``Oxygen hunger``. What is a fruit hypoxia?
the Conclusion “the pre-natal hypoxia of a fruit“ always causes alarm in future mothers. They have quite natural questions: what is the state, what its consequences and whether it is possible to prevent it?
the Hypoxia of a fruit is a complex of changes in a fruit organism from - for insufficient supply with oxygen. It not an independent disease, but a consequence of various pathological processes proceeding in an organism of mother, a fruit and in a placenta.by
What the hypoxia is dangerous?Oxygen insufficiency leads
to violation of work of an organism, change of exchange processes. In different terms of pregnancy oxygen insufficiency has different consequences for a fruit. On early terms it leads to emergence of anomalies of development, delay of development of an embryo. In late terms of pregnancy oxygen starvation conducts to a fruit growth inhibition, defeat of its central nervous system, reduces adaptation opportunities of the newborn.Should tell
that the organism of a fruit possesses the good compensatory abilities necessary for maintenance of the necessary level of a blood-groove. It is reached due to increase in heart rate up to 150 - 160 beats per minute, a special structure of fetalny (fruit) hemoglobin which is better, than hemoglobin of adults, takes and holds oxygen. Blood saturation reduction by oxygen leads to change of processes of a metabolism at a fruit. All its bodies and systems begin to work with bigger activity. The fruit seeks to provide with blood vitals (a brain, kidneys, heart), at the same time there comes the intestines hypoxia, and, therefore, release of meconium (first-born a calla). But, unfortunately, possibilities of these compensatory mechanisms have a limit, and at a long adverse effect protection weakens. And, first of all, the nervous system since now it is conventional that one of the most kislorodozavisimy and, therefore, the most sensitive to the damaging action of a hypoxia, is nervous tissue which becomes initial object of pathological influence of a lack of oxygen suffers.
the Hypoxia detains maturing of structures of a brain at an embryo from 6 - 11 weeks of development, causes violations of a structure and functioning of vessels, slows down maturing of a gematoentsefalichesky barrier. This barrier represents the protective mechanism of the central nervous system - system of capillaries of a brain, and any its damages threaten normal functioning of a brain.
the Insignificant hypoxia usually does not affect on health of future child. The heavy hypoxia is followed by ischemia (sites with deficiency of a blood-groove) and necroses (sites of destruction of fabrics) in various bodies that leads to irreversible consequences. In the postnatal period neurologic violations at the child who was born from the pregnancy proceeding in the conditions of a hypoxia vary in the wide range: from functional frustration before heavy violations of mental development.
Why the hypoxia arises?the Factors promoting development of a hypoxia are numerous
. First of all, it diseases of mother. Among them anemia is decrease in total of hemoglobin. At anemia the main function of erythrocytes - delivery of oxygen to body tissues is broken.
in the presence of the acquired and congenital heart diseases, diseases of a myocardium, chronic diseases of lungs in the conditions of the raised load of these bodies pregnant women most often have an insufficiency of blood circulation at which microcirculation in fabrics is broken, owing to what the phenomena of a hypoxia and violation in work of system “mother - a placenta - a fruit“ gradually develop.
of the Disease of respiratory system (bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, etc.) also adversely influence the course of pregnancy. They become the reason of respiratory insufficiency which consequence the hypoxia of bodies and tissues of the woman and, respectively, a fruit is. Diseases of kidneys, diabetes can cause violations of intake of oxygen to a fruit too.
violations the fruit grower - a placentary blood-groove are Other reasons of developing of a hypoxia that takes place at a pregnancy perenashivaniye, threat of premature birth, pathologies of a placenta and an umbilical cord, anomalies of patrimonial activity, other complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
To a hypoxia are led also by fruit diseases: a hemolytic illness (the state arising at incompatibility on a blood type of a fruit and mother), pre-natal infection, congenital malformations, a long sdavleniye of a head at the time of delivery. As you can see, it is enough reasons.
Diagnosis of a hypoxia
Independently can suspect a fruit hypoxia, watching changes of its physical activity. In an initial stage the uneasy behavior of a fruit, increase and strengthening of stirs is noted. At the long or progressing hypoxia there is a weakening of movements of a fruit. It demands the immediate address to the doctor and application of additional methods of research, such as a kardiotokografiya (KTG) and a dopplerometriya, research of amniotic waters, laboratory diagnostics. A symptom of a hypoxia is the fruit growth inhibition.
of Kardiotokografiya is one of modern high-informative methods of diagnostics of a pre-natal condition of a fruit during pregnancy with use of the cardiomonitor. The assessment of a state is made on the basis of the analysis of heart rate of a fruit and its physical activity. Carrying out such research in labor is especially important. When performing this research receive two schedules: one reflects fruit heart rate, another - its physical activity. At the same time reductions of a uterus are registered. Having estimated how heartbeat changes depending on stirs or fights, it is possible to judge a condition of the baby. This research is conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy on term of 32 weeks.
In labor by the main criterion of a hypoxia of a fruit is violation of its warm activity therefore cardiomonitor supervision over a condition of a fruit is widely used in labor.
of Dopplerometriya is one of methods of ultrasonic research, the character allowing to study and speed of a blood-groove in vessels of a placenta and umbilical cord in which violation leads to development of a hypoxia.Ultrasonic research (ultrasonography) is also important
for diagnosis of a hypoxia. As pre-natal development of a fruit from the moment of implantation - introductions of fetal egg in a mucous membrane of a uterus - before childbirth proceeds in the water environment (amniotic liquid), the great value for diagnostics of pathological conditions of a fruit is allocated for structure, volume and color of amniotic waters. Almost all listed parameters can be estimated by means of ultrasonography.amniotic waters throughout a long time Are normal of
remain uniform. Since about 28 - y weeks in amniotic liquid at ultrasonic research it is possible to see a fine suspension which is not a sign of violation of activity of a fruit. Small particles represent a slushchenny epithelium of integuments and elements of syrovidny greasing of a fruit - at the end of the fifth month of pregnancy (20 weeks) sebaceous glands begin to emit fatty substance which mixes up with scales of epidermis and forms the syrovidny greasing covering fruit skin with a thin layer. This greasing protects fruit skin from the destroying influence of amniotic waters. However ultrasonography not fully allows to estimate a condition and the composition of amniotic waters characteristic of a hypoxia.
the Expressed changes of volume of amniotic waters have practical value. As the expressed lack of water, and abundance of water are trouble signs.
of Amnioskopiya (amnio in translation from Greek “a fetal cover“, and skopeo - “I consider“) - survey of the lower pole of a fetal bubble by means of the endoscopic device entered into the canal of a neck of a uterus. Amnioskopiya is applied to an assessment of a condition of a fruit at suspicion on perenashivany pregnancies, a chronic or sharp hypoxia of a fruit, at incompatibility on a blood type of mother and a fruit, the burdened obstetric anamnesis (pregnancy not incubation, spontaneous abortions, heavy gestoza, premature birth). On color, transparency, amount of amniotic waters, character of flakes of first-born greasing, availability of meconium and some other signs estimate a fruit condition. Amnioskopiya has a number of contraindications, such as bloody allocations from a genital tract (suspicion on prelying of a placenta - a state at which the placenta blocks an exit from a uterus), the colpitis, tservitsit also other infectious processes of a genital tract, pregnancy interruption threat. Complications at an amnioskopiya (premature izlity amniotic waters and development of patrimonial activity, bleeding, accession of an infection) are extremely rare.Colour of amniotic liquid which also serves as the indicator of a condition of a fruit in mother`s womb is estimated by
, as a rule, in the first period of childbirth, after an izlitiya of amniotic waters. At normally proceeding water pregnancy colourless and almost transparent. Coloring of amniotic waters in green color meconium (so call a first-born chair) is one of signs of oxygen insufficiency of a fruit, i.e. its hypoxia.
Treatment of a hypoxia
At suspicion on a chronic hypoxia of a fruit (toxicoses of pregnant women, ekstragenitalny diseases of the woman, etc.) the pregnant woman is hospitalized or sent to the diagnostic center for research of a condition of a fruit, clarification of the reason of a hypoxia. The actions directed to improvement matochno - placentary blood circulation and normalization of exchange processes of a fruit, it is possible to carry out on an outpatient basis.
in the absence of contraindications to pregnant women can be appointed an akvagimnastika in combination with a complex of breathing exercises. During respiratory gymnastics there is a relaxation of a tone of a uterus and all organism, process of digestion of oxygen a fruit amplifies. Connection of a set of exercises of an akvagimnastika promotes a bigger decrease in a tone of a uterus, strengthening of exchange processes in an organism of mother and a fruit, to digestion of oxygen a fruit. All actions are resulted by reduction of symptoms of a pre-natal hypoxia of a fruit.
For pregnant women with a chronic pre-natal hypoxia of a fruit. The bed rest promotes improvement of blood supply of a uterus. Treatment of the main disease which led to development of a hypoxia is important. Also the therapy directed to improvement of supply of a fruit with oxygen, normalization of processes of an exchange is carried out. This therapy has to be complex. By means of medicamentous means at the same time try to reach:
- of expansion of vessels matochno - and plodovo - placentary departments of a placenta (EUFILLIN, BUT - ShPA);
- of relaxation of muscles of a uterus (GINIPRAL, MAGNE - In 6 );
- of normalization of rheological properties of blood in system “mother - a placenta - a fruit“ (TRENTAL, AKTOVEGIN).
in the absence of effect of complex therapy, deterioration in a condition of a fruit at pregnancy term resolves more than 28 weeks an issue of the emergency rodorazresheniye by operation of Cesarean section.
If pregnancy proceeded in the conditions of a chronic pre-natal hypoxia of a fruit, childbirth conducts with obligatory cardiomonitor supervision over a condition of a fruit since it raises possibilities of diagnosis of a sharp hypoxia and allows to resolve rationally an issue of further tactics of conducting childbirth.