Teaching techniques: author`s, developing, nonconventional...
- At our school teach by author`s techniques! - with pride the woman says.
- would not give For anything the son there! Same experiment with children`s mentality! - another objects.
B than the truth consists?
What is author`s techniques and from where they undertake?
Today you will face author`s techniques practically at any school. It can be also developments in a concrete subject, and extensive educational programs, domestic experience and loans from - for a boundary. The simplest example: at the Moscow schools at least six textbooks only on one mathematics are used: Peterson and Moro (traditionalists), Vilenkin, Istomina, Arginskaya (zankovets), Geydman (most difficult). The school not only has the right to choose the textbook or a didactic grant. Teachers often write additional courses, develop teaching techniques. In the creativity all of them surely adhere to state standards of education. It means that irrespective of by what method teaching is conducted, at the exit the result has to be not lower than established.
“The vast majority of teachers understand that training and education of children in a root is other, say, than production of furniture. The inconvenient chair can be thrown out or repaired, and you will not restore the broken destiny. Therefore before entering a new method into use, teachers very carefully count possible negative result and try to avoid it“ . Voytsekhovskaya Marina Moiseevna, honored teacher of the Russian Federation, director of high school No. 1201 of Moscow.
Why they are necessary?
the Traditional technique of teaching adapts to natural development of the child. However what to consider natural? One in the fifth class writes quite good verses, and another and to the tenth “the Azzky Satan“ is capable to nakropat only something it seems. It is possible to accuse of all the ignoramus, of course: the pier, was born stupid and lazy, but hardly it will be correct. Too many factors influence each child. Mastering new techniques, teachers seek to level negative impacts and to strengthen positive each of pupils reached the maximum. Similar ideas are not new, they meet in G. S. Ushinsky, L. S. Vygotsky, V. V. Davydov`s works.
Domestic developments for elementary school
Are in the lead two: Zankov`s technique and Elkonin`s system - Davydova. They were developed approximately at the same time - 60 - e years. Despite their distinction (one adhered to didactics, others categorically denied it), the general is that teachers sought to depart from the bored cramming, to develop the personal beginning of pupils, to see their identity. Teachers - innovators not just went on to the pupils who are falling asleep with boredom various rules, and tried to force them to think, to really understand paragraphs of the textbook.
V. A. Lvovsky, the deputy director on scientific work of school No. 91 where Elkonin`s technique - Davydova was born and applied, divides all human knowledge into two categories: empirical (from change of the places composed the sum does not change) and theoretical (and why does not change?) . The first can be transferred by scoring and learning, the second needs to be understood. If hearing and storing, are process passive, then to analyse and understand something, vigorous activity of children is necessary. Here the best results are brought by perception of a class not as twenty five persons isolated from each other and as uniform collective. The organization of all-cool discussion and different types of group interactions becomes the central point of pedagogics.
Adherents of this method consider that to develop children, it is necessary to give them not those tasks which they can make today (the habitual principle of availability), but those tasks, which today they can make only together (in joint search) that tomorrow they could do it, individually. In other words, children are not endowed with ready knowledge, and teach the principles of their receiving.
Has something in common with it stated in didactic system L. Century. Zankova the principle of teaching “at the high level of complexity“ that the pupil strained, overcame obstacles, comprehending material. It Zankov sought to cause activity of pupils. Material is given as gradual transition from the concrete, well-known facts to generalizations, from the elementary generalizations to more difficult. So there is a systematization of knowledge having difficult structure.
Degree of difficulty is regulated by observance of a measure of difficulty. The teacher offers only that training material which can be comprehended by school students. If not to observe a difficulty measure, the child, being not able to understand the offered material, necessarily will go on the way of mechanical storing. Then the high level of difficulty from a positive factor will turn into negative.the Problem of training of teachers
Both of these systems with success are used by
at the public and private schools. But very often from a method there is one name. Do not trust if on interview you are told something it seems “last summer our teachers visited methodical conference, and now all of us as one - large experts of century. (the name of the recommended technique)“. So quickly ability is not gained! Most often techniques are presented to
not in pure form, and only separate components. Alas, also distortions are frequent. So the zankovsky principle of “a high measure of difficulty“ in practice often turns in a banal overload.in
Support of system of Elkonin - Davydova is engaged Open Institute of the Developing Education, the department of zankovets functions at the Moscow Institute of Open Education.
“The problem consists in what most of teachers should start even not from scratch, and from overcoming of powerful other experience. The administration of school, and is better parents, have to motivate the teacher on changes, then begin to replace traditional experience new. The second essential difficulty consists in what to learn the developing training in the traditional ways - lectures, seminars - it is absolutely senseless. Real-life communication, participation in lessons, training, trainings is necessary“ . V. A. Lvovsky, the deputy director on scientific work of high school No. 91 of Moscow.
New: innovative fields
Time did not stop. Presently it is not less creative persons in pedagogics, than forty years ago. The schools which are actively working in this area carry the name of experimental platforms, and their association on territorial districts or fields of knowledge is called the innovative field.the Status of the experimental platform not only positively characterizes by
school, but also gives it some advantages: additional rates and means. To the curriculum 180 more hours paid from the budget are allocated. They are used for a posttask work with poor and, on the contrary, with gifted pupils. Usually this methodical work is carried out by directors of studies of schools.
In what experiments consist?
be not afraid of this word. As a rule, they are absolutely harmless and are not traumatic. There is an example: at school No. 1201 lag of pupils on naturally - to scientific objects was revealed. The administration conducted “research of informative motivations of pupils“, and simply speaking - poll. The identity of the teacher came out on top, on the second there was call of duty, on the third - curiosity and inquisitiveness, that is internal, the strongest, motivation, interest of the pupil.
to strengthen it, is decided to be made, as experiment (!) an emphasis that it is interesting to children - for laboratory and practical works. Results struck teachers. After a while on the independent certification which is carried out by Department of Education 100 percent of pupils, and about 80 percent - on four and five coped with a task.
Of course, it only beginning, and yet not a technique. That it became such on this subject has to be several serious theses are written.
That such profile training? >
Other widespread experiment it is considered h2 so-called profile, it is personal - the focused education. In practice it means that children break into streams: language, humanitarian, mathematical, socially - economic, natural-science. Thus, everyone will be able to put emphasis on those objects which are interesting personally to it, and, finally, on specialty which he intends to choose subsequently.“Children can be cleverer than
, and can be sillier. One like objects of a humanitarian cycle, to others more - technical. But if there is a certain intellectual potential, then on “four“ it is possible to extend the child always. This potential is acquired in a family. How? Very simply: you drive the son or the daughter in theaters, cinema the museums more often. Read with them books. It develops a brain, and, therefore, intelligence. It is not necessary to pass everything on school“ . Voytsekhovskaya M. M. the director of high school No. 1201 of Moscow
Information technologies in education
One more experiment is the increasing introduction of information technologies. They mean good computer equipment of school, and as a result, are more inherent in non-state educational institutions. (Promo - M, the Priority, etc.) from state - school No. 166. > it is excessive to p to tell
About advantage of computer literacy, but it appears, according to psychologists (and teachers know it!) its operating time surely has to be followed by development of oral speech. Only then the personality is formed harmoniously.
what it is worth paying attention to, choosing school?
of the Technique have to correlate with each other. So, for example, at school No. 1201 there was a case when the textbook in biology under the editorship of Kalimov was not joined to the textbook in chemistry. The same subject - “Proteins“ - children passed twice with a gap in a year.Especially techniques are bad
if they strongly disperse from the standard school program. Upon transition to other school (and from it nobody is insured) there will be problems.
Besides, it is necessary to remember that all developments without fail have to take place the statement in uchebno - the methodical centers, and the most large-scale - in Department of Education. By an unconfirmed technique any school (including non-state) teaching a message has no right!
the Last serves as a sufficient guarantee not to be afraid of innovations. On the contrary, if the school avoids them, it not too well characterizes this educational institution, says about passivity of administration or that in collective there are no bright, creative, initiative people.