Rus Articles Journal

House education. Pluses and minuses of

Each parent wants to give to the child the best, to provide the most favorable conditions for its development - both intellectual, and personal. How to organize education and training of the child to whom to entrust formation of his personality and development of abilities? To be engaged in development of the child independently, to address the help of the nurse, to rely on individual tutoring of professionals or to seize the opportunities of private or state public education?

the Choice in this situation is ambiguous

as each option has the pluses and minuses.

family education is represented to

For many parents more natural, especially for the preschool child - the child grows in habitual house conditions, with observance of the physiologic mode, without excess stresses and overloads. Any, even the most remarkable tutor, will not be able to provide to all children “house“ quality of care at once. The child is younger, the it is more important household trifles which surround him - whether in time to him changed panties whether helped to wash and clean a nose, whether gave enough time to cope with a lunch whether paid attention that the kid was tired, etc. Quite often parents have also quite reasonable desire to protect the child from communication with not the most pleasant environment - both children, and adults in child care facility. Probably, many, passed a preschool educational system, have negative memories of it. And that is not so simple to get rid of such impressions. In this sense long house education gives to parents more opportunities to impart to the child good manners and to influence formation of his personality. If there are a desire and opportunities parents can be engaged with the kid independently or employ the governess or tutors which will add an “educational“ environment of the child.

In general, education of the child begins in a family, family education - a basis of informative abilities of the kid. The first teachers of the baby are his parents. And their influence remains very long in spite of the fact that the child becomes more senior, the training out of a family begins to play a large role. Influence of close adults is expressed in expansion of an outlook of the child, that parents, grandmothers and grandfathers cultivate to it interest in various areas of knowledge and creativity. The conditions created for development of the kid in a family define how he will study whether he will seek for receiving new knowledge or will be limited to that minimum which guarantees it quiet existence at school.

But, having stopped on option of exclusively family education, parents meets difficulties of both technical, and quite substantial character. In - the first, there is a question of ensuring informative development of the child - the choice of educational programs, selection of house teachers, “pulling up“ of knowledge and abilities of the child to requirements of the standard program of school training (exclusively family education in our country so far a rarity, as a rule, sooner or later the child leaves in system of public school education). The child who is brought up at home is deprived of the most valuable that gives to children training in group - it is ability to concentrate on an explanation of the teacher and an opportunity to compare the progress to achievements of peers, this comparison allows to realize quality of the knowledge without what full training is impossible.


In - the second, at the child who is regularly not visiting child care educational institutions considerably limit communication out of a family. He does not get a vast experience of communication and interaction with children and adults, available to his peers in kindergartens, groups of development and children`s clubs.

Visit of groups of short-term stay, esthetic studios, kindergarten, a gymnasium or school, offers the child ample opportunities of communication and training together with other children. The child learns to build the relations with different people independently. With adults - tutors and teachers, the child learns to submit to the general discipline (that is necessary for adaptation to requirements of school), learns to overcome the shyness and doubts, to ask questions and to ask about the help. Also the child learns to establish the relations at “a social distance“ - kind, but not relatives, learns to protect the psychological space, to demand respect from people around, to defend the opinion in socially acceptable forms.

Many parents are afraid that in big children`s collective the child will be lost, feel uncomfortablly. At first this is true, but over time a various children`s environment becomes a clear advantage. The child has an opportunity to communicate, interact, compete, quarrel and to agree with different children - both with noisy, and with stubborn, and with aggressive, and with shy. There is an opportunity to choose to itself friends, to establish the first close relations with peers, the child to begin to learn the code of equality and association. Intensive communication with children, without constant control and support from adults teaches the child of flexibility of behavior, ability not to work on the first motivation, and to assess a situation, to consider opinion of other children. Only in communication with equal, the detsentration - understanding that it is possible to see the same situation differently that others have interests which need to be considered to continue to communicate and play together is possible.

the Choice between exclusively family and public education is not simple

. Probably, the best exit from this situation is the individual approach to training of the child who is applicable to both options of the organization of the educational environment - and to family education, and to training in public institutions.

the Individual approach to training

Individual training, tutoring and psychological maintenance on that and individual that to use it is dosed in different situations and for different children. And here It is necessary to distinguish accurately an individual approach to training which is necessary at occupations with any child regardless of his personal features, and actually individual training assuming that the child is engaged only in private with the teacher.

the Individual approach to training of the child assumes that both the originality of the child, and the educational and educational purposes of his parents is considered.

intellectual, informative development is more important than

For one parent. Another can be guided by development of creative abilities of the kid more. The third sees the education purpose in expansion of opportunities of the child to independently look for a solution, to seek for achievement of the planned purposes.

to Parents of any child it is useful for p to address the help of the competent teacher, psychologist, logopedist for definition strong and weaknesses of development of the kid, creation of an individual trajectory of its development from time to time. The expert will help to define what possibilities of the child at the moment, to estimate his inclinations and interests, and the most important - to construct the forecast of its development for the near future, with detailed recommendations of how in what form, it is how intensively necessary to conduct the developing work.

Circulation periods behind consultations first of all depend on needs of the child and parents, but also are in many respects attached also to requirements of an education system. Now it is possible to say that it is useful to show the child to specialists in training and mental development (to the psychologist, the logopedist, the early development teacher or the preschool teacher of 1 ) aged:
of 1 can address these experts in the centers specializing in early development in the psychological centers or in medical institutions.

Such consultations will help the parents and teachers working with the child to adapt the program of training to needs of the child, to make the individual plan of its development which can be realized also within public group education. In most cases it is enough to place some accents, to allocate the parties of development of the child needing special attention (additional classes according to the standard or alternative program, tutoring or special correction with participation of experts: speech pathologists, physicians or psychologists). At the same time all advantages of public education are supplemented with care of development of the specific child without leveling of its personal originality.

Actually individual training in a form is very useful for

in those spheres where it is possible to speak about development of special abilities of the child, endowments - in music, painting, dances, sport, etc. Working with such child in private, the teacher will be able to give him much more, than in group, and the child, without being distracted by other children, concentrates better on what it is trained in.

Other sphere of application of individual training - work with so-called “difficult“, “special“ children. If the child has serious problems with health, obvious lag from peers or behavioural problems, of course, is better to be engaged with teachers individually, and to communicate with peers not on occupations, and in the yard, at a playground, in group of communication or children`s club.

By the way, quite often individual training becomes unique not only for children with lag in development, but also for those who considerably are ahead of peers on the knowledge, abilities, a focus of interest, rates of working capacity. The exceptional child, despite all the high achievements, needs special attention of parents and teachers as its mentality experiences big strain, than at “average“ children of the same age. The advancing in intellectual development often is not followed by an advancing in development personal. Therefore, having early begun to be engaged in a preschool gymnasium or school, jumping through a class, the child can appear in a difficult situation. It drops out of communication with children of the age, but cannot enter into the company of the seniors on age of messmates, on their background looks infantile. In this case it is useful to train the child individually, supplementing training with occupations with children of one age in those spheres where abilities of the child approach average.

But at the same time exclusively individual training has also a number of negative consequences for development of the child. In - the first, communication only with the tutor or the tutor limits possibilities of communication of the child with peers that not in the best way affects his ability to interact with people around, abilities to feel surely in society. In - the second, when training in group the child always has an opportunity to compare the achievements to progress of peers that positively influences formation of a self-assessment of the child, ability to treat crucially the progress and the made efforts. Therefore it is not necessary to seek needlessly for individual training. Communicating with the teacher personally, being under continuous supervision and in the center of attention, the child acquires program material quicker, but seizes skills of self-training worse. And for success in adulthood knowledge, how many ability independently them are necessary not so much to get.

Everything is good in its season

So to choose - house training, tutors, kindergarten or board? How to combine possibilities of different forms of education and education?

Probably, each parent has a clear idea of how it is necessary to train the child what mistakes should be avoided. At the same time we are based first of all on negative or positive experience, remembering the school days. A lot of things depend also on financial opportunities of a family to give to the child good education. But with other things being equal it is possible to mark out the general age features of the organization of training of the child which introduce the amendments in creation of the individual development plan for the child.

At different age the child needs different forms of communication and training, and it should be considered at the organization of the developing environment. The best results are yielded by a flexible and harmonious combination of the developing opportunities of a family and efforts of professional teachers.

Training, as well as education, begins with the child`s birth. From the first days, communicating with close adults the baby learns - to look and see, listen and listen, to be an attentive, to ask for help and to work most. In infancy there is not only a style of relationship with people around, but also style of intellectual activity of the child which directly influences the subsequent progress of the child in training. to the Baby is the most important close relations with mother. Mother, communication with it becomes for it a source of new impressions, new interests and forces to investigate this world. Generally speaking, at this age any games, any interaction with the child can be considered as the real developing occupation. Actually education at this age is realized through the organization of the developing environment and communication with adults. At the same time participation of the professional teacher can be limited to consultation on creation of the game developing environment, selection of toys and the organization of a day regimen of the child.

the Child grows up, every day of its opportunity extend, and the attentive parent sees how quickly the kid grabs all new that appears in his environment. Such fast rate of development quite often just bewitches. Small children blow the mind of adults the abilities - becomes visible about one and a half years that the child has a mass of inclinations. Many mothers and fathers want to use the moment, to begin systematic training of the child. Especially as the age from 1,5 to 2,5 years owing to a number of factors is very favorable for mastering various skills - children easily seize informal conversation in foreign languages, study a raw sensation of shades of color, music sounds, are capable to self-express without any shyness in the movement under music.

But the developing work with kids - a task not the simplest. Unlike the school student and the more so the adult, the child has no aspiration to study, to do correctly, it is better, than usually at it it turns out. Till three years most of children want not to study at vztall, and just seek to work - it is correct not to speak, and to talk, not to remember names of geometrical figures, and to build of them a lodge, not to consider the picture, and to turn over pages, not to draw accurately, and to play with paints, etc. Activity restriction, the requirement of accuracy, the attentive relation to what is done by the adult quite often, causes an indignation storm in the child - the adult prevents it to act as there is a wish! In general at occupations with small children it is always necessary to remember that the intellectual potential of the kid, as a rule, strongly advances his opportunities to operate the behavior therefore “not concentration“ of two-year-olds should be taken for granted.

Training at this age is possible

only through game with the child, at the same time it is useful to follow a plan of the kid and it is very correct to offer the new vision of a situation, new ways of action yet not familiar to the baby. The child develops, learns world around, its regularities through own research actions and adults can help it with it, having given an opportunity of joint research of opportunities of objects in the kinds of activity available to the kid - in drawing - paints (a brush or fingers), pencils, felt-tip pens, pieces of chalk, in a molding, in application, in games with water, sand, sticks and stones, grain, the test, flour, etc. [2]. Restlessness of the young researcher as persistently he demands new games and as quickly passes from one occupation to another is familiar to each mother. Assiduity, concentration of attention - not the strengths of the child till three years. Of course, it is necessary to develop ability to be engaged in one business long time, but to force the kid it is impossible - he quickly is tired, can be irritated, or at all loses interest in the imposed occupations. On the other hand, the regularity is very important for the developing occupations at this age. The child qualitatively seizes new abilities gradually, only if similar situations in which again and again what interested him last time repeats are constantly created.

Besides, it is worth to remember about personal immaturity of the kid. Despite all the talents, he is not ready to communicate independently with teachers out of a family yet. The room of the child in the most remarkable day nursery, with great teachers and the strange developing environment, an enduring separation from mother, quite often become so heavy stress that its consequences continue to affect as early as many years, disturbing the child not only to harmoniously build the relations with people around, but also to study successfully. Therefore education and training of the kid at this age out of a family environment can hardly be considered as favorable option.

can Organize systematic occupations with the child of the house, but it is difficult.

In - the first because mother has a mass of other duties and interests, and even at big desire and readiness most to be engaged in

with the kid, to do it regularly not easy - it is necessary also just to walk on the street, to play and communicate with the child and without the developing purposes.

In - the second, in general a position of mother or nurse and a position of the tutor different. From close adults the child waits for unconditional acceptance, understanding and support, appreciates in them ability to rejoice to his ideas, to be to his copresent experiences. Therefore how many - nibud strict requirements and restrictions in research activity the child can regard as an unfriendly step from outside “the“ adult that will not be slow to affect relationship. The tutor, the tutor is interesting to the child that he new, others people for him. And for the sake of maintenance of contact with the interesting person the child is ready to act by those rules which offer it:“ You want to draw together with me, then dress fartuchek and sit down at a little table, otherwise I cannot give you a brush “, “ you were already tired, but let`s finish gluing this lodge, it is necessary to us to play with you new game“. Respectively and the effect for development of the child of such occupations is usually higher. In general communication with the kind foreign adult gives to the child very important experience of conditional acceptance in life. In absolutely comfortable and psychologically safe situation the kid begins to understand that there are requirements which should be carried out to be accepted in game, collective, society.

B - the third as opportunities to keep attention on one subject at the small child are limited, during occupations that essential is very important to allocate that it is worth informing the kid of. It is important that the volume of information or complexity of skill which is formed at the child did not exceed his power opportunities. Therefore except the good training program also professional approach to occupations is important. The specialist in early development on that and the expert to understand the reasons of difficulties of the child and competently to help it - not to do for it and not to force everything to remake most, and to quickly find what impedes the correct implementation and in common to correct errors.

For the child of early age, from a year to three years ideal option of the developing occupations is visit several times a week of occupations in groups of development where professionalism of teachers is combined with a possibility of an individual approach to each child (as children in group no more than six - eight) and pluses from communication of the child with peers. Presence of other children, their participation in occupations not only gives to the kid the chance to be improved in skills of communication, but also forces to belong with a great interest to training, broadens its horizons. And presence of the accompanying adult - mothers or nurses, allows the baby to feel confident and is protected. At the same time it is very important that occupations alternated with kids joint games, communication, but did not turn into routine “informative“ work. More opportunities for development of the child give not occupations of “kruzhkovy“ type - for 30 - 45 minutes, and more long programs of short-term stay which provide full work of group of children both in the direction of receiving new knowledge, and in improvement of skills of communication.

After of four years to most of children it is useful for p to continue the education in preschool institution or to regularly attend long classes in the developing groups. It is connected with the fact that the program of training at school and at preschool age, gradually becomes complicated, it is necessary to be engaged much and qualitatively. Besides, after four years the role of regular communication with other children - both for formation of social skills, and for intellectual development and the general mental activation of the child considerably increases that very strongly affects his mental development. But at the same time you should not forget also about a role of a family environment. Communication with parents, grandmothers and grandfathers, elder brothers and sisters broadens the child`s horizons, not only provides it confidence, but also actively influences development of its intellectual interests, aspiration to study and achieve the objectives in life.