Rus Articles Journal

Happiness from a test tube of

If there is a wish for the child, but it is impossible to bring it into world naturally, it is possible to address to one of two tens Moscow clinics which help with children “from a test tube“. Or even to employ substitute mother for the successor. The cost, dangers and legal subtleties of process the observer of “SP“ Sergey Topol

the Historical background
the Description of surrogacy appeared in the 6th century BC. In dzhaynsky (a religious trend in India) a source of “Kalp Sutr“
According to a legend, the founder of Jainism Makhavira was conceived in the woman`s belly from priestly estate, but as the great hero had to be born only in the soldier`s family, the germ was wonderfully transferred to a womb of the corresponding “substitute mother“.
the First experiment on artificial insemination was conducted on dogs in Italy at the end of the 18th century. In half a century it was learned to be done with mares and cows.
the First artificial insemination of the woman spent M. Doye from medical office of the Parisian university who in 1785 made an intra vaginal injection of the to the childless wife before. As a result the healthy child was born.
the First-ever banks of sperm appeared in 1964 in Iowa - cities (USA) and Tokyo (Japan). In Russia the first child conceived by means of donor sperm was born in 1986, and the first bank of sperm was created in 1991 in St. Petersburg.
the First-ever child conceived in a test tube (out of mother`s body), was born on July 25, 1978 in the English city of Oldkhem. Childbirth took place normally, and the born Louise Brown perfectly feels and now.
A here did not lead the American experiment on creation of bank of sperm of Nobel laureates to the expected mass birth of geniuses. From more than two hundred children who were born from the cleverest donors of the planet, only one, Doron Blake, was allocated with fine data: in two years he began to use the computer, in five years read “Hamlet“. However, having become the adult, the child prodigy of any special talents in himself did not find.
to Give birth for thanks
In many even traditionally democratic countries surrogacy has rigid restrictions
In Australia and Great Britain, Israel, Spain, Canada, the Netherlands and separate states of the USA (New - Hampshire, Virginia) commercial surrogacy is forbidden - only payment of operating costs is allowed during pregnancy and childbirth. Therefore in these countries under a ban surrogacy advertizing, the offer of services in selection to surma.
In France surrogacy is forbidden as contradicting the legislative provision on “inalienability of a human body“. And in Germany attempt “is considered a crime to carry out artificial insemination of the woman ready to refuse the child after his birth (substitute mother), or to implant it a human embryo“. However, punishment will be born by the doctor, but not “customers“ of the child or “a live incubator“. In a number of the countries - Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Finland - surrogacy by the law is not regulated and therefore freely practices.
the Native krovinka the Resident of Yekaterinburg tries to obtain
that she was recognized as the grandmother of the son of the son
according to the website www. surrogacy. ru, in 1996 19 - summer Andrey Zakharov before completing a chemotherapy course in Israel, according to the recommendation of doctors handed over the sperm for a cryopreservation. In nine years Andrey died, without having left behind children. His mother decided that at her the grandson by all means has to be born. The Israeli authorities, despite a ban to take out sperm from the country, met requirements of her and allowed to take out 25 test tubes with sperm of the died son to the Ekaterinburg center of family medicine. Doctors used it in the program of surrogacy with a donor ovum. Ekaterina Zakharova had a grandson, and the surmama received the one-room apartment in Yekaterinburg for the services.
In vessels and REGISTRY OFFICES is considered that her grandson it cannot be, and the only relative of the kid is his substitute mother. Zakharova`s lawyers consider refusal of court to register it as the grandmother illegal. Now lawyers offer such scheme. For paternity proof through court, according to Art. 49 of the Family code of the Russian Federation, there is enough statement of the person dependent on which there is a child, at the same time the court takes any proofs confirming the child`s origin from the particular person into account. When the paternity is established, Ekaterina Germanovna is automatically recognized as the grandmother.

to her and him already for 30, is more rare - for 40. Both have the higher education. Life - office - the house - office, and the present income on a family, $4-6 thousand a month, - result of many years given to work. When they at last wanted the child, it became clear that it is impossible to conceive him for some reason. Then spouses also ran on doctors.

Such is, according to experts, a portrait of an average Moscow family which resorts to extracorporal (from Latin extra corporis, “out of a body“) to fertilization - EKO.

according to the chief obstetrician - the gynecologist of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation academician Vladimir Kulakov, in Russia 15% of couples are fruitless, and at doctors 700 thousand people are about it observed. Services in EKO in the country are offered by four tens clinics, a half of them - in the capital. For comparison, in Israel where the population is less, than in Moscow (7 million people), - about one hundred centers. Vladimir Kulakov claims that Russia needs 200 - 250 such centers. Nevertheless to the Moscow middle class of EKO it is quite available already now: procedure is not more expensive than the mediocre foreign car insurance.

Anyway if it is impossible to conceive the desired child in the usual way, the choice of the medical technology capable to fill up your family it is necessary to begin with the careful analysis of health of spouses.


the Different reasons

infertility is understood as inability of a mature organism to bring forth viable offspring. Contrary to a popular belief, men are infertile more often than women: in 45 cases from 100 (women - in 40% of situations).

Other 15% fall on cases of biological incompatibility of gametes (spermatozoa and ova) of spouses: separately they as it should be, but do not suit one another (sometimes it can be cured, but there are cases and hopeless).

of the Reason of infertility - the most different. At seven of ten women, according to WHO statistics, it is result of impassability of uterine tubes, from - for what the spermatozoon cannot reach the purpose - an ovum. Impassability in turn can arise also from - for the postponed infectious diseases, and as a result of unsuccessful abortion. It is 15 of 100 operations and if the girl from 14 to 18 years - with a child-bearing gets rid of pregnancy, by estimates of doctors, there can be problems at eight of ten.

a case infertility is connected by

At men in nearly a half with the varikotsel at which excessively expanded veins do not provide full outflow of blood from a small egg. As a result of a disease the man`s organism makes spermatozoa too little for fertilization (the milliliter of their eyakulyat has to contain not less than 20 million), at the same time their functions are broken, or does not make them at all.

Despite it both the man, and the woman, as a rule, have no problems in sexual life, and the diagnosis is unexpected for spouses.

Anyway, inspection with testing can drag on for a month and more, and in Moscow it will hardly cost cheaper 5 thousand rubles. Often spouses can be treated, and genital abilities are restored. But if it does not occur, and the result is not yielded even by an artificial insemination (when sperm of the husband is entered to the woman by the doctor), the speech comes about an embryo from a test tube.

Point of order

Essence of extracorporal fertilization is as follows: from ovaries of the woman take mature ova, impregnate their spermatozoa the husband, grow up the turned-out embryos in an incubator and transfer them back to a uterus to the patient.

At first to a female organism doctors help to create qualitative ova - register hormones in certain days of a menstrual cycle and monitor by means of ultrasonography growth of follicles in ovaries. Hormonal stimulation is fraught with side effects, from them one of the most unpleasant - a syndrome of hyper stimulation of ovaries as a result of which blood circulation and other their functions are broken. The doctor is obliged to warn the patient about possible difficulties. Sometimes hormones are simply contraindicated to it.

At last by means of a special needle from follicles are pumped out by several ova. Intervention is carried out under the general anesthesia. On the same day the husband hands over sperm for carrying out EKO (if this is not about use donor which is stored in the frozen look).

Then the healthiest ova at a stare in a microscope “marry“ with the most viable spermatozoa. There comes the turn of an incubator with carefully verified temperature condition: in 16 - 18 hours it will become clear whether embryos were created. And here success is achieved. However before replacing an embryo in a uterus (this procedure painless, the anesthesia is not required), from it by method of a biopsy take two cages and under a microscope define a sex of the child (it can be “ordered“). Also, analyzing chromosomes, experts will see off the physician - genetic diagnostics: on all diseases, of course, you will not test an embryo therefore emphasis is placed on those which can arise, proceeding from the anamnesis of spouses (we will tell if they are more senior than 40 years, the embryo is checked for a Down syndrome). If diagnostics gave “green light“, embryos - not one, and at once three - change in a uterus. In three weeks after this ultrasonography will show whether at least one got accustomed: EKO is successful only in 30% of cases (though, of course, happens that together one long-awaited kid the family receives two or three at once).

EKO Cost in the Moscow clinics makes 25 - 44 thousand rubles. However, declaring the price of procedure, clinics, as a rule, do not consider expenses on chamber which can be necessary, and medicamentous maintenance, from - for whom conception becomes minimum one third more expensive.

Besides, clinics do not bear responsibility for result. According to contracts, the patient is warned that parental happiness shines not always, and pays only for the rendered medical services. By the way, guarantees do not give also foreign clinics to which childless wealthy Muscovites also sometimes address. And dispute on whether our specialists in EKO learned to wash also well test tubes as in Switzerland, in medical community does not cease.

Happens so that no medical manipulations with sperm of the husband help - then with the consent of spouses of EKO it can be carried out with donor sperm.


Anonymous fathers

of the Practician of donorship of sperm it is extended in the world: about 30 thousand children annually are born in the USA, for example, by means of “deposits“ from banks of sperm.

In Russia the first banks of sperm appeared about ten years ago. According to the doctor - Irina Zorina`s reproduktolog from clinic of “Altravit“, now at them on the account no more than 40 donors of sperm consist.

Banks are almost in all clinics offering EKO, and donors to all Moscow - from 500 to 1 thousand people. Sperm is handed over by anonymous volunteers in return from 21 to 38 years which clinics find according to announcements in the Internet. The candidate for anonymous fathers is comprehensively examined, including regarding a set of infectious and mental diseases, do a spermogram - the analysis of a seed. From 15 - 20 candidates, doctors assure, they accept only one - more often, of course, rejection goes not on psychiatric a reason, and from - for bad qualities of sperm, requirements to which are established by norms of WHO.

the donor surely already has to have the child. This condition is not met only if the family itself chose to itself the donor and gave it. In half a year of the donor survey again. And only after that it is included in the catalog where all its physical parameters (weight, growth, addition), a nationality, color of eyes, hair and skin, and also education and a profession are brought. All this on the terms of full anonymity for which the clinic where the bank of sperm is located is responsible.

For some reason all potential parents want to have the donor with the higher education though doctors claim that it not the main thing. Put them - to provide all available information on the donor.


store spermatozoa in sterile glass test tubes which are placed in vessels with liquid nitrogen. So it is possible to hold sperm as much as long. Doctors claim that its quality even improves: sluggish cages when freezing perish.

Sperm of one donor cannot use

more than for five conceptions, differently “genetic balance“ can be broken: will appear too many brothers and sisters who are not suspecting about the relationship. Donor sperm in general “basket“ of EKO - goods inexpensive. In Moscow pay the donor $40-100 for one ejaculation, and cost the client of 3 - 5 mg of substance $150-200. One portion of donor sperm is divided into three test tubes, and it, respectively, can be used in three EKO procedures.

the situation if the woman cannot become pregnant neither from husband`s, nor from donor sperm for five - seven attempts of EKO is Much more seriously (more doctors will not begin to undertake). When adoption for some reasons is unacceptable for a family, there is a question of search of substitute mother. If when using donor sperm the main risk, perhaps, that the been born boy, having grown, can theoretically meet the sister and marry it, then in a case with substitute mothers of dangers much more. Not to mention expenses.

Live incubator

to Natasha 26 years. She is married five years, the husband works as the driver, they have a son of four years. The family moved to Moscow from Krasnodar Krai two years ago. “Monetary circumstances“ forced to become substitute mother Natasha. It came to the legal agency Sweetchild specializing in surrogacy services, having learned about it on the Internet. There took an interest in its health, age, marital status.

Natasha as she tells SP, never communicated With a family for which she had to give birth to the child. Only showed to clients its photo. The contract in which it was specified that Natasha has to support as it should be the health was made. Its consent to refusal of the fee was also received if during pregnancy catches some sexually transmitted infection. Its services were estimated at $12 thousand, and all analyses and inspections - are paid by legal office. Besides it was monthly given $300 for food, and in the last month pregnancies paid a taxi. Procedure of fertilization lasted ten minutes, and Natasha brought up the been born girl five days. Then it was taken away. On it work of a surmama (steady reduction in the circle of experts) ended, she does not seek to see the child:“ Why, it grows there, to it it is good“. Now Natasha is going to make “good cause“ again - quite so she treats surrogacy. And still two times - three will make it if health allows.

However, not all stories as Natashina, come to an end to mutual pleasure of customers and “a live incubator“. On the website surrogacy. ru - the long black list of “substitute“ swindlers. One of them “asks money for analyses from several couples of parents, and then disappears“, another “in day of the beginning of the program demanded to double compensation“, the third, “being a physician, entered into a collision to doctors of a maternity welfare unit, imitated pregnancy and disappeared with money of biological parents“.

Konstantin Svitnev, the lawyer from “Rosyurkonsalting“, one more company which is engaged in mediation in the market of surrogacy cites as an example four trials connected with this not the most widespread service.

B 2004 the married couple from Chita employed substitute mother, but in local clinic by it made not EKO, but an insemination the husband`s sperm - the customer. The woman of the been born child did not give, but also submitted a claim on the alimony which to her and awarded. According to lawyers, it was the classical case when couple which independently found substitute mother made all possible mistakes, having legally created a situation when at the husband the child on the party just was born. Customers needed to make EKO with use of the gametes, but not an insemination to exclude biological communication between substitute mother and the born child. And they did not even issue the contract.

Other surmama - already in Moscow - tried to sue

after issue of the birth certificate of the child out that instead of biological mother entered it, motivating it with desire to live with the child`s father - the customer.

the Court refused to it on the basis of the fact that according to item 3 of Art. 52 of the Family code of the Russian Federation substitute mother has no right for contest of record about motherhood after its commission - and before commission it would have every chance, if the surmama does not wish to leave the been born child - the law on its party.


also surmama Suffer. One of them, Anna Dunayeva, gave rise for a married couple of the child with heart disease. Customers refused both the child, and payments. By the way, the advance payment to “live incubators“, according to lawyers, does not practice: in total “upon“. Dunayeva appealed to court with the requirement that they paid her. However the claim was left without satisfaction, proceeding from “recommendations of the Council of Europe“ to use as substitute mothers only sisters, close relatives or girlfriends of the infertile woman with compensation only of “objectively admissible expenses“.

, at last, this year process against “the black intermediary“ Lyudmila Verzhbitskaya came to the end with

I. This former nurse previously convicted for illegal abortions worked at the Moscow substitute market since 1998. It opened an office in Scientific center of obstetrics, gynecology and perinatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science and was illegally represented by the employee of the center responsible for programs of surrogacy. Verzhbitskaya on the next attempt to sell already been born children got (allegedly they from substitute mothers). Worked according to the following scheme: persuaded the women wishing to make abortion, to keep pregnancy and after the birth of the child looked for to it the “parents“ ready to pay $20-25 thousand. At the same time processed documents for participation in the program of surrogacy, that is imitated process, giving adoption for surrogacy. Verzhbitskaya was sentenced to a fine of 350 thousand rubles for forgery and arbitrariness.

How to avoid similar stories, trying to solve, perhaps, the most intimate of all problems?

Legalists are intermediaries

the Russian legislation concerning surrogacy - one of the most liberal in the world. The main thing - such motherhood is authorized that for money that “for so“. But there is a lot of subtleties.

If customers at the time of the child`s birth officially did not get married, the woman who was taking out it will become the child`s mother automatically. And she cannot refuse the child in favor of biological mother: “just“ it is necessary to refuse it, and to biological parents - on the general basis to undergo difficult procedure of adoption. Lawyers consider it as a gap in the legislation. By the way, lonely women have a right to use reproductive technologies too, but that they can resort to services of substitute mother, in the Family code nothing is told. Though what is not forbidden is authorized.

the Main difficulty that the surmama can not give the baby if does not want. To oblige her make it no contract with the customer can: appear in it such point, it will become unauthorized. Therefore provide the draconian penalties applied to the woman in labor who took in head to keep the child in contracts with surmama.

I in “Rosyurkonsalting“, and in Sweetchild is considered that without their services which manage in the tenth part from contract cost it is dangerous to contact substitute mothers. The professional intermediary not only competently makes the unusual contract (though it is possible to order and only this service - it will cost approximately 10 thousand rubles) but also keeps all program. Here, first of all, inspection of candidates enters: at this stage eight of ten potential women in labor are eliminated.

the Total cost of the contract which includes both legal escort, and payment of the curator (the woman who will watch behavior of the woman in labor), and the fee to a surmama, makes $15-35 thousand

At last, intermediaries in delicate business help to provide also confidentiality. Families as the director of the company of Sweetchild Sergey Lebedev told SP, extremely seldom advertize that they resorted to services of the foreign woman in labor: most often pregnancy of the wife is specially imitated, or she just goes allegedly to bear the child in an eco-friendly solitude far away from eyes of acquaintances.

But exceptions all - is. Openly declared the address to substitute mothers the singer Alyona Apina who nine times tried to bring into world the child, and also the president fitness - the World Class center Olga Slutsker. Business - the lady did not even begin to conceal a surmama name: the child, Slutsker says, the American girlfriend Lucie free of charge took out her. And Alyona Apina reported that the birth of the child cost her $25 thousand. Time even the famous ladies already began to speak about it probably and the rest has nothing to be ashamed.

a law Letter

the LAW “ABOUT PROTECTION OF PUBLIC HEALTH“, Art. 35 “Artificial insemination and implantation of an embryo“ Each full age woman of childbearing age has the right for artificial insemination and implantation of an embryo. Artificial insemination of the woman and implantation of an embryo are carried out in the establishments which obtained the license for medical activity in the presence of the written consent of spouses (the lonely woman). Data on the carried-out artificial insemination and implantation of an embryo, and also on the identity of the donor are medical secret.

LAW “ABOUT ACTS OF CIVIL STATUS“, Art. 16. item 5 At the state registration of the birth of the child according to the statement of the spouses who agreed to implantation of an embryo to other woman for its incubation along with the document confirming the fact of the birth of the child has to be submitted the document issued by the medical organization and confirming the fact of receiving a consent of the woman who gave birth to the child (substitute mother) on record of the specified spouses by the child`s parents.

FAMILY CODE, section IV, chapter 10 of Art. 51 of the item. 4 Persons who are married among themselves and gave the consent in writing to implantation of an embryo to other woman for its incubation can be written down by the child`s parents only with the consent of the woman who gave birth to the child (substitute mother).