The way home of
Orphanage cannot replace a family. This truth does not demand proofs. Why and how children get to orphanage? Images of mothers - alcoholics, addicts, prostitutes emerge... The orphanage is better, than such parents - we believe more sincerely that there it will be better for kids. Many try to help children: transfer to orphanages of a thing, toy, raise money for diapers...
But very few people think of how there live children in orphanages very few people know that really to help them - means to support their parents. According to official statistical data in the Russian Federation for January 1, 2005 more than 260 thousand children are brought up in establishments for children - orphans and children without parental support. Only 0,5% from them - orphans, contrary to ordinary representation, parents of only 17% of children are deprived of the parental rights. The vast majority of kids has living parents who refused them for various reasons. For many the decision on refusal of the child became the only exit.
Sasha`s Father - the former serviceman serving in one of the republics of the former USSR. After disintegration of the Union the family returned to Russia. However with registration of nationality there were problems, to the Sashiny family began to threaten with eviction from the hostel. In a family two more children grow up. The stress and the conflicts led to deterioration in the relations between spouses. Lena, Sasha`s mother understood that she can be left without husband, without housing, will not be able to work as will have to stay at home with the newborn child. The decision on refusal of the child was very heavy, but unique for it in the circumstances. To keep a family, experts needed not so many efforts. All difficulties with housing and nationality were quite solvable, and support of the social worker helped Sasha`s parents to improve the relations among themselves.EveryChild carries out by
Stay in orphanage is pernicious for physical and mental development of children: According to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of 2001, lag in physical development was recorded at 56% of pupils of orphanages, and in mental - at 82% of children.
the Child becomes attached to mother because it gives it feeling of safety, warmth and comfort. Attachment helps it to develop, trust other people and to learn world around. In 1945 - 46 years the American psychologist Rene Spitts conducted research of children raised in a shelter and in “day nursery“ at women`s prison. Results of all stunned: children who were raised by their “asocial“ mothers considerably were ahead in the development of children from a shelter.
the Person to whom the child becomes attached, in principle, not necessarily is his mother. Just he has to pay it so much attention and cares how many it is necessary for the kid. The lack of orphanages consists that the people working in them lack time for all children. On average on each child at the worker leaves for only 20 - 30 minutes a day.
Having left orphanage, very few of young people can begin normal life. They meet much bigger amount of difficulties in comparison with the peers who are brought up in families. According to Roditelsky Bridge fund, in a year after release a third of graduates of children`s homes gets to prison, a third more from them becomes the homeless, every tenth commits suicide.
Very few people from pupils of orphanages make the family because they have no example before eyes. Often young mothers who were brought up in children`s home send the children to such establishments.
the Staff of the charitable organization EveryChild (“Each child“), several years working in Russia, are sure that many refusals of children can be avoided if to give to a family timely help in the solution of its problems - housing, legal, material.to
to Many women needs just psychological support, the help in building relations with relatives, but most of women needs, including, in the solution of other problems - housing, legal, material. The staff of service helps them to solve these problems, and also helps young mother to build the relations with the child and to care for him.As it is paradoxical
, but in our country which top officials in words express extreme concern in demographic problems, procedure of refusal of the child is most simplified. And here to return itself the child happens sometimes not just very difficult, but also it is impossible. The majority of refusals is made out in maternity hospitals, at the same time it is enough only the statement of the mother. It is not considered at all that the woman who transferred difficult delivery or testing a postnatal depression (in the expressed form she is observed at 15% of mothers), can feel rejection from the child or begin to doubt whether she will be able to support the kid. According to experts of EveryChild, at such moments it is extremely important to support mother, the help to those parents whose children were born with limited opportunities is especially necessary.by
at the initiative of EveryChild in the city of Revda of Sverdlovsk region creates service of social support of mothers for prevention of refusals of newborns. The temporary housing will be provided to mothers and necessary support is given, social workers will help - to find it work, to settle for study, to improve the relations with parents, the child`s father. Mothers will live in the usual two-room apartment (but not in state establishment where all would do for them) where there will be able to be no more than three - four mothers with children. It is service - model or an example of how it is possible to help mothers to remain with the newborn children if they have no place to go after maternity hospital.
Even more often recently cases when as in a situation with Sasha, parents want to care for the children, but have no nationality, housing, means of livelihood happen. Sometimes agencies of guardianship forcibly take away the child from a family, they consider that appropriate conditions cannot be provided to the child. The majority of orphanages do not encourage visit by parents of the children, they have for this purpose neither special place, nor other opportunities.
, the young lonely woman, still being a pregnant woman, lived in the house which was in an emergency state, in it there was neither heating, nor light, nor gas. Tanya tried to find support, addressed to agencies of guardianship, but the temporary room her newborn Vanya in children`s home was the only option. At the same time, as Tanya was not “homeless“, it was difficult to find justifications to allocate her still some housing. At once after the son`s birth the woman got a job the janitor in hope to receive office housing.Tan`s
every day visited the son in children`s home, employees understood its position and tried to help. Huge efforts of administration of children`s home were required to help Tana to find housing. Eventually, Tana helped to find the room in the hostel and it could take away Vanya from children`s home.
In the work experts of EveryChild rely on successful foreign experience. In many countries of Europe children of preschool age are not placed in residential care any more. There was a transition from education of children in the public educational institutions to development of various forms of family education and a family support.
In Great Britain is considered that parents are people who in the best way can care for the child. Therefore they are given a lot of support. Experience shows that the number of children whose accommodation with the native parents is really impossible, insignificant a little. Work of specialists in planning of a family, midwifes, nurses, social workers, psychologists is directed to support of parents.by
For kids for whom accommodation with the mother is impossible developed system of the replacing (foster) family. In such families “professional parents“ receive a child care allowance. In each regional social service of Great Britain there is a list of the replacing (foster) families, and in most cases there is a possibility of the temporary room of the child in such family.the First steps in this direction are taken by
also Russia. Thanks to created last year at the initiative of EveryChild, in the residential district “Fishing“ in St. Petersburg to crisis service, two children could return to native families. And 32 children could avoid parting pain with the family. Perhaps, in scales of all country, it is not a lot of, but nevertheless now will have 34 persons more every chance to grow happy.