We develop memory of
Parents often are perplexed why their kid hardly studies a rhyme which was set by a holiday, and remembers the fallen in love songs or verses easily and can repeat them infinitely? What abilities to storing depend on? And, whether the most important it is possible to develop memory of the child?
Development of memory consists in high-quality changes of processes of memory and in transformation of content of the fixed material. It is very important for children, and in everyday life, and in study. Not without reason at an assessment of intellectual readiness of the child for school one of the major criteria is his developed memory. It is the prerequisite to successful and versatile knowledge of the world, assimilation of new information. The more attention parents pay to development of different types of memory, attention and imagination of the kid, the intellectual potential of their child is higher. For this reason all most effective techniques of early intellectual development surely join exercises and games on development of all types of memory.
What is memory?
is a reflection of last experience. It is based on three processes - storing, preservation and reproduction.
Storing is a process of education and fixing in nervous cells of a cerebral cortex of information in the form of the nervous impulses which are transferred on shoots of these cages each other. As a result of it are established new nervously - reflex communications - ways of receipt and extraction of information. Besides, when storing there is an establishment of communication between the new and already existing ways. Communication between the separate events, the facts, objects or the phenomena reflected in our consciousness and fixed in our memory is called association. Without associations normal mental activity of the person, including, and storing is impossible.the Arriving information is saved by
in our memory in the form of a memorable trace - an engramma. All cells of a brain take part in its formation and preservation probably. But the science so far definitely does not know in what look this memorable trace is stored. The created engramma is very steady and can remain during all human life, but its extraction, that is reminiscence something can be accompanied by great difficulties. However it is proved that when training and trainings memory, the number of communications between nervous cages becomes more and more, they gain stability that leads to easier extraction of an engramma. Exercises and trainings on memory development are directed to the solution of this task. Process of saving information in memory consists of two important points - it is preservation of a memorable trace and communications in a brain. Thanks to storing and preservation, there is possible a reproduction of information, and also its recognition (remembering).
Reproduction - process of emergence in consciousness of earlier apprehended information, performance of the learned movements. At reproduction, the images fixed in memory “come to life“ quickly without auxiliary, basic information. So, for example, when explain to the person how to pass where - or, besides the name of the street and house number, give various additional information that the shop, school, the traffic light will occur in the path. When it goes to the same address next time, for search of the necessary object auxiliary information is not required, the remembering occurs quicker. It is also called good memory. But to achieve literally automatic reproduction of the necessary information, its numerous repetition is necessary.Types of manifestation of memory are extremely diverse
. Three main criteria (sign) are the basis for specific classification of memory:
1. The object of storing
Depending on what is perceived and reproduced by the person is distinguished by four main types of memory: visually - figurative, promoting good storing of persons, sounds, flowers, forms of objects and so on; verbally - logical (or verbally - semantic) at which information is remembered aurally; motive (motor) - memory of movements and emotional memory at which the endured feelings, emotions and events are remembered.
2. Extent of strong-willed regulation of memorymemory is divided
By this sign on any (which is used if it is necessary to remember something and process demands efforts from the person) and involuntary (the task of storing is not set, it occurs by itself)
3. Duration of saving information in memoryBy this criterion memory is divided by
on short-term and long-term.
On what abilities to storing depend?
Here several factors exist. First of all, the age - the is more senior the child, the better memory works for it. Such direct dependence is connected not so much with direct development of memory how many with improvement of technology of its application. The kid remembers the offered material, without making efforts, based on the natural ability. Children are more senior and adults for storing resort to certain techniques, - connect new information with former experience, forming associations, prepare notes etc. In other words, turn on the mechanism, the so-called, mediated memory more actively.
Besides age the saved-up knowledge base matters - memory develops with increase in volume of knowledge.
memory development is also influenced by the level of mental capacities - the more kid is able to do, the more actively he reflects over something, the more he is able to remember. In process of a growing of the child his mental capacities develop, and with them memory together develops.
of Feature of memory of the preschool child
the Preschool age is characterized by intensive development of ability to storing and reproduction. Memory of preschool children has generally involuntary character. Kids are not able to set yet the task to remember and do not perceive such task from adults. That is involuntarily depicted material which is included in vigorous activity. Storing and a remembering happen irrespective of will and consciousness of the child and depend on nature of its activity. For this reason new knowledge has to have some value for the baby - the more this information adjoins to its interests, the easier he will remember it.Methods of storing and a remembering the child does not invent
itself, they will be organized by the adult. The volume of remembered will depend on a condition of visual and acoustical perception and attention. Therefore from early age it is necessary to develop these abilities and the speech at children to promote development of all types of memory.
memory develops In the preschool period very intensively as children begin to ask a set of questions and receive a huge number of information. During this period on development speed it advances other abilities. Here by what ease with which 3 - 6 summer kids remember rhymes, fairy tales, counting rhymes, riddles, and also all unusual and colourful is explained.
Elements of any memory appear at the child by the end of the preschool childhood in those situations when the kid sets the task to remember and remember. This desire should be encouraged, taught in every possible way the baby to storing by means of games and exercises, to control correctness of assimilation of information.
How to develop memory at the child?with
Krom of realization of all general conditions promoting memory development special exercises and games will help to stimulate this process. As soon as the kid pronounced the first words, it is possible to discuss everything that occurs around with him: what was seen on walk, than were engaged in the morning that was eaten for breakfast with what toys pottered in a sandbox. At first, of course, adults will list all this, but gradually the baby will join game. Reading books, learning of verses, solving of riddles, puzzles, rebuses - all this besides the general development, perfectly develops memory.Reading to
with the kid the book or learning a rhyme, we thereby develop it verbally - semantic memory. Special attention should be paid on the fact that when reading children usually watch a plot, passing details and the description of characters, the phenomena therefore to read them the same fairy tale, the rhyme, the story is necessary repeatedly. Then it is possible to ask questions of read: what occurred in the fairy tale? Who what did? How looked? What it is bad what is good? etc. It is important that the child told about the described events consistently and logically. With this way of development of memory too it is simply impossible to hurry - in 1,5 - 2 children with pleasure list heroes of a rhyme or the fairy tale. By 5 years the task can be complicated, inducing the kid to retell stories.
of Game for memory development
For children of the youngest age (10 months - 1,5 years) the games developing memory exist, for example, “Find a toy“. At first in the face of the child put a toy under one of two diapers lying before him. The kid will begin to study them, as if trying to think under what toy? The concentrated expression of his face will show that he tries to remember where it was hidden. At last, he will pull off a diaper and will be delighted that was not mistaken. This experiment is repeated several times, and, the toy is always put under the same diaper. And then, under nablyudniy the kid, it is hidden under another. And, though the peanut perfectly saw everything, some time he will look for nevertheless a toy on the former place. So occurs because this option is recorded in his memory. Later, from 1 to 1,4 years, time of search are reduced: now the kid remembers where you put a toy, or even notices camber and can think that under a diaper.
the Game “Hide-and-seek“ too well helps development of memory in small kids, since 8 - 10 months. The simplest option - to throw a scarf over the person and to ask: “Where mother?“ and then to open the person or to allow the kid to pull together fabric. With the child is slightly more senior, about a year, it is possible to try to hide for several seconds for a chair or a back of a bed. When mother “disappears“, remains are held in remembrance by her image and when appears again, the kid tests genuine pleasure from coincidence of this image and mother`s shape in reality.2 years perfectly are more senior than
of Children the game “What Did Not Become?“ develops (“What is not enough“). On a little table several objects, toys are put. The child attentively watches at them one - two minutes, and then turns away. At this moment the adult cleans one of objects. The child`s task - to remember what subject is not enough (for children of the advanced preschool age more difficult option - with disappearance of two and more toys is offered). Reciprocal actions of children can be different. Depending on readiness, the kid can find a toy on other table, in the room, at more remote distance, choose the plate with the name of a toy etc. This game has also other option. The child should remember the toy location among others and after the adult behind a screen breaks this order, to return it on the former place. Also the return version - the game “Who to Us Came?“ is possible when the adult does not clean, and adds a subject or several objects behind a screen.
also one more game on storing - “Box“ Is. Kids from 2 to 6 years can play it. The box is formed from small boxes which are put in pairs, and stick together among themselves. Their quantity gradually increases (to the advanced preschool age to 12 pieces). In one of them in the face of the child hide a subject then the box for some time is closed by the screen. Then to it suggest to find a subject.
of Game for development of different types of memory
Visual memory of children of 3 - 6 years is well developed by game (similar to “Box“) under the name “Find“. For it it is necessary to stick together the 4 and 3 box from - under matches, having put them at each other so that 2 turrets turned out. At the first stage of game in one of korobk put, for example, and boxes close a button. Suggest to show to the child where put a button, in what of turrets and in what office. At the second, more difficult stage, in different offices of one of turrets hide already 2 subjects. At the third stage objects clean in different turrets, and the child needs to remember where what lies. The baby can open offices of a turret right after the subject was hidden (this development of a short-term visual memory) or, for example, in half an hour, and for the advanced preschool age - next day (development of a long-term visual memory).tactile memory, that is ability to remember feelings from a touch to various objects is very important
For development of the child. Children with advanced tactile perception experience difficulties in school training less often. The game “Learn a Subject“ can become exercise for training of this memory. To the child of the advanced preschool age tie with a scarf eyes, and in turn put various objects in his outstretched arm. At the same time their names aloud are not said, the kid himself has to guess what the thing is. After a number of objects (3 - 10) will be surveyed, to it suggest to call all these things, and, in that sequence in which they were put in a hand. Complexity of a task is that the kid needs to carry out 2 cogitative operations - recognition and storing.is younger than
For children (2 - 4 years) there is a simplified option of this game - “A wonderful sack“. In a linen sack put the objects possessing different properties: ball of threads, toy, button, ball, cube, matchbox. And the kid to the touch has to define one by one objects in a sack. It is desirable that it aloud described their properties. Small children can put objects in a sack for the best storing. To children is more senior give already filled sacks.
At the advanced preschool age can develop tactile memory of the child, training it to tie sea knots (especially as it helps also development of visual spatial imagination).
Motive memory of children of 3 - 6 years is developed by the game “Do as I“. At the first stage the adult becomes behind the back of the child and makes several manipulations with his body - raises his hands, parts them in the parties, raises a leg and so on, and then asks the kid to repeat these movements.
At the second, more difficult stage, the adult himself does several movements, and the child repeats them, then the kid makes the movements, and the adult repeats after it.
Acoustical memory of the senior preschool children is developed by the game “Wonderful Words“. It is necessary to be 20 loss for words, connected among themselves on sense: 10 couples have to turn out, for example: food - a spoon, a window - a door, a face - a nose, apple - banana, a cat - a dog. These words are read to the child 3 times, and, couples are intonatsionno allocated. After a while to the kid repeat only the first words of couples, and he has to remember the second. It is training of short-term acoustical memory. For development of long-term storing it is necessary to ask the preschool child to remember the second words of couples not at once, and half an hour later.Additional games
the Game “Find
a doll“ for children of 1,5 - 4.
the Child goes to other room or turns away, and the adult hides a doll at this time, then speaks:
| Lyal`s Doll escaped. |
Ah where it was gone? for
Masha, Masha (a name of the child), look,
With our Lyalya dance!
a doll, dances with it. Instead of a doll it is possible to use any toy.the Game “Who will remember
more?“for 2 - 6 summer.
to Children consistently, one by one, are shown by pictures with the image of various objects which they have to consider and remember, and ask to call who that will remember. The one who naz winsit is wound the maximum quantity.
Game in “Shop“ (for kids, since 3 - x years) is pleasant to all children. It also well develops memory if creates the motive inducing to remember and remember. For example, the child acting as the buyer has to go to “shop“ and “buy“ … (3 - 7 words are called). The more words the kid reproduces correctly, the bigger encouragement he is worthy.to
For children of the advanced preschool age is suitable the game “Draw a Figure“. To the child pokazyvayut4 - 6 geometrical figures, and ask it to draw then on paper what he remembered. More difficult option - to ask the young artist to reproduce figures, considering their size and color.the Game “Who knows
more“is also intended for the advanced preschool age. To the child suggest to call in one minute 5 objects of the set form or color. For example, - 5 round objects, or 5 red objects. The one who did not manage to call objects for the allowed time leaves game. Repetitions are not considered!
Of course, the offered occupations will demand from adults a lot of time and forces. And it is possible, and will force to refuse some own interests. But for it parents will be rewarded a hundredfold. In - the first, their offspring will get reputation of the clever man, and in - the second, similar games with the child will present an invaluable opportunity for a while to appear in a magic time of the childhood, learning the world together with the kid.