Tests for pregnancy: guessing on a coffee thick or ``a shot in the purpose``?
of the Woman come to a drugstore behind house tests for pregnancy with the opposite purposes. One hope to see long-awaited positive result. Others wait that the second strip will not appear, - and it will be possible “to relax“ till next month. But whether are the test - strips the exact answer to a question: there is a pregnancy or not?
Still about 10 years ago the question of pregnancy was usually resolved by “the analysis on a mouse“: reaction of an organism of a live mouse which entered urine of women was defined. Today there is a fast method - the test - strips. They can be got in a drugstore, and the test can be carried out in house conditions. But, as before, pregnancy is determined by the hormone carrying the difficult name - a horionichesky gonadotrophin. During pregnancy the female organism begins to produce specific protein - a human horionichesky gonadotrophin on which identification the test is based. It is defined practically by all tests - from simple “house“ to difficult laboratory.
House tests have undoubted advantages: the woman can devote nobody in the problems, tests are simple and convenient in use, and receive result almost immediately. Besides, at the correct use they are quite exact.with
As tests for pregnancy “work“?the Majority of tests is intended to
for definition of the horionichesky gonadotrophin of the person (HGP) in urine. HGCh - specific protein which begins to be produced by the developing placenta soon after conception; concentration of this hormone during the first trimester of pregnancy constantly increases in blood. This process on 5 - 6 - y day after fertilization of an ovum, regardless of pregnancy localization begins (as developed in a uterus, and extra-uterine), and then hormone appears in blood and urine of the pregnant woman. To 8 - 10 - mu to day of pregnancy concentration of HGCh at pregnant women reaches the level which can be revealed in the laboratory analysis. Within the first two months of pregnancy production of hormone increases twice for each three days, reaches the maximum value to 6 - 8 - y to week, and then gradually decreases. About 25% of not changed HGCh are allocated with urine that can be used for early diagnostics of pregnancy in house conditions.
Sensitivity of the test allows to reveal HGCh in low concentration that provides pregnancy diagnostics from the first day of the expected, but not come periods, that is on 10 - 15 - y day after fertilization. As practice shows, in certain cases the test can yield positive result in four days prior to the expected periods, but not always - it depends on ovulation terms (an ovum exit from an ovary), fertilisations and implantations (attachment) of an embryo in a uterus cavity. The test - the strip is covered with special substances (marked antibodies to HGCh) on test and control sites. When testing urine, getting on capillaries a strip - strips, reaches a test site. In the presence in HGCh urine products of reaction reveal in the test - a zone the accurate color line that assumes pregnancy existence. If does not contain in test of HGCh, the strip in the test - a zone is not shown.
Such different tests...
Widespread in Russia “the test - strips“, or “strips“, belong to the so-called bespriborny tests which are not demanding the special equipment. They are divided into three types.
K to the first belong the test - strips of the first generation. They represent the paper strip impregnated with a reactant. It for 10 - 30 seconds is immersed in the container with urine. Such tests are rather cheap since they are simple in production, but it is difficult to wait from them for exact results sometimes. If it is not enough to keep such test in liquid - the indicator will not become impregnated if to overdo or to ship incidentally above the specified mark - there will also be a mistake. The woman buys such test for 10 - 30 rubles, waits for the next morning, does the analysis and waits... Ten minutes of a stress. But here the result appeared: some indistinct indistinct hyphen - whether is pregnancy, whether is not present. Or perhaps the test does not work?
the Second version - tablet tests. Such test works almost like school blotter. As on a blotter, liquid spreads in the first window, reaches a layer of a reactant and enters with it chemical reaction. In the second window - reading result. It is quite reliable product, but it costs 100 - 300 rubles. A kind of tablet tests - a square with three windows: in one window it is necessary to drip urine a pipette, in the second window - a strip - control, in the third - reading result.about five Years ago tablet systems were extended by
, however now will practically not meet them. They were replaced by more perfect jet tests (by the form they are similar on tablet - a plastic stick with windows). They are the most perfect today. Inside such test - systems is a layer of blue particles which will strongly join horionichesky hormone in an urine droplet. There are no doubts in advantages of this type of tests: they are very convenient, they can be used at any time, in any place - it is simple to substitute the test under a stream of urine and exactly in a minute to see result. Even it is enough small amount of hormone for pregnancy definition, and it means that the test will work for certain. The woman will be relieved of a stress waiting for result, she should not guess or run in a drugstore behind the new test. The price of such test in drugstores - 250 - 700 rubles.
Sensitivity of house tests sometimes reaches 90 - 95% that is comparable to laboratory. Many firms value the reputation, applying modern technologies and reactants, and today some strips became more exact, than earlier, and is much more easy-to-use. Some tests are able to show whether you are pregnant, in the first day after the term of the expected periods (about 14 days after fertilization) and within only 2 - 5 minutes - with urine test use.
from mistakes therefore the firms making tests for pregnancy give a guarantee of fidelity of results for 90 - 99%. If something did not turn out - you just were among “unsuccessful“ percent.
Now in drugstores are on sale both import, and domestic tests. The most widespread of them:“ Be sure “, “ pregnancy control“ (Russia), Babychek, Babycheck - 1 (France), Frautest (Germany), Be - Sure, Be - Sure - S, Eva (USA), “CEPATEK Test“ and “SERATEK DIREKT the Test“ productions of SERATEC Ges firm. f. Biotechnologie mbH (Germany). Their price (hereinafter - average data of the Moscow drugstores and medical institutions) - from 10 to 80 rubles for the test. The price of the English Clear Blue test, the most popular around the world, - 180 rubles. All of them are recommended for application from the first day of a delay of periods, all guarantee accuracy. Also action mechanisms are identical. In principle, if you bought not a fake, reliability and accuracy of these tests is approximately identical.
Risk factors and reliability of tests for pregnancy
A now several words about whether it is worth hoping so for the test - strips. For the last 1 - 2 years gynecologists in the world of “poostyla“ concerning house definition of pregnancy by the woman. Even more often they recommend to see, despite result of testing, a doctor. The matter is that there are tests, different in quality. One are recommended for the house use, others - for medical practice. The last - expensive, and besides let out them the firms respecting themselves with accurate debugged technology. Medical tests, as a rule, are not on sale in a drugstore, and are bought by gynecologic consultations and clinics. The test - strips on pregnancy you in drugstores will not find in the majority of the developed western countries of the world any more.
Remember that use of the test does not replace consultation and the medical examination which is carried out by the expert. Medical examinations after the test are necessary. If a test result positive, it is necessary to confirm it and to conduct all examinations if result negative, and the periods did not appear, you have to find the delay reason together with the doctor. >
of “The service regulation of tests for pregnancy“
Main when using the test - strips - it is correct to p to carry out procedure. If examination is conducted correctly it perhaps even more often as tests are less and less difficult during the using and an assessment of results) - the house test is almost also exact, as well as the analysis of urine which is carried out in a medical office or laboratory.
can hold Testing at any time (but on early terms it is recommended to use the first morning urine as concentration of HGCh in it is highest).
Sequence of actions:Collect by
- urine in pure dry capacity. The sample cannot be frozen, shaken up. Its storage in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2 - 6 °C no more than 24 watch is allowed. Open with
- a protective package, having broken off it on a cut, and take a strip - a strip.
- Place a strip - a strip in capacity with an urine sample so that the level of urine did not exceed the limiting line noted by shooters. Through time specified in the instruction take the test - a strip from urine and put on a pure dry surface. Determine by
- result not later, than through that time which is specified on the test (on very early terms of test (if the delay is small or it is absent at all yet) I recommend to wait half an hour - hour if the probability of pregnancy is very high, but not to throw out the test in 10 minutes; practice shows that on the first days of a delay the second strip is shown poorly and through much longer period, than write on packings, but on big terms it is shown quicker and more brightly than the first).
to increase chance of receiving exact result house the test - the analysis, it is necessary: >it is attentive to p to read to
- the instructions relating to the test before its use, and in accuracy to execute them. Regardless of the fact that you very much want to know the result if use of the first morning urine is necessary - wait till the morning and only then carry out the analysis. to Have
- near at hand watch with the legible dial or an alarm clock for exact implementation of temporary requirements of the analysis. to be convinced by
- that all elements of the analysis pure. Not to reuse tools. to
- If needs some time for expectation, to place a strip far from heat sources.
If the set which you bought contains the second test or if you bought the second set, wait several days before carrying out the repeated test.
Interpretation of results:
- of negative: one (as a rule, it is red - pink) the line only in a control zone, in the test - a zone of the line is not present. When receiving negative result if monthly did not come in 3 - 4 days, it is recommended to repeat the test as in the first weeks of pregnancy the HGCh level daily doubles, and in several days the test will better react to your HGCh level in the presence of pregnancy. For more exact diagnosis it is possible to take a blood test on HGCh: this analysis more precisely as in urine the HGCh level is usually lower, than in blood therefore long time the test can “be silent“ or show a weak strip.
- positive: emergence of two lines - in the test - a zone and a zone of control. On early terms of test if there is no delay or it is small, the second strip usually happens very weak, but if it is, repeat the test in several days: the maintenance of HGCh in urine considerably will increase, and the second strip on the test will become much brighter.
of the Condition of diagnostics and storage of tests:
- do not use the test after the expiry date specified on a protective package.
- it is necessary to Store the test - a set at a temperature of 2 - 28 °C.
- before testing samples of urine and components the test - a set have to be room temperature.
Internal quality control is the strip in an inspection zone (emergence of an accurate color strip on it testifies to a functional state a strip - the test). If on the test after the correct actions any strip did not appear - it means that the test was rejected, its expiration date expired or it was incorrectly stored. Buy tests only in drugstores!
When result incorrect
And still sometimes the test - strips can yield the wrong results. Why it happens?
In - the first, the test can be carried out incorrectly.by
In - the second, - it is carried out too early when the HGCh level is still low (in this case the lozhnootritsatelny result takes place: the test shows lack of pregnancy while the woman is pregnant).
Sometimes, that the horionichesky gonadotrophin is made by a tumor (false positive result when the test shows pregnancy existence while the woman is not pregnant).
Incorrect result can be received also at dysfunction (work violation) of ovaries: production of various sex hormones is broken, and the overall picture leads to a wrong test result.
Reception of hormonal preparations can also distort a picture.
- Surely study the instruction.
- Pay attention to from what term the test defines pregnancy (from the first day of a delay, some days before the expected periods, at an irregular cycle). By the way, independently it is almost impossible to calculate pregnancy term on the last factor. It is better to trust in the gynecologist and to pass all complex of researches.
At threat of an abortion the test can become negative suddenly. If the day before the woman did the test, and it was positive, and against bloody allocations from a genital tract and pains the test became negative, it is necessary to see a doctor immediately. Sometimes, that negative result becomes the first sign of the interrupted pregnancy.to
the Test - strips do not show existence of extra-uterine pregnancy. The matter is that in this case the embryo begins to develop not in uterus cavities, and out of it (is more often - in a uterine tube), and HGCh is produced in smaller quantities and “starts“ later. Therefore the negative test is not a guarantee that you have no extra-uterine pregnancy yet.At last, to you the low-quality test which can be the cause false positive (or negative) result can get to
. If a year ago gynecologists trusted results of tests practically for all 100%, then now they prefer to examine the patient and to make ultrasound. The matter is that lately in the market the number of counterfeit tests increased or strips with the maintenance of low-quality reactants appeared.
Unfortunately, in the market also low-quality tests for pregnancy still quite often meet. Sometimes they just show a lie: pregnancy is, and the test does not “catch“ it. Practice of application of tests in Russia now only develops. Therefore we face a large number of production made “quick“. The tests which are not meeting the elementary requirements of Society for consumer protection at all meet in our drugstores also: without date of production, an expiration date and number of a series on packing. Get on a counter and such import tests on which packing there is no word in Russian. It is necessary only to guess whether there is inside an instruction which the buyer will be able to use.
But even if the test is supplied with the detailed instruction, the buyer can have problems with its application. For this reason many solid producers of tests atkazyvat a phone number of “the hot line“ where it is possible to receive the competent answer to any question connected with use of tests. And to you, lovely women, I will give advice: use tests of the latest modification. Why to buy the test to which you cannot trust if obviously you call into question its result? Also do not forget that after carrying out the house test it is necessary to descend to the gynecologist.