Rus Articles Journal

# Kitchen: planning and illumination of

Kitchen - the integral component of any dwelling. In your apartment there can be no, for example, bedroom per se, the nursery or a study, but the kitchen - both isolated, and combined, for example, with a drawing room - was, is, and, undoubtedly, will be always.

## Kitchen geometry or what is a working triangle

If you already faced planning of kitchen, then, undoubtedly, the term “working triangle“ is familiar to you. A working triangle - a basis of planning of any kitchen, it consists of the refrigerator, a sink and a plate. When cooking the hostess moves on the parties of this imagined triangle: it gets products from the refrigerator, bears them in a sink, then these products move to a desktop where they are cut, undress, bread etc., and after that - cook, fry, bake on a cooking surface, a grill, in an oven, a microwave or a double boiler.

is considered to be that the optimum distance between the parties of this triangle has to be in the range from 3 to 7 meters. The bigger distance between components of a working triangle will lead to “winding of kilometers“ (it is counted that the hostess at preparation of a breakfast, a lunch from 3 - x dishes and a dinner for a family of four people, only moving on kitchen, about 12 pass (!) kilometers), and smaller will create narrowness indoors. The conducted researches showed that the reasonable and thought-over planning of kitchen allows to save up to 60% of a way and 30% of time.

are minimized by

In correctly picked up working triangle of distance between its tops that gives to the hostess convenient access to all necessary objects and does not create narrowness. It is necessary to avoid such planning at which the movement in a triangle is at a loss.

Moika is the center of activity which takes away from 40 to 46% of all time which the hostess spends in kitchen. In ideal option the sink is in the center of a working triangle, at distance about 1300 - 1800 mm from a plate and 1200 - 2100 mm from the refrigerator. The stove have to be placed closer to a dining table. Refrigerators and deep freezes are placed in corners of kitchen not to break off a working surface on separate small sites. The door of the refrigerator abroach should not close itself free space.

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## Types of planning

In the previous article devoted to common problems of arrangement of kitchen space it was already mentioned that there are several types of planning:

• single-row (linear);
• two-row (parallel);
• G - figurative (angular);
• P - figurative;
• peninsular kitchen;
• island.

Single-row planning - perhaps, the most widespread arrangement of furniture in the small-sized and narrow (extended) rooms though sometimes it is used also on quite big squares. So, the accent of the kitchen combined with a drawing room becomes, as a rule, on a lunch zone therefore the working zone has to be the most imperceptible. Placement it in a row along one distant wall does not distract attention to the stove with pans and frying pans.

the Working triangle in linear kitchen is formed by the refrigerator, a plate and a sink. When planning single-row kitchen it is desirable to arrange in the center a sink, and a plate with the refrigerator - on both sides from it, certainly, taking into account other working surfaces. The plate and a sink have to be surely divided by a desktop.

Two-row planning of kitchen is used by

, as a rule, in through passage, but at the same time quite spacious kitchen space. Through kitchens meet quite seldom - it is inconvenient. But if you decided to make kitchen that, then in this case the most expedient arrangement of kitchen furniture on it - in two ranks along opposite walls.

the Freedom of movement in two-row kitchen and free access to doors will provide to

distance between ranks of furniture not less than 1,2 - 1,5 meters. With a sink the refrigerator - in another is recommended to place a plate in the same row, and thanks to what the working triangle will remain, and at your disposal there will be quite big working surface.

Angular or - figurative
planning is suitable

for averages and small square and rectangular kitchens. At such planning the working triangle (a plate, a sink, the refrigerator) is provided, and at the same time in kitchen there is enough place for a lunch zone. 80% of modern sets are created till - figurative planning. It is expedient to carry a working triangle on both adjacent walls.

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At P - figurative to planning completely involve three kitchen walls thanks to what the excellent field for culinary activity turns out. In such kitchen you without effort place a maximum of household appliances. However the lunch zone in such kitchen will manage to be arranged hardly.

Should be considered also that placement of kitchen furniture on three walls demands sufficient space. So, for example, the back wall has to have length not less than 2,5 meters, and the free space between lateral walls has to be not less than 2 - x meters. Sink on P - the figurative kitchen can arrange in the center, and a plate and the refrigerator - at the edges.

Peninsular the kitchen represents any of planning options with additional “release“ of a working surface, case with a sink or a plate. As a rule, it is a ledge which separates kitchen from the dining room, it can be used also as a rack for a breakfast.

Island
the kitchen is suitable

for wide kitchens. Island planning - option of arrangement of kitchen furniture most widespread in the West. In kitchen with furniture along two or three walls also one more island - on the center is placed. The island which optimum sizes - 120ő120 cm, as a rule, carry out function of the most active kitchen surface - a table with a sink, a plate or a box for storage of products and various kitchen utensils.

If the island is used by

as a cooking surface (plate), then over it the extract has to settle down. The working triangle in island kitchen has to be the most compact that all necessary was nearby. As “island“ is quite massive architectural dominant, be careful with dark tones as it can visually reduce space, especially at the small sizes of kitchen. Light “islands“ look easier and seem more graceful.

## Kitchen zones

Kitchen space can divide into separate functional zones . If relatively each other to approach an arrangement of these zones elaborately, then energy consumption on process of cooking will be minimized and, therefore, the hostess will be tired less. Process of cooking will be more similar to creativity, than to an everyday tiresome duty.

So, functional zones in kitchen share on:

• zone of storage of stocks of products;
• a zone of storage of daily used products and objects;
• sink zone;
• zone of preparation of products;
• cooking zone.

the Zone of storage of stocks of products - an integral part of the territory of stocks to which the refrigerator and the freezer belong. Except the perishable and frozen products all groceries - grain, macaroni, sugar, flour, canned food, coffee, tea, etc. settle down here.

the Zone of storage of daily used products and objects has to settle down about a sink zone - it will allow to minimize the movements connected with unfolding and arrangement of pure ware on cases.

In a sink zone the dishwasher and a sink with a case in which it is expedient to place a garbage can, and also various cleaning both the detergents and other accessories settle down. Quite often the curbstone under a sink is done to higher, than by the others that allows on time of cleaning and a sink of vegetables to lean on it elbows.

In a zone of the preparation of products (or a working zone) located between a sink and a plate the main working surface in kitchen is. It has to be well lit and have width not less than 90 cm. In the same zone all kitchen accessories necessary for daily cooking and the most often used products are placed: salt, vinegar, oil, sauces, spices, seasonings. The table on which products settle accounts can be allocated on height or width of a table-top.

In a preparation zone the plate, an oven, the microwave oven, an extract is. Also in a zone pans, frying pans, kitchen stock, baking sheets and lattices, tacks, cookbooks and maintenance instructions are located. Do not place a plate and a sink nearby: water, as we know, are not on friendly terms with fire, and the splashes which got on the heated rings or an open flame are quite dangerous.

## Kitchen lighting

Two absolutely identical kitchens with different lighting will look absolutely differently. Some designers advise to begin to plan kitchen from distribution of light sources.

In the majority of kitchens ceiling lighting in kitchen is provided to

with one source. This option is effective only for small rooms. For uniform distribution of light it is expedient to provide several lamps in a wide kitchen. At the same time, the more the quantity of light sources, the below can be their power and, therefore, dimensions. Multiposition lighting can be arranged by means of small lamps with halogen lamps.

Experts consider that you should not fill in evenly kitchen with the general light and suggest to focus ceiling sources of lighting over its main functional zones: the working front, a dining table and a bar counter if, of course, that is available in your kitchen.

Unusual addition to the main illumination of kitchen is light in lockers with translucent or trellised doors. Such light source, first of all, has a functional purpose - it highlights internal space and contents of a case, turning it thereby from a set of utilitarian objects into fantastically beautiful surroundings.

In the lower part of a working zone dot lamps which are built in under a table-top will be pertinent

: they will emphasize the handles of cases which are an important element of style of your complete kitchen.

For illumination of a working zone two versions of lamps are most effective

: a row single, fixed on a ceiling, and dot which are built in eaves over the upper edge of hinged cases. If hinged cases in your kitchen have no eaves, can arrange lamps on flexible or mobile arms.

according to scientists, the lack of light causes the increased production of sleep hormone - melatonin and along with it shortage of serotonin - “happiness hormone“. For this reason at many people in northern latitudes in the winter often there comes oppressed, the drowsiness. It is possible to compensate a lack of light in the London “Dana Cafe“ located in the museum now.
Here, in separate restrooms with convenient sofas, are established the special lamps radiating bright light. Each lamp gives light in 10 000 luxury that approximately five times more brightly usual, day, lighting. In the weakening atmosphere twenty-minute sessions of a svetoterapiya which compensate shortage of a sunlight are held, help the person to cheer up and improve mood. In the middle of the last winter all places in this cafe were painted for two months ahead. (On materials of the Illyuminator magazine).

Illumination of a working zone of kitchen is formed by local light sources. Keep in mind that the lamp will help business only if it is located in strictly certain place and at the necessary level as the table-top has to be most well lit. The incident light also as much as possible has to cover area of a desktop, sink and plate. Sometimes there is enough lighting which is built in a kitchen extract. If light from an extract is supplemented with other lamps, choose spectrally close sources. In extracts the following types of lamps can be used.

• of of the Glow lamp (20 - 40 W) - a light source with a radiator in the form of a thread from refractory metal. Are heated by electric current. In a lamp vacuum. Such lamps give to food color with shift towards red in comparison with natural color.
• Fluorescent lamps (9 - 13 W) represent a gas-discharge light source of low pressure. They create a uniform diffused light of small brightness. These lamps consume energy 90% less, than the glow lamp. Their light is closer to violet and blue areas therefore they are called “cold“ lamps. The food by the light of fluorescent lamps looks less natural and less appetizing.
• Halogen lamps - glow lamps which part of gas mix halogens are (most often - iodine or bromine). The color range of these lamps is closest to natural lighting. The food looks appetizingly, beautifully, volume. Halogen lamps possess bigger light return and the best stability of a light stream.

needs Separately to stop on illumination of island kitchen . If in the middle of island kitchen the plate is located, it is necessary to equip a working zone with an extract with the powerful built-in lamps: so, together with the top general lighting them will be quite enough for all kitchen affairs. If the extract over the autonomous working front is absent, comfortable lighting can be created by means of various lamps on the extended cords. Their axes should not go beyond a contour of a working surface, and it is the best of all if they are crossed with a table-top axis. Light from the hanging lamps should not arrest attention therefore the disseminating “dairy“ lamp shades are in this case the optimal solution.

two main options of placement of the lamp in a lunch zone Are possible

. If a dining table is located in kitchen space freely , most often to a ceiling over a table suspend the single lamp which height is chosen randomly, depending on concrete requirements. It is convenient if this height is regulated: highly located lamp will make a table more solemn, and low - “chamber“ and cozy. It is necessary that the surface all of a table was captured by light spot therefore the main requirement to the lamp shade over a table - that it provided the intensive, directed to a table-top light.

Space over a big dining table can be designated also group of small lamps on the long bases about which there was a speech above. These lamps it is possible to arrange in a geometrical order and it is any, to vary bar length, creating thereby various original compositions.

the Table standing at a wall , it is possible to light by means of one or two sconces which fasten at the height about a meter from table-top level. It is convenient if sconces are equipped with long arms, and the light stream will be directed down. Not less pertinent on such table also the high desk lamp with the dense lamp shade which not only will decorate your kitchen space will look, but also will become the integral addition to an evening and night sit-round gathering.

• Of course, it is necessary to remember also that lamps have to be an integral part of a kitchen interior and not discord with its general style.
• Have
• also in a look and the fact that if you want to grow thin, bulbs of small heat will be relevant to loss of appetite in your kitchen.
• Besides, experts recommend not to use blue and green plafonds in kitchen lighting - even the most appetizing dishes at such lighting will look stale and unappetizing.
• The lamps supplied with rheostats will allow you to create the lighting in kitchen appropriate to a concrete case - festive or romantic, chamber - intimate.

Successful to you purchases and bon appetit!:-)