New academic year will become new in many meanings. Parents should pay more for formally free training at public schools, but education level, on assurances of officials, will become higher. What else to wait to the Moscow school students and their parents for, the correspondent of “SP“ Vladislav Kiselyov
Young Muscovites who will come on September 1 to school understood, will see there a lot of new. Their parents - too. And if the first need to prepare more and better to study, then the second, quite possibly, it is necessary to be claimed in thought that absolutely free education exists only on paper.the lack of financing Expected at some schools is connected by
with what to schools will be allocated now by money by the number of pupils. If the school of pupils did not gather additionally - for example, instead of settlement 500 in it registered only 300, - probably parents should compensate a lack of state funds. At the same time radical change of a financing of education will lead to emergence of the real competition between schools. They will be forced “to fight“ practically for each pupil now that, in turn, as envisioned by officials from education, has to lead to increase of its quality.to Hold on
to the standard
With the beginning of 2006 in the capital standard public financing of schools is entered. Gradually this norm is entered over all country. Funds to schools are allocated counting on one pupil now, and this indicator is multiplied by the number of children at each concrete school. Standards of financing there are two tens - depending on types and types of educational institutions. Elementary school is one standards, average - others, senior - the third. In lyceum and a gymnasium coefficients are higher, than at usual school because there are more class periods and teachers receive a big salary. Schools of health where medical care and individual occupations are required for children, - are even more expensive. In military schools where children are on full providing and receive regimentals, - standards the biggest. It would seem, everything is good. And the Moscow standard in 30 - 80 thousand rubles on one pupil a year depending on type of school is much higher than those 10 thousand rubles which are allocated on average over the country. However everything is difficult.
“Even if the school has a complete set and she receives financing on all pupils, total amount covers only two thirds of real requirements. The city budget does not allow to bring standards to necessary sizes, - the honored teacher of Russia, the chairman of the commission of Moscow City Council on science and education, the mathematics teacher of school - a gymnasium No. 710 Evgeny Bunimovich explains. - Also it is necessary to understand that those schools which will have a shortage will fall into a difficult situation. Of course, they cannot but conduct lessons. But here, most likely, money will not be enough for repair. It is easy to guess from whom the management of such schools will wait for the help, - from parents“.
Under blow the first schools in the center of Moscow will get - a large number of pupils there just has no place to undertake.“These schools are designed by
for 800 - 900 children, and studies no more than 300 - 400 there“, - the director of the Center of education No. 548 “Tsaritsyno“ Efim Rachevsky told SP. According to him, those schools which will face strongly cut down financing (and such there will be 15 - 20%) will have problems with salaries to teachers.
one more news Is, and it concerns all. Money for payment of protection of schools will not increase. However, at the expense of the budget it was succeeded to equip all schools with “disturbing buttons“. But here could put security guards only in 300 boarding schools and other specialized educational institutions. To pay work of employees PSF in other 4 thousand. capital schools it is still necessary to parents.
“Parents together with school are obliged to be engaged today in arrangement of schools. Only the partnership of parents and school can lead to something good“, - the head of capital Department of Education Lyubov Kezina considers. This statement can be considered program: the city recognizes that free the state education is only nominally.to
And the state did not manage even to adjust system which at least simplified payment process.
“At school was always forbidden to raise cash from parents. But such practice is. As at the majority of schools money is raised informally, to check really where they left, it is almost impossible. Parents got used to it long ago. Not once or twice there were cases when children whose parents refused to pay “contributions“, were derelicts and teachers scoffed at them as could“, - Evgeny Bunimovich says.
Under the law money for school needs can go only through bank - heads of educational institutions where this order is broken, it is possible to bring to trial.“Parents are indignant with
. Not only that they are forced to pay extra for education of children, so also force to go to bank where from each money transfer take the commission“, - mister Bunimovich continues.
at the same time want to take away an opportunity from schools at least partially to carry out self-financing.“ Now amendments to the Budgetary code on the basis of which schools can lose the right which they acquired in 1992, to independently earn money prepare. It will even more worsen already the difficult situation which developed after introduction of standard financing. And it will be reflected not only in a condition of schools, but also in training opportunities.
For example if the budgetary financing is calculated on studying of one foreign language, then even if the school has teachers and opportunities, and parents are ready to pay the second language, it will be impossible to do it. Parents should seek such services elsewhere.
the State deprives of school of an opportunity to independently earn money and at the same time cannot find enough funds for their worthy contents“, - the school director Efim Rachevsky complains.
All will be given on a profile
on the other hand, schools were given that is called “cards in hands“ that they could compete among themselves for pupils, behind each of them there is real budget money. Since new academic year of school are free to open profile classes, on the simplified procedure. For opening of a profile class in high school (since the ninth class) there will be enough decision of district administration of education, but not city department as it was earlier. Now classes mathematical, economic, pedagogical, legal, humanitarian and many others open. On it there are inquiries both from children, and from their parents.“ Schools at the expense of it not only attract new pupils, but also receive additional financing from the city budget“, - Evgeny Bunimovich explains.
interested in it and teachers who receive additional money for teaching in profile classes because there are more class periods. However, if the administration of school did not take care of creation of profile classes this summer, it will be possible to open them only next year.by
Before opening of this or that profile class conducts survey of children and parents to find out whether enough persons interested in it will study. Practice shows that in case to is taken persons interested more than fifteen, it is favorable to school to open such class. And if the school is ready to it, it submits the application to district administration of education. After officials approve emergence, for example, economy class, in it begin a set of children. And regardless of the one who became the initiator of his creation - parents or administration of school it is possible to get to a profile class only on the basis of a competition. He is in the form of the readiness test to profoundly study a certain specialty. But most often teachers, knowing children for several years, make them the recommendation for receipt in this or that profile class. Here also the current estimates on a specialist subject can play an important role. The main thing that the principle of voluntariness was observed. To force children there should not be to a profile class no parents (“because it is prestigious“), schools to which it is favourably material. “The school has no right to drive pupils into profile classes is not a duty, it is an opportunity“, - Efim Rachevsky considers.
But here also other problem is.“ We could open more classes, money for it is. But work in such classes from the point of view of professional qualification of teachers is more difficult. Therefore we are able to open such classes, only when teachers with really high preparation appear, - Evgeny Bunimovich says. - Naturally, we perfectly understand that the choice of a field of activity in life not every one is able in 15 years. Therefore we surely leave at each school and general education classes. Those who could not be defined should give the chance to quietly graduate from the general school“.for
It is easy without estimates and textbooks
Freight of knowledge presses on the modern school student. And literally. Not each first grader without prejudice to health is capable to drag a set of textbooks in school. Since new academic year the situation has to change for the better. After two years` preparation at last the idea of “easy textbooks“ will be realized. And the main objective of reform was not in reducing the textbook, having left in it less knowledge.Just textbooks are divided by
into parts - either into two, or into four - if a subject volume. New textbooks will have plastic covers - easier and strong. The satchel which weighs less than 0,5 kg also was developed for these textbooks at the initiative of the city authorities. However, it did not go on sale yet.
New textbooks have to appear at schools this academic year. They will be free. However, it will be possible to provide with them completely only first graders (thus that the program is calculated with first on the sixth classes).
It is natural that all textbooks - and in some objects there are about ten author`s options approved by the Ministry of Education - it was impossible to divide into parts. Therefore schools if they want to receive such textbooks from the city, should agree to teach children according to books which were counted worthy by city Department of Education.by
Besides, in the city created the special commission which will work on contents of new textbooks. The Moscow officials want to change practice when consideration of textbooks for approval to use in educational process is carried out separately, everyone. From here arise inconsistency: for example, the textbook of history for 10 - go a class can operate absolutely with other concepts and terms, to offer other ideological estimates, than for the ninth. And in the next one or two years textbooks will be already accepted by so-called educational lines from the first on 11 - y a class that upon transition from a class to a class the continuity of a statement remained.
over time to the Moscow school students, perhaps, at all should not carry with itself textbooks. The matter is that, according to capital officials from education, the computer has to become the available and convenient instrument of training at all objects. For this purpose by request of city Department of Education electronic textbooks and manuals are now developed. It will be not just scanned paper textbooks. The principle of creation of educational process will be another when by means of hyperlinks it is possible not only to obtain instantly information on the studied subject, but also, for example, to look at the biography of the historical character mentioned in the literary work, or an economic map of the country about which it there is a speech it is aware of history.“ Electronic textbooks“ will establish in school computer classes, and will be engaged on them not only at informatics lessons, but also in other objects. Experiment has to begin in the middle of the year at what schools - it is not solved yet.
of the Assessment now will be others too. As Lyubov Kezina reported, their department recommended to schools not to put down a mark in objects where progress can depend not on the level and volume of the gained knowledge, and is exclusive from natural talent or health of the child. In particular, gradually schools refuse the current estimates on drawing, singing and physical culture. They will be exposed only following the results of a quarter and year.
And now, according to the head of capital Department of Education, school students will not receive the two in these objects, regardless of the shown result.
the Moscow general compulsory education
Since the beginning of academic year attendance will be controlled not only by the school authorities, but also profile departments of prefectures. It is necessary, according to city Department of Education, first of all to reveal which of children does not attend school at all. Such problem is not characteristic of Moscow, but in Russia exists: the draft commissions complain that some young men just are not able neither to read, nor to write as they never went to school.
Control from prefectures will be strengthened by parental supervision. Such opportunity will appear at those whose children study at schools where experiment on issue of electronic “maps of pupils“ began. 20 schools of Northeast and Central districts participate in experiment. Soon will join them some more in Northern. Further “the card of the pupil“ is planned to be entered at all public schools of the city. By means of such cards it is possible to control pass of pupils to the building (on an entrance will establish special turnstiles) and to within a minute to fix delay. This information will be available to parents if they visit the website of school. In the same place they can look also at progress of children. The electronic card gives advantages and to the child.it can pay with
With its help for lunches in school cafeteria (in addition to the budgetary funds for food relying school students of initial classes, parents have the right to add the money into the account). At the same time the card is also the ticket in city public transport, and the electronic library card in school library. As spoke in Soviet period, all conditions are created to you, only study.
If at school unreasonably, in your opinion, demand material support from you, you ring City inspection at Department of Education of Moscow. It accepts complaints to requisitions at schools and kindergartens.
If you consider that at your school pay not enough attention to new techniques of teaching or just are not engaged in their development, it is necessary to call on “The hot line“ of implementation of the national Education project of Federal agency by training. will not drop down
of Teachers for all
As the head of capital Department of Education Lyubov Kezina declared recently, there are enough teachers at schools now only because it is not enough pupils. The demographic failure of 1990 affects - x years
In the last ten years in Moscow there is an accurate tendency: annually the number of school students is reduced by 40 thousand. As a result today 10 children while in countries of Western Europe - 15 are the share of one teacher. But so will be not always. According to forecasts of demographers, in 2008 growth of number of school students will begin again.
In turn (in 2005 on average 10,5 thousand rubles a month) and not prestigiousness of a profession of the teacher led low earnings to what is taken to be taught in school practically today all who have the higher education and are ready to teach children. Nonprofessionalism of teachers often leads to the fact that at the child any desire to study vanishes. “My son - now he will go to the fifth class - in general refused to go to school. He wears the hair long. The teacher told it that it is unpleasant to it to look at it and if he is not tonsured, he will be put in the center of an office and cut all class. It came home and asked to translate it in other school. Conversation with the class teacher did not lead to anything. It was succeeded to correct a situation and to receive apologies to me only after the appeal to district administration of education“, - the Muscovite Irina told SP.
Today at the Moscow schools there are especially not enough teachers of informatics, English and physical culture. If teachers in schools were recruited on a competition, but not by the principle “thank you that came“, both quality of education, and the attitude towards children would be another.
But at the moment the only thing that it is necessary to do to the authorities, is just to involve in schools as much as possible teachers, any. Otherwise since 2008 to teach children there will be simply simply nobody.
Will change in new academic year and training of children for school. The authorities want that children came to school ready to gain knowledge and being able to get on in
collective In spite of the fact that the turn in kindergartens contains 16,5 thousand today. the person, the city authorities promise to prepare each child for school. The Department of Education made the decision to admit to groups of all six-year-old children. Places will be specially reserved for them. Besides, will allow to pass more children through kindergartens the program of construction of preschool institutions. In plans of the authorities - to open annually 100 kindergartens. Besides, in the closest two years of 60 more departmental gardens have to be transferred to Moscow.
about 60% of children go Today to kindergartens and 40% stay at home. Now parents had an opportunity to check as far as their house preparation corresponds to what expects a baby at school. From this year the most different forms of preparation for school will be offered the Moscow children (naturally, voluntarily). And it will be possible to visit preschool institutions as it is convenient to both parents, and children. It is possible to come to a garden for half a day, it is possible - time or two in a week.
“Our idea is that kindergartens from a left-luggage office became part of the uniform educational line. The kindergarten is a preparation for school, and school - preparation for higher education institution. It is necessary to understand that the kindergarten is the period of very intense training of the child, at this time children very actively learn the world, and we want to use it much more seriously, than earlier“, - the chairman of the commission on science and education of Moscow City Council Evgeny Bunimovich says. In the state kindergartens will enter, besides a molding and drawing, a number of general education objects: for example, will teach children to elements of reading, mathematics and some other objects that it was simpler to them to adapt to school.