Our essential (traditions of bread baking of the different countries)
the Egyptians who thought up seventeen thousand years ago to smalyvat wheat in flour and to part from it dough, baked simple flat flat cakes. Which - where traditional bread still looks approximately also. It put bread in which without traditions
Bread - always and everywhere - was the beginning of all beginnings anywhere. “To all head“.“ There will be bread - there will be life“. Eavesdrop on conversations of Europeans in resorts - and you will understand that the most popular subject of noncommittal talk not weather, and “how much at you is bread now“. It is baked even where wheat does not grow: Mexico does thin maisovy flat cakes, in Scotland - oat bread - pie, in Sweden - rough rye and potato to a lefsa; there is bread from flour with addition of rice, peas and acorns … Process of bread baking is in essence simple and monotonous (flour, water or milk, fats, yeast, sugar, salt), but also close neighbors have such unlike bread! Glance in bakeries in the different countries - and you will feel that even began to smell bread different everywhere.
the High culture
the Legislator of high grain culture is considered France : the chief - bakers in the majority a top - hotels of the world - French, at them is the patron - Saint Honore, the festivals, the museums, mad inventions (like a bedroom from bread for Salvador Dali which many years ago glorified bakeries Pualen) and competitions on the best baguette of the city which to win - the highest happiness. And the ordinary Parisian does not imagine life without bakery in the neighboring house where he goes down every morning behind fresh croissants.
the Main distinctive features of the French grain business - love to the business, quickness (the “correct“ bakeries open at five in the morning that in seven first clients could already receive hot bread by a breakfast), keenness to tastes of buyers and at the same time strict respect for traditions. For example, today in Paris the most fashionable bread - a peculiar mix and that and another: a l`ancienne baguette, that is on - ancient. He is trained from the sour test, it leaves the furnace with a rough crust and porous, yellowish color pulp, its pointed ends are powdered by flour. You eat such baguette - and you are transferred to Maria`s era - Antoinette.Try
- the French country bread
For of Italy bread was always a basis of kitchen - and still, fortunately, did not become part of the industry. It is still traditional, especially in the south of the country which is considered “reserve“ of bread baking: here everywhere it is possible to find family bakeries where recipes of bread carefully transfer from generation to generation.
In Italy several types of the bread very different in principle: focaccia, bruschetta, a miketta, a rosette, banana, a biov, bovolo, ciabatta, a chiryola, a manina to a ferrareza, the sir kazarechyo - one of the main favourites of the South from Tuscany to Sicily. And practically everyone bears with itself(himself) a legend. For example, the well-known Tuscan bread without salt was invented when the next father absolutely unscrupulously raised a tax on salt and Tuscan bakers decided to boycott a product. It was, however, bread without salt is tasty too therefore bake it to this day. And the secret of success of an invention is that eat such bread mainly with Tuscan ham, which much solony Parma or Friulian.
Or here grissin - thin breadsticks from Turin. Their birth is attributed to the doctor of the Savoy family, governors of regions Piedmont and Wal - D`Aost who considered that long, thin and dry bread is useful to health of the prince.
But ignorance of historical background yet prevented to enjoy to nobody the real Italian bread: the most fragrant bruschetta dried, grated with garlic, watered with olive oil and strewed with a basil; focaccia which is done matchless by addition of white wine, olives and rosemary. Or ciabatta, the elementary rural flat cake whose golden crisp is capable to create miracles with appetite.Try
!Ciabatta Tuscan grape bread
the Abrupt batch
of Missile defense the German bread tells
- : “Until the house you inform - you will dislocate a shoulder!“ Germans love that everything was thoroughly including bread. It Germany hundreds and hundreds of grades - the person from outside can almost not understand. But it is perhaps simple to fall in love - at least with the same black bread from coarse flour. Some German grades - as, for example, an appetizing pretzel prettsel - are very charming
and are pleasant to one and all, and some are designed that is called for a narrow circle of fans. And exactly thanks to such bread Germany can be called the country of high grain culture too.
For example, a family Shyulerov bakes of the city of Bamberg of already 150 years bambergskiya fladen: flat, big (nearly a half-meter in the diameter), very dark, strongly propechenny and incredibly spicy. Fladen from Shyulerov is called “sapelbrot“ - from the word sappeln which means “to beat off dough until pancake does not become almost flat“. Dough should be beaten off, but not to roll - that it did not take in head to rise in the furnace. Gourmets go crazy from a sapelbrot. Those to whom has the luck to live in Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin or Nuremberg can buy it in special shops, and the rest should write out from Bamberg.
One more nation of the European hleboman lives near Germans. Bread of Ireland is famous for the whole world for the unusual taste: the most popular soda bread prepares without yeast (therefore very quickly) and on the basis of buttermilk (it turns out sourish); sometimes it is baked with raisin, currant or other fruit additives. Farls bake of wheat flour with oat-flakes in the form of a circle quarter. Fadzh, potato bread with parsley, is served cold or fried in pork fat. And any national breakfast does not manage without marriage bra - fruit bread which is ideally combined with sweet tea with milk, so well-loved by Irish.All Irish bread is rather simple
in preparation, but will not suspect of a lack of ideas of Irish. Here is how, for example, marriage with a ring prepares to bra: to fill in dried fruits (2,5 glasses) with hot tea (1 glass), to cover and leave to be softened for the night. To add flour (2,5 glasses), slightly shaken up egg (1), orange fruit jelly in the morning (4 h l.) sugar (1,3 glasses), mix of spices (cinnamon, a carnation, a nutmeg) and the ring papered for pastries (gold or silver). Properly to mix, lay out everything on a baking sheet, to make a cross-shaped cut on a surface and to bake an hour and a half. To give hot with oil to tea. To whom the ring will get - that soon marries.Try
!the Finnish malt bread Tsopf (the Swiss Sunday bread)
- Bread: with olives, the Irish bread, “bread of three sisters“
the Sacral subject
One of the most original grain traditions exists in Mexico . Well where with such constancy use cornmeal? Mexicans bake the daily flat cakes from it tortilyas: dry grains presoak for the night in warm water, next day wring out, mill, and from this weight on a hot clay plate prepare fresh small loafs.
Bread in Mexico - a subject sacral. For example, in day of the Dead in the majority of houses on a table you will see “the sir muerto“, bread of the dead: this spicy, refined, sweet bread with orange (to it surely there are also a nutmeg and the Sambuca liqueur) is decorated with the “bones of ancestors“ which are filigree baked, plentifully covered with glaze and is served with dense hot Mexican chocolate.
However, bread - obligatory attribute of religious holidays not only in Mexico. For Christians it symbolizes the Christ`s body - and in our main prayer is mentioned in the first lines:“ bread our essential dazhd to us dnes …“ And tradition of Easter cakes? At us each hostess at least once in life starts this difficult process in the kitchen. Not less beautiful easter bread and Easter cakes - the panettena bake, for example, in Greece and Italy.
East culture of bread more ancient, than European. Practically everywhere - from Turkey and Iran, from the Caucasus Mountains and the Central Asian sand to the jungle of the Southern India and coral coasts of Thailand - bread looks as flat cake. Flat cakes happen magnificent and flat as pancakes, fresh, barmy, rich, baked, fried. But at them always is which - that the general: they are torn hands, but not knifed. Otherwise not just taste is lost, but traditions are offended.
One of the most popular types of east bread in the world - pita. Simpler it, apparently, and nothing can be: it is necessary to mix a glass of flour with a glass of water and a teaspoon of yeast; to leave for a while. From the turned-out test to roll five balls and again to leave for a while. Then to press each ball in the middle that hourglasses turned out as if, - and again to leave until they turn into balls again. Then to roll with a flat cake rolling pin thickness in half-centimeter. To put in the heated oven and to wait five minutes - balls will begin to be inflated as the real balloons. To get from an oven, to cover with a damp towel. When pita falls down“, it can be used as “pocket“ - to fill though with meat with salad though cheese with greens - anything.
the Most tasty flat cakes in Central Asia can be tried in bakeries where still they are done manually (the reason, clear, not in distinguished taste of local gourmets, and just in a slow current of Asian time). The Uzbek, Tajik, Turkmen flat cakes prepare not on yeast, and on ferments (is to what come back in grain boutiques of Europe now), why their taste becomes more saturated. Let`s tell, Uzbek a screen - non on a basis gorokhovo - anisic ferment. They are baked in the tandoor, the clay furnace installed in the earth and given hot to pilaf, soup, a shish kebab and vegetables.the Indian flat cakes naan bake
in the tandoor too, but its absence stops nobody - on a pig-iron frying pan it is possible to make other flat cakes: chapat, Pura or paratas. In India a proverb “The lunch is bad, prick bread is not present“ gets special sounding - in Indian cuisine really the food without bread does not happen. In each staff the dishes, and flat cakes - the uniting keynote: they often play a tableware role - with their help scoop gave, rice and vegetables.it is also simple to Prepare for
chapat or parathat, as well as any other flat cake - if you near at hand have a tandoor or the burning charcoal, and also an atta, special flour for a chapata. It is received, carefully milling whole grains of wheat to a condition of powder darkly - yellow color. Dough from an atta turns out incredibly velvety, and substitution by its ordinary wheat flour will be found immediately.Try
- Pumpkin bread
the Grain future
In Russia bread always ate
- with herbs much. Once in Filippovsky bakeries which, certainly, were sight of old Moscow the people constantly crowded. Filippov was a prominent figure - he created the whole grain empire. Its kalatches and rolls went every day to an imperial table to St. Petersburg (tried to bake them there, but nothing left - water Nevsky, spoke Filippov, not that). Wagon trains with its bread were equipped even to Siberia: kalatches some in a special way from the furnace froze at once and thawed only before food - in crude towels! But at the same time simple people bought “essential“ in its bakeries: funtikovy black, sitny (it was baked from the flour sifted through a sieve, and such bread left much more gently reshetny), kalatches, loaves, grandmas and rolls. By the way
We belong toto number of the nations which eat a lot of bread - according to the estimates of experts, to 330 grams a day. And it very much, is very good for our health. In - the first, bread for 30% covers standard daily rate of calories. In - the second, despite the seeming simplicity, contains in it about 200 substances, useful to health, vegetable proteins and carbohydrates. In - the third, bread is rich with cellulose, irreplaceable for the person, and than the grinding is more rough, bread is more useful to those. When processing flour the lion`s share of useful elements of grain which contain the vitamins and mineral substances stimulating a metabolism goes to bran.
Alas, times changed, and now it is possible to call Moscow the grain city with a big stretch - to high grain culture still grow and grow at it. One of born bakers, Eric Kayser opened in Moscow two bakeries recently. Kayser who is called Ducass in baking business the owner of 22 grain boutiques worldwide, came to Moscow to get acquainted with the Russian grain tradition:“ I read that Russians eat a lot of bread, but, to tell honestly, what I tried not especially impressed me. And it is surprising that there are here no bakeries where do handwork bread, - all eat factory“.
But we do not stand still. Here you will see: there will pass only several years - and it will be possible to buy from us, by the Japanese tradition, beautifully packed bread with an apricot or orange (it is born on a visit as a gift), and at us will serve the well-known Latvian black bread soup or the Scandinavian grain cake, and small bakeries where will bake the bread - not worse, than in old Naples will open in lanes.