for the future for certain already faced a problem of saving of products the first hunters who managed to fill up a mammoth. Otplyasav victorious dance and having been full, they began to scratch shaggy napes: where to put such abyss of meat?
Gradually, by trial and error (at full ignorance of processes of chemistry), the person thought up a set of ways of conservation, that is processing of products for the purpose of their protection from damage. Today we know that damage is caused by activity of microorganisms and activity of a number of the enzymes which are contained in products. Here also leaves that all ways of conservation are reduced to destruction of microorganisms and destruction of enzymes or creation of adverse conditions for their activity.by What
the way was applied, in the beginning products need to be processed - to sort, carefully to wash up, clear of not too edible parts. Often vegetables and fruit are previously blanched - for a while lower in the boiling water or process the ferry. Then they do not darken, sugar gets into plant cells better and the considerable part of microbes perishes. Besides, fruits decrease in volume and it is possible to fill with them banks more densely. Blanch products in the small enameled ware with a wide bottom; water has to be 3 - 4 times more, than vegetables - fruit. It is possible to do it, for example, having put fruits in a colander and having lowered in the boiling water, and then having at once cooled under a water stream.
the easiest and universal way of conservation - drying. As a result of it in products concentration of solids increases and harmful microorganisms practically cannot get into them. It is the best of all to dry at first on air, then in an oven or on a plate.
the Fermentation, a pickles, a mocheniye - too available ways of preparation of vegetables, fruit and berries. At the same time there is a sbrazhivaniye of sugars lactic bacteria and lactic acid - reliable preservative is formed.
At conservation by means of sugar microbes cannot absorb the nutrients necessary for their activity, but also, their cages are strongly dehydrated.
Very widespread way - pickling. Only the few vegetables, for example, the tomatoes, a rhubarb, a sorrel containing organic acids can be preserved in the natural form. All others - cucumbers, vegetable marrows, bush pumpkins, etc. - almost do not contain acids, and for them prepare sharp marinades with acetic or lemon acid. Also weak marinades approach, but in this case additional sterilization or pasteurization and products, the same cucumbers will be necessary, will not turn out crackling. Besides, in the course of such processing vitamins and useful substances will collapse.
in very popular way of preservation of fruits Recently. The frozen products do not lose the aroma, taste, color and nutritional value, in them there is neither salt, nor acid.products prepare
At house sterilization on fire and boiling stack in the sterilized banks, roll up the sterilized covers and overturn before full cooling that will in addition sterilize a joint. Also the method of several fillings is good: necessary it is dense to lay all in bank and to fill in with boiled water for 15 minutes. Then to merge liquid, and again to fill banks with boiled water for 15 minutes. And then banks it is already final to fill in and roll up. Especially gentle products fill in only two times - boiled water and syrup - marinade.
Time of sterilization is counted from the moment of boiling of water in a pan. For acceleration of process it is recommended to fill banks with the hot blanched products and hot filling. Banks need to be placed in a pan with the warmed-up water, and temperature banks to contents has to be close to water temperature - otherwise glass can burst. The jars, by the way, can be sterilized not over steam, and in an oven - at the same time several pieces. > the Collection of recipes
- Tinned stuffed peppers
- Fresh-salted cucumbers with apples
- Marinated sweet cherry
For sterilization it is convenient to p to use
the microwave oven. In the prepared glass jars you fill in a little syrup or marinade (in bank 0,5 - 0,7 l - 2 tablespoons, in liter - 3 tablespoons) . You fill to bank with fruit or vegetables, you cover glass and you install in the microwave oven. Contents heat up, at the same time filling at the bottom of banks intensively begins to boil. The formed steam proshparivat to bank and in addition heats fruits that accelerates conservation, and, above all - banks do not burst. Then banks need to be taken out, at once to fill to the level of a nimbus with the humming filling, to roll up quickly covers, to put upside down on a dry towel and to leave to cool down. In only 10 minutes in such a way it is possible to prepare 6 - 8 cans. Heating time for the 700 - 800 W furnace: cucumbers, bush pumpkins, vegetable marrows - 1 min. 40 sec.; sweet, pickled or fresh peppers - 1 min. 30 sec.; whole tomatoes - 1 min. 10 sec.; compote from a quince - 2 min.; apples or pears - 1 min. 40 sec.; a gooseberry - 1 min. 40 sec.; discharge - 1 min. 30 sec.; peaches, sweet cherry, cherry, apricots - 1 min. 15 sec.; strawberries and raspberries - 1 min. 5 sec. It is absolutely simple to sterilize empty jars - on couple of spoons of water in everyone - and for 2 - 3 minutes we include a microwave: water begins to boil, the jars are sterilized by steam.
Pasteurization - single heating of liquids or products, usually to 60 - 70 °C, within 15 - 30 minutes. Full sterilization at the same time does not happen as disputes of bacteria still maintain such heating. This method preserves products which do not transfer heating to more high temperature. After pasteurization it is better to store them in the cold place. At production of canned food from vegetables it is necessary to add acetic, lemon or lactic acid.also the ware for conservation Is important
. Good option - glass jars with a glass cover, a rubber ring - laying and the buckle. But they have also a shortcoming - fragility of laying. Glass jars with tin covers and rubber rings are convenient - inserts, however, such cover can also be used only once, besides packing of cans requires the zakatochny machine. Polyethylene covers are not recommended to be used: they do not provide tightness. Though such covers quite suit for jars of jam, jam, jam.
Qualitative canned food will not turn out if previously not to prepare ware. Banks and covers wash out warm solution of baking soda (1 h l. on 1 l of water), scald and dry, and tin covers boil.- berries and vegetables in glass jars with glass covers the prepared banks needs to fill
At conservation of fruit with a product, to fill in with marinade, a brine or syrup, to close a cover with rubber laying, to put on a clip and to place in a pan with water for sterilization so that banks were completely covered with water. On a bottom of a pan to put a linen napkin or a wooden trellised circle - that banks did not burst. With the same purpose during filling of hot marinade, a brine or syrup the bottom banks needs to be wrapped up wet hot towel wipes.
If you have glass jars with tin covers, fill them with fruits “to a coat hanger“, fill in with syrup, a brine or marinade, close a sterile cover, ship in a pan with water and sterilize: let`s allow, apples in half-liter jars - 10 - 15 minutes, in liter - 15 - 20, in three-liter - to 30. After that carefully take out to bank from a pan, quickly roll up by means of the machine, turn upside down, cover with a cloth and leave before full cooling. Next day check whether banks are hermetically corked. If it becomes clear that is not present, open a jar, again sterilize and roll up a new cover.
I, at last, storage of canned food. Jam, compotes and marinades it is possible to store a long time at 0 - 20 °C in the dry dark place. If banks stand in the cellar, it is better to oil metal covers technical that they did not rust. Compotes and marinades in glass jars cannot be kept in cold - glass can burst and quality of compotes considerably will decrease; jam will become candied. It is impossible to store canned food and at high temperature - above 30 °C, and also on light - vitamins are lost. Finished salty and fermented products are stored at 0 - 5 °C - in these conditions microbiological processes almost completely stop.
the Collection of recipes
- Marinated sheep cheese
- Marinated eggplants
- Soaked bush pumpkins with apples and a magnolia vine