Classical Moscow Matvei Kazakov History of the house of Nobility assemly and its well-known Columned hall in Okhotny Ryad writes
In the book “Moscow and Muscovites“ about an origin of the name of ancient V. Gilyarovsky Street:“ Okhotny Ryad received the name still in those days when here it was authorized to trade in the game brought by Moscow region hunters“. To the middle of the XIX century the market became really “the Belly of Moscow“ with temporary benches and tents, long counters where it was possible to buy any edibles. The big church of the patroness of trade Paraskev was nominated Friday almost to the middle of the square. By the beginning HKH veka Street gradually began to be built up with “decent“ houses from which only two escaped so far: Bronnikov`s house and house of Nobility assemly (byv. The house of the unions) with the well-known Columned hall of Matvei Kazakov which for certain remained up to now from all architectural registration of the house built by Kazakov at the end of XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century (Okhotny Ryad, the house No. 3).Matvei Kazakov`s Destiny
the Architect Matvei Fedorovich Kazakov (1738 - 1812) was born
in Moscow. The destiny of the architect developed successfully. It was not noble family. His father - from serfs, but served to a podkantslyarist. To skill M. Kazakov studied at architectural school of D. V. Ukhtomsky. In the hometown he created many outstanding architectural constructions: the Senate building in the Kremlin with an enormous dome (for the first time in Russia), really fantastic Petrovsky (traveling) palace (near m“ Dynamo“), unusual beauty columned hall of Nobility assemly (byv. Houses of the unions) and others. Since 1792 he headed after the teacher V. Bazhenov Architectural school at expedition of the Kremlin structure, directed drawing up the master and front plan of Moscow the XVIII century, having performed enormous work on creation of thirty architectural albums with the assistants. Before invasion into Moscow of Napoleon relatives took away it to Ryazan, already fatally sick. News of the fire in Moscow accelerated his death.
the Building of Nobility assemly of Matvei Kazakov
the House was built by the prince Dolgorukiy - Crimean in the XVIII century, and in 1784 is bought for Nobility assemly (club) and reconstructed by M. F. Kazakov.
Kazakov transferred the main facade of the building from Bolshaya Dmitrovka at Okhotny Ryad, having closed it a house end face. Then carried out a lot of work on a reorganization of internal rooms of the house (1784 - 1787). In drawing, the house which is carefully restored in 1814 by Kazakov`s pupil A. Bakarev after the fire of Moscow in war with Napoleon is represented made from ancient lithograph. It - two-storeyed, with a classical portico in the middle. The entrance is topped - an attic with a triangular pediment and a large cut-in arch. All design of the top part is supported by the dual columns on both parties put on the massive bases.
the Columned hall was under construction on the place of a courtyard of the house from 1784 to 1790 and became the main decoration of all construction, and the new case - an extension was stretched across Bolshaya Dmitrovka until the end of a quarter in 90 - x years of the XVIII century.
Thorough reorganization of the house was made only in 1903 - 1908 by the architect A. Meysner who built on the third floor on all perimeter of the cases connected together that entailed radical change of the main facade which remained up to now. The house did not get out of a classical shape. It has a portico with four elegant Corinthian columns which are evenly placed. The triangular pediment at the top of the building was replaced with a wide rectangular attic over which the dome is looked through. On a wall, in the depth of a portico, there passes the high relief from antique plots. All finishing of the house reminds of full preservation of classical tradition.
the Columned hall of Nobility assemly
Creation of the Columned hall by M. Kazakov in Noble club for Moscow of the XVIII century was a big event. The capital did not know such magnificent and solemn hall for possible daily actions yet.by
Wonderfully in it combine classical clarity and simplicity with a stateliness and luxury of architectural registration. The main decoration of the hall is the ceremonial colonnade from 28 Corinthian columns which are solemnly placed on hall perimeter with considerable derogation from a wall. All columns - wooden, but are revetted with white artificial marble. Between them - 26 big and 28 small crystal chandeliers from which light is reflected in the enormous mirrors hanged on all walls of the hall. Behind a colonnade the hall is surrounded by balconies for musicians.
the Hall was loved by the nobility, sometimes participated in balls to 3 thousand people. There were A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, L. Tolstoy.by
Thanks to unique acoustics here held at all times concerts and musicales. In the hall S. Rachmaninov, P. Tchaikovsky, N. Rimsky-Korsakov, A. Dvorak, F. Liszt`s music sounded (it is frequent performed by authors); F. Shalyapin, P. Viardo and others sang; F. Dostoyevsky, I. Turgenev, A. Ostrovsky, I. Goncharov, M. Gorky and others took part in literary soirees.(in 1919) the Noble club was transferred by
After revolution to labor unions and began to be called the House of the unions.
At the Soviet power in the Columned hall there took place the set of concerts, festive and solemn evenings. The main reconstruction and restoration of the house was carried out in 1967. Except workers - builders the house was updated by masters - cabinetmakers, parquet floor layers, pozolotchik, masters of an art molding, carpenters, bricklayers, mechanics etc.
the Columned hall of Matvei Kazakov functions as one of the main concert halls of the capital now. It has also until now a reputation for one of the best creations of the Russian classical school.