The forest offer
Forest mushrooms for Russians - that fish the fugue for Japanese: will eat, despite all danger warnings to get poisoned. Artificially grown up safe champignons and oyster mushrooms we buy much less, than wild plants. The observer of “SP“ Ivan Marchuk found out that the Muscovite needs to know before going for mushrooms or to send a mushroom to himself to a mouth
Mushrooms were eaten always and in many countries. The first mentions of their use in food are found in Ancient Greek sources. However rather national food, a highlight of ethnic cuisine mushrooms became only in Russia.“ Very often on a question of Russian cuisine nonprofessionals begin to list: herring under a fur coat, pelmeni, borsch. But herring under a fur coat belongs to the Jewish national cuisine, pelmeni - the Chinese origin, and borsch - Ukrainian, - the chef of Noble Nest restaurant Oleg Korolev tells SP. - For us there is different pickles - a mocheniye, including, of course, from mushrooms. Special Russian color - hot dishes from them“. Historians of kitchen believe even that mushrooms in many respects replaced to Slavs inaccessible seafood, having become the third major ingredient of kitchen on an equal basis with meat and vegetable products.the Choice of ancestors is not casual
. Gifts of the nature are vitamin-rich (B1, PP and D), the amount of mineral substances allows many nutritionists to compare mushrooms with fruit. And on such indicator as content of phosphorus, mushrooms are comparable unless with fish. It is more proteins in mushrooms, than in any vegetable food, - the truth, these proteins are connected with chitin (substance of which the armor of crayfish and bugs “is made“). Therefore mushrooms are also called heavy food which is not recommended to children and people with weak zheludochno - an intestinal path. Not each organism is able to derive benefit from mushrooms.
in recent years the basis of ethnic Russian cuisine bears a serious information attack. During a mushroom season of news agency with a regularity of fighting reports report about the number of the got poisoned and died fans of forest wild plants. The part of horror stories about mushrooms is truthful: for example, that they an essence the unique biological sponge which is far more active, than, say, vegetables and fruit accumulates heavy metals and other harmful substances at deterioration in an ecological situation in places of growth. But, say, mutations of mushrooms (a pier, in recent years even those mushrooms that were edible, regenerated in poisonous) - no more than the myth.“Mushrooms do not mutate
as quickly as rumors are spread about it. Just there were always nesjedobnyegriba similar on edible. Rumors about mutations appear from - for the fact that people gather mushrooms along routes and in the territory of industrial zones and are poisoned with them, - the research associate of laboratory of a mycology of Institute of protection of plants Lyudmila Sarycheva says SP. - Nobody recorded yet that yesterday still the edible species of mushrooms suddenly began to produce today toxins“.
However, no intimidations are capable to take away Russians from natural mushrooms. Start up supermarkets in any day of any month offer artificially grown up champignons and oyster mushrooms, experts speak: nine of ten mushrooms eaten in Russia are gathered in the wood. Considering that the situation at us is opposite that that it developed in the West, it is quite possible to recognize searches of mushrooms as national idea of Russia.(MAGICIAN), Russians remain
According to research of Interregional association of gribovod of Russia and the CIS countries are faithful to wild plants. Mushrooms they eat over 500 thousand tons a year - it turns out somewhere on 3 kg on the person (for comparison: in the USA - 2,5 kg, in Europe - is slightly more than 2 kg). At the same time if abroad the lion`s share of mushrooms is grown up on beds and special racks, then at us such mushrooms in a year about 40 thousand tons are on sale (from them only 9 - 10 thousand tons are made in Russia, the rest is delivered from Poland, Holland, Belgium, China and Hungary). Citizens independently bring other 460 thousand tons of mushrooms from the wood. And sales of wild plants grow not at smaller rates also presently, than realization of the cultivated champignons, about which about fifteen years ago compatriots knew only according to the western movies.
All who grow up mushrooms, are sure of bright prospects of the business. Statistically the MAGICIAN, 20% of residents of Moscow eat mushrooms at least once a month, and 6% - at least once a week.“Production of mushrooms will grow at
in Russia, and is strong, - the president of Ledovo group of companies Nadezhda Kopytina says. - For the last five years it increased by 38%, and our industry is not in time behind a consumer demand - only for last year, according to researches, he grew up half. So far demand for mushrooms is satisfied with wild plants, but we will try to satisfy it with the safe grown-up mushrooms“.Alexander Bogdanov, the head the MAGICIAN also agrees
With the colleague:“ Until consumption of mushrooms remains at such high level, we will not be gone. It is clear, that the most part of the population of Russia will go all the same to the wood. But it is not important for us: Moscow and St. Petersburg buy up to 40% of all industrially grown up mushrooms already now“.Though the foreign companies still control
to 80% of this market, the Russian gribovoda are more and more noticeable every year: few years ago the share of ours in the market was twice lower. The main producers - the Ledovo company (Snezhana brand) “, Cold-storage facility Western“ (“4 seasons“) “, the ice world“ (“Relish“) - all the year round grow up the most part of the production in agrocomplexes of Moscow area and Upper Volga area. In the summer these companies in large quantities buy mushrooms from farms.
the Main sales market of artificial mushrooms - shops. It is impossible to sell fresh wild plants there: according to sanitary standards it is possible to store them only 72 hours. From - for so small period of storage the goods turn out illiquid. Champignons - quite another matter. Without any processing they are stored about five days. These mushrooms - an unconditional hit of the Russian landowners: 86,7%. The rest is the share of oyster mushrooms which do not concede to champignons on ability to remain fresh. Our gribovoda do not know other mushrooms yet though in the world ten their types are cultivated.
the Long freshness is explained by conditions of production and storages of these mushrooms: right after cleaning they keep within a special chamber with a temperature of 2 degrees Celsius.by
In a special way carry out also an industrial freezing. It call “shock“: fresh mushrooms place in the cell with a temperature minus 80 degrees, and then store at minus 18 degrees. Such technology allows to keep the majority of useful substances in mushrooms and to provide a trade dress. From here - the simplest council how to check quality of the frozen champignons: if in a package there is a lot of snow and ice, so mushrooms were defrozen, that is many useful properties already lost.
As it often happens in a case to industrial cultivation, taste of such champignons does not delight those who at least once tried the mushrooms gathered in the wood. However, cultivation to cultivation discord.“ Lack of taste, as a rule, distinguishes foreign mushrooms, - the agronomist Alexander Tsarev who parts more than 20 years for sale champignons on the site claims. - There are several technologies of cultivation.
Absolute majority of our farms raise mushrooms on mix from straw and manure. Of course, it falls short of the soil of the environmentally friendly wood, but all - taste of a mushroom is approximate. In the West many farms raise them just on a hydroponics (that is without soil, on specially saturated water solutions. - SP). The chemistry turns out harmless, but“.
from - for unique taste of forest mushrooms, are recognized by gribovoda, finally products of agrarian technology will not manage to drive them out of the market. And time the population all the same collects, sells and buys wild plants, the state needs to order this process somehow.
the Dried compromise
the Only wild plants which can be found in shops, - dried or marinated mushrooms.
in the Summer a set of the companies buy up mushrooms across all Siberia and the Urals, dry them directly on the place in industrial hothouses, and then resell or to large wholesalers, or straight in shops. When drying the mass of a mushroom decreases almost by 90%. However, it is compensated by rather high price (in more detail about the prices of mushrooms see the reference). The main advantage of dry mushrooms - long period of storage: they can be eaten quietly and in two years.
Upon their purchase is recommended to watch that to the touch mushrooms seemed dry, easy, slightly bent, and at some effort broke. Besides, surely pay attention whether there are no slightly damp or grown heavy mushrooms - dried mushrooms seek to absorb again lost moisture. If it occurred - not to avoid rotting.
of Canned food from wild-growing mushrooms appeared practically in all capital supermarkets too. Business on their production is far younger, than artificial cultivation of mushrooms: the first Russian companies began to experiment with preparation of gifts of the wood at the very end of 1990 - x years. Now among leaders of this market there is “Ekoprodukt“, “Matreko - cold“, “Ratibor“, the Tomsk food company.
the Scheme according to which they work looks equally: mushrooms on places skupatsya at country people, then pass health control (mainly watch that the toadstool did not worm way), washing.
Then are exposed to primary processing: they are cooked immediately within half an hour and rolled up in huge barrels which already bring to canneries.“At plant each fungus is separately washed out, sorted by
, manually keeps within banks, - the commercial director of the Tomsk food company Vyacheslav Dudkin tells SP. - Completely it is impossible to mechanize this process: as mushrooms all - are a product of the increased danger, strict control from the person is necessary at each stage“.
Then mushrooms are pickled. And practically never salt - though salty mushrooms, specialists in Russian cuisine note, often people like more, than to what vinegar is added.to
Matter in that, explained SP in the Ledovo company that marinated mushrooms prepare much more simply, than salty which have to “ripen“ before conservation that for several days extends technological process. There is also one more reason: at observance of technology marinated mushrooms always keep taste, aroma and appearance, as at just prepared product. With salty - it is more difficult.
the Mushrooms prepared without preservatives in barrels, home-style to the recipe, are unpredictable. Are salted slightly insufficiently - will sour, are put too much salt - simply to eat it is impossible. So though the companies which are industrially preserving slippery jacks and milk mushrooms emphasize their “traditional“ taste, these products differ from a house pickles quite strongly.
Here also turns out that if the soul asks a fresh mushroom or there is a wish most to prepare a jar of salty coral milky caps for the winter, - the supermarket will not help. It is necessary to go either to the wood, or on the market. Health officers call an invention with the market one of kinds of “the Russian roulette“ - meanwhile legal marketing by wild mushrooms in the capital everything is exists.
of the Most risky, naturally, is purchase of mushrooms from spontaneous dealers. Here everyone decides how to treat words of the granny who settled down on a parapet at the subway with the basket muttering that “mushrooms good, still nobody came back“.
the safest of available ways to buy fresh wild plants - to go to the official market.“ Sale of mushrooms private traders out of the stationary markets is strictly forbidden, but in the markets they can do it, following certain rules, - explained SP a press - the secretary of Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare Lyubov Voropayeva. - It is possible to sell mushrooms only with the permission of the management of the market and in the presence of the reference from veterinarno - sanitary laboratory. And even in this case sale only of the dried or fresh mushrooms is allowed. No house pickles or marinades in the market can legally be“.
It is natural, no reference will secure the buyer for hundred percent. As explained SP in administration of the Cheremushkinsky market, “all arriving mushrooms are checked for a radiation background, specific accessory. But there are problems. For example, it is impossible to break each mushroom to check, worm-eaten it or not. As well as in a case with metals - it is carried out random inspection: on a couple of mushrooms from a bast basket“.
in general representatives of Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare recommend to ask surely before purchase the reference from laboratory and to attentively look when it is given. The similar reference affects fresh mushrooms only two days.Though, of course, needs to be trusted
not only the reference, but also own sight and other sense organs. It is very important to estimate independently freshness of mushrooms - it is especially actual during a heat.“ On structure of the body mushrooms are much closer to animals, than to plants, - the research associate of laboratory of a mycology of Institute of protection of plants Lyudmila Sarycheva explains. - When the body of a mushroom decays, products of its decomposition are almost identical to ptomaine. Mass poisonings in hot weather occur at all not because inexperienced mushroom pickers confuse a pale toadstool to a russula. The heat accelerates decomposition processes, and probability that in a body of a mushroom there will be “ptomaine“, repeatedly increases. For this reason in the tropical tropical countries all tubular mushrooms having fleshy fruit bodies (as our white), are considered as poisonous. And in the north it is almost impossible to get poisoned with tubular mushrooms to death“. Despite of all assurances of the seller that mushrooms are just gathered, look, their legs and the lower surfaces of hats how strongly blackened.
Second principle: it is impossible to take though fresh, but old mushrooms. Mushrooms absorb the substances which are in the earth including harmful.“ The probability of their accumulation in dangerous quantities increases if the summer was roast, and rains went seldom, - Lyudmila Sarycheva says. - In mushrooms heavy metals from exhaust gases of cars, emissions of the industry, such as arsenic, cobalt, strontium especially easily accumulate“. For this reason it is not recommended to gather mushrooms in industrial regions and along roadsides of roads.to
It is clear what to check where the mushroom was broken, upon purchase it is almost impossible. There is one exit: to buy young mushrooms which, at least, did not manage to incorporate too much chemistry.the Main principle - never to buy by
a mushroom if it causes in you though the slightest doubt.
All these councils look too general, and even strict following does not guarantee to them to the consumer of absolute safety. But such is a payment for relish of Russian cuisine which in this part is unpredictable as national character. Sometime, perhaps, the contradiction between taste and safety will manage to be solved: the Russian agronomist Venedikt Dadykin, for example, prints articles in which imparts experience on cultivation on the allotments of the Russian forest mushrooms situated near Moscow - both white, and aspen mushrooms. The essence of a method is that in August disputes of mushrooms sow“ the brought forest earth under the corresponding trees on a site. Prospects of industrial introduction of such way of a domestication of wild plants, of course, are foggy. But even if it will work well - where a guarantee that cepe will not become fresh how the champignon which is grown up on a hydroponics?
Councils to mushroom pickers - one of favourite genres of the Soviet press. For those who forgot partially, we repeat. taking into account modern views of experts
Experts say that old dispute on how it is better to gather mushrooms: to cut off them or to unscrew from the earth, - it does not make sense. It is much more important to powder then it mehundred the forest soil that the mycelium did not dry up.
Should remembering that even one toadstool in a basket can poison all literally.
For the same reason is not recommended to feel doubtful mushrooms the same knife which you cut off good. The best basket - from willow rods or from birch bark, with good access of air. Without air circulation in plastic packages and in buckets mushrooms quickly spoil.
If you make thrifty use of the nature, follow advice of ecologists less to be trampled down around a mushroom: from - for consolidations of soil under your weight the part of a mycelium just dies off.
Also ecologists do not recommend to gather mushrooms closer than 10 - 15 km from Moscow. But just to drive off from Moscow on Leningradka on 50 km - too not an exit. 5 km from the loaded highways are not recommended to gather mushrooms closer.
Besides, it is worth remembering that besides edible there are conditionally edible fungi: these are darlings many svinushka, coral milky caps, milk mushrooms, white butterflies, valu. The name they deserved from - for the increased content of toxic substances or bitter taste. All these defects are eliminated if to observe technology of their preparation. It is necessary to cook such mushrooms twice on an hour, every time changing water. Broth cannot be eaten.
At last, it is worth remembering that the incubatory period at poisoning makes from 2 to 36 hours. First signs: nausea, vomiting, belly-aches. There is no temperature, as a rule.
In this case drink a large amount of water (two - three liters) and make washing of a stomach. Then drink cold strong tea, milk, coffee and accept absorbent carbon (one tablet on 10 kg of weight). Surely see a doctor. Digestion of material Nutritionists advise
to choose mushrooms not only on their appearance and taste, but also usefulness
On a nutrition value mushrooms divide into four categories. Cepes, milk mushrooms and saffron milk caps enter the first. Their nutrition value makes 30 - 40 Kcal in 100 grams of a product. Refer aspen mushrooms, birch mushrooms, slippery jacks with the value of 25 - 30 Kcal to the second category. The third category consists of mossiness mushrooms, chanterelles, russulas, honey agarics and champignons - 10 - 18 Kcal. The fourth - svinushka, earth-boring dung beetles, raincoats - 8 - 12 Kcal.
However, a nutrition value in mushrooms not the most important. Very much we mean an indicator of that how many the squirrel can acquire an organism. The leader here - champignon which proteins are acquired by a human body approximately for 80%. Cepe (about 30%) considerably loses on nutritiousness to unsightly raincoats (about 50%).
Besides, mushrooms differ on the content of useful substances. On the content of phosphorus by leaders cepes are considered, aspen mushrooms differ in the increased content of fats, honey agarics - carbohydrates, and chanterelles and champignons - vitamins.
At last, it is worth remembering that mushrooms are much better acquired by our organism in a dry form, especially if dry mushrooms were crushed. Act for preparation of some mushroom sauces and mixes this way. Salty or marinated mushrooms are slightly worse acquired. The last do not recommend to eat to the people having diseases of a pancreas and liver at all.