Parma time of
When last fall I was invited to go to Italy, to Parma, for three days, I was surprised: what can be seen during this time? It appeared, a lot of things. It is just necessary to go, without stopping
History and the present
the City of Parma, unlike many other European cities, deliberately does not position itself in any way. It not really needs it. Some resort town only also has that the beach, but be sure: photos of this beach will frighten you from any noticeable wall. Parma - quite another matter.
History does not battle against the present here, and goes with it hand in hand. Here one of the most bright examples. The cathedral which is blown up in an attack of inexplicable hatred by Napoleon did not begin to be restored, on his place constructed the fountain in accuracy repeating outlines of a former basilica and where there were columns, planted trees. Who will understand clever post-modernist game, will estimate it. Who will not understand - will just admire the fountain.
Over Pyazz Duomo Square the tower Baptisteries, that is Baptisteries, and inside it at all not such as outside, - is much more spacious rises. It is erected at the very beginning of the 14th century, was under construction more than hundred years, and the architectural styles which were slowly changing in architecture of Italy of that time were noted in it one by one, from late Romance to Gothic. The marble baptistery Baptisteries is cut from an integral piece of marble and is big so that in it it is possible to christen also adults. What, thank God, also becomes still. Lists are more similar on Byzantine, than to the classical Italian, reminding of time of unity of the Roman catholic and Eastern Church.charm of Parma is not settled by
But architecture and the museums. And heart of the expert on a gastronomy cannot remain quiet even at its one mention. Here at least two greatest Italian specialist programmes - Parma ham and cheese parmesan are made.
the Main cheese in the world
I let French do not take offense. At them there is a lot of cheeses, but they generally - take yes you eat. And here without parmesan - in Italy it is called “parmidzhano redzhano“ - a half of dishes even do not think to prepare. Real cornerstone of both the Italian, and international cuisine. It is good still that the world has in it no deficiency. What actions are taken in Parma for this purpose, we learned, having visited traditional cheese dairy.
the Common feature of all traditional cheese dairies (including where do parmesan): milk is transported on very small distance. It is obvious that it is the easiest and effective way of control of raw materials. When you shake hands with the supplier of milk year after year, he will hardly begin to deceive you suddenly. From the point of view of technology that, as milk, and cheese from it are made practically in one place, provides such quality of a product which not to achieve coercive measures. However, which - what rules exist and are even fixed legislatively. For example, cows whose milk goes for parmesan preparation, have to receive only a fresh grass, hay or a lucerne as a forage. Any hormones and other magic bubbles. Of course, it affects the price. And on quality.Taste of the present parmidzhano is redzhano at the same time refined and rough
. How to tell about it more precisely? It is only possible to tell as this taste turns out. The secret which is not protected by anybody consists in use of partially skim milk. Milk is poured in huge tubs and left for the night. Skim off in the morning slightly podkisshy cream (from them, as a rule, cook mascarpone cheese), and mix skim milk with the same amount of fresh pair milk.
This mix are poured in copper, conical shape by coppers, and cook on slow fire. It is simpler to describe, than to make. Quite hard, monotonous and exhausting work demanding constant concentration. Behind a condition of the formed cheese clot watch as the small child. Mix is periodically mixed, the arising prematurely cottage cheese pieces ruthlessly break. When the clot admits ready, it is caught by means of a piece of usual cotton fabric, wrung out and sent to float in bathtubs with a brine.
Then ready cheeses are stacked on shelves of the storeroom and left to ripen. Maturing can last till four years. And all this time parmidzhano is redzhano overturned, wiped (it does the automatic machine) and checked (and it are people). From time to time the warehouse is visited by the representatives of Consortium on quality control armed with special hammers tap them cheese circles and define what they suit for. Often this or that circle of parmesan is removed from storage and goes to shop where it will be sold rather cheap. There is no place to ripen to it more. Such cheese, of course, possesses all declared properties, but in a rudimentary stage. Its taste prostovat. At the same time such inexpensive parmesan quite is suitable for cooking. But the cheese which was growing ripe four years - the real cheese aristocracy. It is very good to give it to champagne. But any cheese maker will tell that this champagne should be served to parmidzhano redzhano, and not vice versa.
the Crown sideways
Italy already for a long time stopped being the monarchy. The only place where it is possible to see a royal crown here, - a side of Parma gammon.
In Russia Parma ham “proshutto di parma“ is known rather well. At least, in restaurant sector no similar product can compete with it, even not less worthy jamon. I do not know how in other cities of Russia, but in Moscow fell in love proshutto. Taste of Parma ham is usually described in the terms more peculiar to wine criticism. Very often such characteristics as “corpulent“, “full“, “silky“ meet. The most amusing that these words in the annex to wine sounding a little artificially in a case with proshutto hit exactly. Yes, Parma gammon such is as speak about it.
Why it is made in Parma? Well, now it is done because so it developed. And began production from - for inimitable Parma climate. There is a unique air, rather dry and quite cold, - from the Apennines winds blow all the time. And this air perfectly is suitable for slow drying of pork gammon.
Initially production of Parma ham was guided only by seasons. Now all these climatic changes are reproduced artificially: gammons just transport from one refrigerator in another, then - to the hall with usual storage conditions. The risk of foreign impact on process of maturing is minimized, and process became almost routine. The equipment becomes more expensive and cleverer and it seems that it will absolutely replace the person soon. As a matter of fact, anybody not against.
of People took in this case the places of honor: account, control and cookery. In 1963 the Consortium of Parma ham was created, it then united 23 producers, this product anxious with image. Now them 189. The main occupation of inspectors of consortium - to watch that the hobby for new technologies did not conflict to traditional nature of production.
For descriptive reasons can give an example: not important, who rotates a mill wheel, a donkey, wind or an electric motor, - grain has to be ground the present. The same and with ham. As gammons from the refrigerator in the refrigerator are transported, interests nobody. But here monitor differences of temperatures strictly. And something is not heard about cases of deprivation of some producer of the right of production.Ways of giving of Parma ham are quite traditional
. Everyone knows that it is the best of all to eat it with a melon. But to Italians it already rather bored. You represent, every day. Therefore they think out also other combinations. First of all with fresh fig. Besides, it is offered to serve ham with thinly cut pear, pineapple, a kiwi and a papaya. From myself I will add that it is important not to go too far in a garnish in this case. You remember: here the conducting actor - ham.by
Krom to the whole world of the known ham in Parma makes still, probably, several tens not less interesting meat delicacies and other sausages and sausages. It is pancetta - pork jowl without which in Parma do not think of preparation of spaghetti carbonara. Culatello di Zibello - in a special way the made pork brisket; it is made on only several farms located on river banks On and it surely should be bought - kulatello di dzibello is exported abroad, but outside Parma you pay for it absolutely other money. An excellent Parma mortadella - its types are innumerable, and, despite external similarity with our doctor`s sausage, any of them has with it nothing in common. And still Kopp, fyochetto and whole constellation of various salamis, big and small. If you are in Parma, here to you council: do not spend all money for clothes (boutiques in this city, as well as everywhere in Italy so many that though do not leave; at the same time the prices in them quite favourably differ from, say, Milan or Roman), leave though a little on products - nothing similar you will meet anywhere.
By the way, business is not limited to meat specialist programmes. It is known that any city in Italy is proud of the paste, and Parma not an exception. The whole world is crazy about masterpieces of Parma preservation long ago - anchovies better Parma it is difficult to find, and about uncountable banks of the vegetables preserved with a big invention which in each little shop special, and it is not necessary to tell. Here even the mushrooms are, by name “borgotaro“.
In general the normal tourist leaving Parma looks so: at least polukruzhy parmidzhano redzhano under the arm, on a linking of a salami in hands, kulatello di dzibello in teeth. In a suitcase all this was not located - there the bottle of local olive oil, couple of bottles of cheap, but such charming “Lambrusco“ (if you do not know - red, dry, sparkling wine) and any different canned food already lies. And cookies. And expectation of an inevitable payment for an overload at the airport which seldom comes true - local frontier guards treat the stunned tourists with understanding. It is necessary to tell, cookies seldom reach to Moscow. Even very few people inform of it the plane. Eats on the road.