle ripens in the fall. The season of hunting for it passes from November to March. Mushrooms which size approaches large apple are considered the best. They a big rarity, make only 1% of the general collecting and belong to the category super extra. Mushrooms of the size of a walnut belong to extra grade and make 10%, even more small, approximately about cherry, - first choice. Them there are 30% of collecting. Big part of “catch“ are absolutely small tryufelk which suit only for preparation of sauces or gravies.Should tell
that except the real perigorsky Tuber melanosporum truffle on sale often there is also a truffle winter Tuber brumale, also under the name “black truffle“. It grows in the same places that real black, but meets a little more often. However, the suppliers caring for the reputation (and in this sector of economy almost all care for reputation) surely report that you buy in this case. Here and price another.
the Main place where citizens can buy truffles, is the “House of truffles“ located at Madeleine Square in Paris in which from November to March the fresh truffles which passed special selection and sorted on grades go on sale. And the prices of goods vary from astronomical to quite accepted though it is possible to call them those very conditionally. Better not to think of the price of such purchase in advance not to be nervous. > Tryufelemaniya`s
it does not make to Tell p to
about taste of truffle special sense, because hardly an opportunity will be presented to you as - nibud to bite off from the whole mushroom. And nobody does so. Unless if you will appear where - nibud in Algeria or Iraq, and during a season of gathering local truffles where they can be tried baked in ashes. However, at Middle Eastern and desert types of truffles the smell unstable and at heat treatment absolutely disappears. And all also began with them. It is hard to say when precisely ancient Romans began to buy in large quantities truffles in the Middle East and in Africa. In any case, after conquest of Egypt - exactly from there ability to cook truffles came to Rome. Then, even more, than now, truffles were attribute of mad luxury and were bought at the gold price. And accessories for their preparation corresponded to a valuable product. The gold braziers ordered by ancient culinary specialists for preparation of truffles are not used today by any even the most successful restaurateur. Seasonings and spices were added expensive, however, usual for those times too - salt, different spicy herbs and it is obligatory kumin (this spice is known in Russia and the CIS under the name “zir“ now and serves as an indispensable component of pilaf). About weight ratios of truffles and the added seasonings of data did not remain as custom to write down recipes appeared only in the 19th century. Anyway from aroma of desert truffle, both so not really intensive by nature moreover and weakened during transportation, most likely nothing remained. Except reminiscence that in Egypt these mushrooms were extremely tasty and fragrant. The second and final opening of truffle happened in the 15th century. Then Italians found out that directly at them under legs delicacies grow. You should not forget that Italian cuisine was at that time far poorer, than now. Therefore the truffle “opened“ by them instantly turned into a cult object. And when the Italian cooks went to work abroad, they at once after arrival began to look for a cult mushroom. Also found. At first - in France. Then - in Russia.
B 1533 a florentiyka Ekaterina Medici married future king of France. Having arrived to France, the young princess nearly withered as could not eat local food hard to digest at all. Therefore after Medici from Florence there arrived the landing of cooks. So history of classical French cuisine in which truffles took the worthy place began. For the sake of justice it is necessary to tell that truffles collected in France and before the Florentine coming - in Provence, the foothills of the Provencal Alps, Aquitaine and Charente, but were not able to solve a secret of their unique taste and added to food for increase in volume. In Russia there was a truffle trade too. Now it is difficult to believe in it, but the Moscow province was its center throughout two centuries. Volumes of production made hundreds, and in other years - and more than one thousand poods. When everything began, it is definitely not known, but in the 18th century truffles fed tens of villages. The highest rise of trade coincided with return in 1813 of the Russian troops from Paris. In the north it prospered in Fryanovo`s vicinities, near Fryazino and Fryazevo - the villages inhabited by the Italians who arrived to Russia at Peter I yes and settled here. Near Podolsk many truffles got in vicinities Dubrovits where at the end of XVII - the beginning of the 18th century the Italian masters of 14 years built church of the Sign of the Mother of God. Explanations of the one who wised up local men to get a mushroom from - under lands, arise by itself. Near Dmitrov production of truffle gained strange, but clearly Russian lines - for search bears began to be used. They were specially trained, first of all - pulled out teeth. This practice was not widely adopted as the bear was difficult to be driven away from the found production.
Several grams of pleasure
Despite youth of the domestic truffle market (the contemporary Russian truffle history contains some 10 - 15 years), are many places where it is possible to try or buy surprising mushrooms is elite restaurants, shops of delicacies or expensive gastronomic boutiques. They “are found“ all the year round here. (For the lack of the most expensive - perigorsky) and, respectively, expensive is more valuable winter, got since the end of September on March. Terms of its growth are also considered to be as a truffle season. Less the summer grade replacing the relative in off-season is quoted (from spring to fall). The way of a mushroom from the place of its growth to the Russian consumer looks approximately so. “Expensive perishable goods are bought, as a rule, to order (for a concrete institution or the cook) from suppliers - owners of truffle farms and corresponding licenses - the parties estimated in grams (30 g, 50 g, 100 g)“, - Evgeny Zapolsky, the chef of mushroom restaurant Portofino tells. Truffles are delivered in the form of integral tubers, pieces, juice, a thin skin, cream, oil and sauce. Besides, also tinned truffles - integral and crushed are delivered. It is necessary to tell that delivery of truffles to our country began with the canned food intended for inexpensive western restaurants. However today their purchase was considerably reduced. The preference is given to fresh mushrooms which weekly small parties are delivered to Russia by planes in dark and cold (from 0 to +4 ° C) containers.Tubers of truffles bring
crude and dirty, at restaurant subject them to dry processing, accurately sweeping away sand a brush, and place in the refrigerator where store at a temperature of +2 - 3 ° With within 2 - 3 days in the closed ware, wrapped in a tissue or poured by rice. Lack of the second way is that together with grain moisture, pernicious for a mushroom, absorb also aroma not less intensively - the main advantage of truffle. There are also another, less sparing ways of long storage of gentle goods:“ Truffles are washed, cleaned and placed in bank, for example, with olive oil which is used for preparation of sauces subsequently, - Roman Rozhnikovsky, the co-owner of Nostalzhi restaurant says. - It is possible to store truffles in alcohol or cognac. However true judges of truffles nevertheless prefer mushrooms crude. And if they are trained, then in order that black truffle did not lose the taste and aroma, it is placed in an oven for only 5 minutes, previously having wrapped up a foil. By the way, in all ancient recipes of preparation of dishes from truffles the same principle of the minimum heat treatment is observed. To bake or fry truffles - it is all the same that to do paste of black caviar“.by
because of pronounced qualities of a product - saturated taste and long aftertaste - truffles are used only as an additive to a main course. The mushroom is cut most thinly or as experts speak, shave just before giving by a special shovel. Then it is spread on a warm dish, and it begins to exhale strong aroma at once.
At restaurants can order fresh truffles as an additive to any dish. On tiny scales the waiter weighs a mushroom at the client, cuts the required quantity and weighs once again. The average price at restaurants of Moscow makes 5 c.u. for 1 gram of black truffle.
“The amount of the truffle added to a dish by request of the client depends mainly on the customer`s purse. The average order makes 5 g on a dish, seldom exceeding 8 - 10 g“, - E. Zapolsky says. However, all these grams as a result develop in quite impressive figures: at fashionable restaurant about 5 - 10 kg of truffles a year are consumed. What dishes truffle is capable to decorate? Whether it managed to many generations of truffle gourmets to output laws of its compatibility with other products or compatibility depends on imaginations the chief - cooks? The variety of truffle dishes of ethnic French cuisine at first sight does not allow to track any uniting principle.“ Generally speaking, truffle is combined with everything, - E. Zapolsky is convinced. - However, being a product with the characteristic taste and a smell defining taste of a dish in general he nevertheless wins in the dishes of “passive taste“ prepared from the products which are not possessing own pronounced taste“.
So, according to French, all recipes with truffles have to prepare on the basis of eggs (omelets, the shaken-up eggs, a souffle with truffles). Truffles also accompany fowl dishes, are served with a spiny lobster, are used in sauces. The truffle menu of Nostalzhi restaurant among other includes lobster vegetables salad from Nice and black truffles sauce. For those who like to gluttonize “by rules“, - one more council about the principles of compatibility of dishes from truffles with wines. At the choice of wine it is possible to advise to be guided by the principle of proximity to taste or, on the contrary, the principle of contrast. From white wines Gran Kryu will approach “Merso“ truffles “Burgundian“, from red - “Cahors wine“, “Bordeaux“.
For the same who is ready to gastronomic adventures no restrictions on use of truffle exist. Any, most unexpected combinations which, however, are capable to estimate only creatively adjusted and freely conceiving gourmets - experimenters are possible: “We in the menu had a dessert reminding tiramisu, but with aroma of truffle. I was delighted, and guests - are not present“, - R. Rozhnikovsky remembers.
Really, not everyone is capable to feel gastronomic delight concerning truffle. What the centuries-old agiotage around this unattractive mushroom is connected with? The answer to this question at each tryufeleved the. The version of attractiveness of truffle from R. Rozhnikovsky, seemingly, explains feeling of many: “Truffle is not food, but the pleasure catalyst“.