Muscovites earn the budget most in the country, at the same time even many chiefs often lack money to a salary. All because, having appeared in a consumer society, we did not seize culture of economy. How to achieve that “the kopek ruble protected“, the correspondent of “SP“ Alexey Senchenko understood.Muscovites are richer with
than other compatriots. According to Mosgorstat (division of Federal State Statistics Service), in the first quarter 2006 the average monthly salary in the capital was nearly 24 thousand rubles - twice more, than over the country. It would seem, it is possible to provide something against a rainy day.“ In practice at most of people even with a salary by much bigger, than average, it is impossible to do accumulation, - the CEO of Personal Capital consulting group Vladimir Savenok says SP. - Muscovites just are not able to protect the money, planning expenditure“.
In the West the culture of control of expenses at capitalist abundance of goods and services developed decades. Let`s tell, the American will hardly buy the car which costs more, than he receives for half a year. And the Muscovite with the income in $1 thousand without special fluctuations buys the car for $20 thousand - and three years give on repayment of the credit almost half-salaries.
Residents of the USA, of course, the biggest debtors in the world: the cumulative debt on the credits taken by them makes $16 trillion. But at the same time, according to survey conducted by the Braun Research and Bank of America company, 45% of Americans save up money, regularly putting them in banks, pension or mutual investment funds, securities.“ In the West it is considered to be that without prejudice to quality of life it is possible to save monthly 10% of a salary“, - the director of JSC Infinado Andrey Kochetkov says SP. By the time of retirement the representative of middle class manages to pay off with all debts, ensures a comfortable old age and an opportunity to travel all over the world. It turns out, the motto “saved-means earned“ is closer to the average American, than fashionable at us “it is necessary not to save, and to earn more“.
Of course, even in the USA art of economy is given not all and not at once therefore demand for the experts helping to keep money in America as, however, and in Europe, it is very big. On this background in 80 - x years of the last century even the new profession - the financial adviser was created. Advisers write books, provide collective trainings and if the client of it a little - is given private lessons of economy. For example, for $50 an hour Deborah Foulz, the author of several books on economy and private investment, will tell that the full load of the washing machine saves seven gallons of water - it will allow to keep about $100 a year. And if to use the microwave oven instead of an electric oven, the economy of the electric power will give still plus of $50 to the family budget. And the whole $300 are brought by landing in a garden of long-term flowers instead of one-year. It is simple to save money. The main thing, according to Deborah Foulz, regularly to keep account of expenses and to be able to plan the life for many years ahead that the nobility when and what it is necessary to spend money for. In Russia the few are guided by this truth, capital for Americans.
the Expense under control
According to results of poll of research holding ROMIR Monitoring, nearly a third of respondents - Russians do not think at all that the income and expenses can be planned, and only 3% plan the budget for the year ahead and more.
Specialists in personal finance consider that it is still half-troubles. According to them, Muscovites do not know not only where to spend money in the future, but even where their salary for last month disappeared.“ The average Muscovite does not know what he spent 25% of the salary for“, - Andrey Kochetkov from the Infinado company says. It does not mean that a quarter of earnings is squandered it is unknown on what. It is quite possible that expenses were necessary: let`s tell, on gasoline and service of the car. But focus is in what to learn to save money it is impossible, without knowing what you spend practically each kopek for.
Every time when at the head of some Russian company there is a manager from the West, at her employees increases works and the head begins to hurt. Managers at any enterprise begin equally: from the immediate analysis of expenses. Sweating, employees write reports - and suddenly even without pointer of the management understand that the considerable part of expenses could be cut down, having constructed some processes more competently. Pay attention: resources for reduction of costs are not in result of introduction by the manager - the American or the European of new technologies, and just after expenditure divided under articles, counted and decided what of them can be avoided without damage to business.
the Family budget can be compared to the budget of the commercial organization in which there will always be unnecessary expenses. Almost each person tried to write down the expenditure sooner or later. In most cases the patience lasts not for long, and in few weeks this occupation is thrown. Meanwhile, Andrey Kochetkov claims, planning of the personal budget needs to be begun with the analysis of expenditure at least for three months. The CEO of Personal Capital consulting group Vladimir Savenok agrees with it:“ In this case the picture of expenses will be exact, and the person as it happens to my clients, can find out with surprise that he, for example, monthly spends $500 for campaigns on restaurants. It is possible to cut down this item of expenditure without special damage to quality of life and to have an opportunity to invest money“.
to Learn to keep the budget simply. For this purpose it is not obligatory to read special literature or to pay money for visit of a seminar.“ Daily write down all the expenses in the table, and it is not obligatory to paint everything on trifles, - Andrey Kochetkov advises. - For example, daily purchase of magazines or expenses on journey can just be entered in the column “Press“ or “Transport“. At the end of the first month you will understand approximate structure of the expenses and for certain will make unexpected discoveries. It can turn out that monthly you spend $200 only for beer and chips, and the campaign in the epicure, next to the house or work, behind products manages in the same sum as a trip to hypermarket which would provide you with food for a week“. In several months of the account and control you will see dynamics of the expenses. Then it will become clear what it is possible to save most effectively on, people often for a long time remember that they bought somewhere a large thing of rubles two hundred cheaper, than in other shops, but forget about by the way the five-centesimal notes lowered in the same public catering.“Without knowledge of structure of your expenses cannot be given to
councils how to save money in each concrete situation, - Vladimir Savenok is convinced. - But practice of work with clients shows: when maintaining the budget they begin to understand what expenses can be cut down. Why, for example, to pay $100 a month for mobile communication when for $50 it is possible to buy an unlimited tariff plan today. In the same way the monthly travel card in the subway is more favorable than tickets for limited quantity of trips“.
can Write down expenses in specially bought “Book of the account“ or just in a notebook in a section. However it is far more convenient to do it by means of special computer programs.
the Home calculator
of Software for maintaining the family budget exists weight - from Microsoft Money family to various free programs which can be downloaded on the Internet. As a rule, free programs are written by the beginning authors, and opportunities them are small: to set article of an expense, to record all expenditure and to receive a result in the form of tables or schedules. It is necessary to pay for more serious functions: Microsoft Money 2006 Standard costs about 1 thousand rubles However, not all opportunities will be available to the Russian users: let`s tell, the Russian banks do not support the control system of the bank account put in the program and receiving balance.Domestic paid programs of such delicacy also do not assume
, but all necessary for the serious financial analysis is and here. Having bought such program, you receive detailed evident tools for drawing up reports, a possibility of maintaining accounts department in several currencies at once. The good program for maintaining home accounts department itself will load exchange rates from the Internet, will remind you that it is time to make a contribution for the credit or to disturb your debtor. By means of some programs it is possible to fill and print out the tax declaration also. In the Internet - Ozone shop. ru license “Home accounts department“ and “House finance“ cost 129 rub, and “1C: Money“ - 376 rub. However, to write down and analyze expenses, it is possible to manage and usual Excel`Em, convinced Andrey Kochetkov from “Infinado“. Let`s tell, many banks, granting consumer loans, resort to the hidden commissions. They are marked out in the contract (in small print on 20 - y to the page), but is visually not shown to the consumer how many actually there is a credit product. However it can be seen, “having hammered“ an interest rate of bank and the sum of the credit into Excel. The program will show that actually the bank is going to receive from the client more, than is written in the advertizing leaflet. The analysis of similar offers to the conclusion of the contract allows to choose really the most favorable of them.an economy Order
- In the ruled notebook or in the computer table determine by articles of your monthly expenses: for example, “food“, “transport“, “utilities“
- for several months daily fix all your expenses, entering each purchase in the column allocated for it
- at the end of the month sum up the result, having summarized expenses in all articles of the budget. It is also necessary to define what percent from the general expenses is occupied by each article. Think whether everything your purchases were necessary
- should Reduce expenses from articles, greatest in percentage expression. However you should not save on quality of goods, in particular on quality of food. look for an opportunity to buy goods habitual to you cheaper
In excess expenditure are guilty also some mental sets.“ The big problem of Muscovites is that they do not want to spend the time, preferring to spend the money, - the independent financial adviser Aleksandra Tolstygina is sure. - Instead of finding time for cleaning in the apartment or a trip to hypermarket, people submit the problems for outsourcing and employ the housemaid, overpay for products in shops of “step availability““. Meanwhile to become the millionaire, it is necessary to think as the millionaire. In many books the psychology of capitalists in the first generation is described. One of the main lines of their character - aspiration everything that is possible to do independently. There is also other approach to the solution of this problem extended among owners of business: if they know how many they can earn for an hour, then can estimate whether there is a sense to do something by the hands or will cost somebody cheaper to employ.“ I recommend to consider time spent on economy of money, as time spent on earnings, - Aleksandra Tolstygina says. - It is simple, but effective psychological reception which allows to learn the economy price. Calculate the conditional cost of hour of the working hours and if return from economy does not exceed the cost of time spent on it - in such saving of means there is no sense“.people are divided
Depending on the relation to money into two psychological types. The expedient expenditure of means is important for one. The second prefer to concentrate the efforts on increase in earnings. The ideal model of the family budget means distribution of responsibility between family members. Someone (it is traditional - the husband) is responsible for filling of the budget, and someone (wife) - for its control. And if problems of “filler“ are extremely clear: to work more, to bring more to the house, - that ways of economy of money almost always should be learned by own experience. The fanaticism will not lead to anything good.“ In structure of expenses the main numbers of Muscovites food occupies, as a rule, 15 - 20%, - Aleksandra Tolstygina says. - In the principle to begin to cut down expenses it is necessary just from the most expensive articles. But it is impossible to save to the detriment of quality of life, especially on that, as for health. Having lived few months on macaroni and stewed meat, you lay $500-800, but present in how many treatment of a stomach after such diet will manage“. Not the fact even that it is necessary to refuse expensive groups of products - we will tell, sausages or meat semi-finished products: search of places where they can be bought cheaper can give serious economy. Options a set - for example, financial advisers recommend to pay attention to products which large supermarkets make under own trademark. Five liters of drinking water under brand “Auchan“ cost 15 rub if on it there is a Drinks from Chernogolovka logo, it will cost under 40 rub. Though both canisters are filled at the same enterprise. Just in the cost of the products made under own trademark of supermarkets expenses on advertizing and advance of goods are not put. At last, the most terrible buyer for supermarkets - the one who buys according to the list. It takes only what is necessary, and “is not conducted“ on tricks of the merchandisers who specially spread out goods for stimulation of “pulse demand“. Why and to you not to go with a leaflet? The similar economy “on food“ can be effective, without impoverishing a table.“ In my practice there was a case when the family of four people reduced the budget of food from $2 thousand to $500 without loss of quality of life“, - assured Alexander Tolstygin. Or, for example, gas stations. For MKAD they are, as a rule, cheaper: from a tank it is possible to save 50 - 100 rub. Of course, to refuel not in the city, and on the country route it is favorable if you do it in passing, on the way to giving. Optimization of movements on the city - need even more obvious though here the saving of time, than money for gasoline is far more important.
the Same rule - to look for expensive things at low price - can be applied also to purchase of clothes. In Europe search of sales of good brands became at dandies something like sport long ago. It is possible to find also some rules of consumer behavior, characteristic of the Russian capital. Aleksandra Tolstygina, say, does not recommend to buy superexpensive winter footwear which serves in the Moscow “reagent“ winters not longer cheap. >
I, of course, it is difficult for p to overestimate a possibility of postponement even of the small sums for competent planning of large purchases. For example, you decided to buy the car for $20 thousand. If to make it on credit for three years without initial contribution, then without the sum of all commissions, at an average rate in 10,5% per annum the car will cost as a result $24 thousand. If you within a year monthly laid slightly more than $300 and saved up for an initial contribution to 20%, the credit you will be given already under 9% per annum. It seems, an insignificant difference, but as a result the car will cost $22 700. That is the pure economy - $1,3 thousand
generally in calculations everything looks very impressively and rather simply. And it is unsurprising: professionals are engaged in it. Here only any professional will not be able to force you to implement his recommendations. So finally the future of the family budget depends on you. And if you are not ready to refuse something to yourself, to senselessly spend time and money for councils of strangers. whetheryou Plan the budget?
Evgeny Chichvarkin, the chairman of the board of directors of the Euroset company
- I do not plan in any way and I do not control the expenses. In my company for me it is done by other people. And in the personal plan I do not need to do it because I spend a little. I not mad the squanderer, but can buy expensive, good car. But only as vehicle, but not as luxury. Let the personal budget be controlled by those who spend much.
Polina Dashkova, the writer
- I am categorically uneconomical person. I trifle of money, I do not consider them, but at the same time I am not a mad squanderer. To me is simply not allowed to save, count the income. I am able to earn money, and here I consider them hardly. When it was not enough money, then it was necessary to save them. Sometimes wrote down expenditure on paper up to that how many to spend for a carton of milk how many - on soap. In my opinion, if there is a lot of money and it is constant to save and control them, then from such life begins to feel sick. At the same time I consider that when the person buys boots for 5 thousand euros, it is clinic, it is necessary to such person to the doctor. But if at good prosperity it grieves person to spend at restaurant 10 rub for tip or he visits cheap sales to buy there soap and powder which cost 5 rub cheaper is clinic too. Greed, folding of money to good will not bring into a jug. Surely something happens to money: or they will be stolen, or lost. It is necessary not to forget that the main value - work, and the rest everything again.
Vladimir Ruga, vice-the president of the company of multinational corporation - BP
- I am able to plan and control the expenses. I in advance know what approximately will be my income, and I divide it into three parts. On what I can spend now that later and that needs never to lay off and be to spent. Ability to save money and to watch the expenses - in many respects reflection of character of each person. The reasonable person always spends intelligently, and unreasonable - squanders money. I consider that it is impossible to save on education, on health, on close people, not only children, but also on parents, on the wife. And on what to save - everyone solves. I personally consider that it is circumspectly necessary to spend money for luxury.
Arkady Ukupnik, the singer
- you Know, for the it is enough - a long standing of work I learned to plan expenses. It is impossible to tell that I in many respects refuse to myself. Just there are several items of expenditure: obligatory (accounts, products, clothes etc.) and for pleasure (rest, travel etc.). It seems to me that people family come to planning of the income anyway, the way of life obliges. And here on what it is impossible to save, so it on own health. Without it there will be neither forces, nor work, nor money.
Sergey Lisovsky, the member of the Federation Council, the chairman of the board of directors of agrarian and industrial complex “Mosselprom“
- Of course, I plan and I control the income and expenses. Any businessman has to do it. The question of financial planning for the businessman is similar to a question and whether you sleep at night?
Poll was prepared by Svetlana Kazantseva