The house in Kudrin
the Moscow museum of A. P. Chekhov on the Garden ringto
On one of the widest sites of the Garden ring - Sadovo - Kudrinskaya Street which name happens from being here before the village of Kudrino - still is cost by small ancient mansions, pleasing old residents with a various architectural delicacy of XVIII, the XIX centuries.to
From them distinguishes with the unusual, original architecture the small two-storeyed house at No. 6. On darkly - a red wall of his facade the memorial granite plate with an inscription is strengthened:“ There lived from 1886 to 1890 the great Russian writer Anton Pavlovich Chekhov“.
It is a house museum of A. P. Chekhov about which our further narration will go. It belongs to number of the most known memorable literary places of Moscow. The museum was open already in Soviet period - in 1954, but also until now his visitors remain are grateful to both museum workers, and relatives of Chekhov A. P. helping with its creation.
I forever the Muscovite
For the first time Anton Chekhov saw Moscow in 1877, having arrived here in the spring for school vacation from Taganrog where it finished a gymnasium. The ancient capital with its brisk streets and the areas, with theaters, the museums, libraries, the ancient Kremlin made such stunning impression on young Anton that having received the school-leaving certificate in two years, it rushes to the city with which he dreams to link life now.
his numerous family (mother, the father, brothers and the sister) since 1876 lived in Moscow, having moved from native Taganrog here after bankruptcy of the father of family.All follow-up activity of Anton Pavlovich Chekhov is also connected by
with Moscow. Of student`s years of study at the Moscow university at medical faculty - before its formation as writer, from statement of his first plays in the Moscow theaters - before departure for Sakhalin, then in Melikhovo and to Yalta Moscow was his house and a live source, “within 25 years feeding his creativity“.
the House in Kudrin
Before Chekhov` family lodged in Kudrin, in 10 Moscow years it replaced 12 apartments. It were or basement, cheap rooms, or apartments in “noisy houses“, as on Yakimanka, or in the dangerous regions of Sretenka, near the Sukharevsky market.
In August, 1886 Chekhov removed new housing. It was the small mansion near Kudrinskaya Square (Vosstaniya Square) - “The house in Kudrin“.
From history of construction of the house knows that it was built in April, 1873. Permission to its construction was given to the lieutenant colonel V. N. Rostovtsev by the Moscow provincial board. At the beginning of 80 - x years the two-storeyed mansion passes to the collegiate adviser Yakov Alekseevich Korneev. Decorated two big (in all facade) bay windows, surrounded with the white, relief decorative eaves which are well combined with a balustrade on a flat roof (the high Gothic roof was not yet), the house was nicknamed by locals the small lock. But the playful and well-aimed nickname of Anton Chekhov - “The house - a dresser“ was the most popular for the house in which Chekhov lodged.
Evgenia Mikhaelovna is the writer`s mother, the sister Masha, the younger brother Mikhail Pavlovich and Anton to whom only 26 years passed at this time, lived here now constantly. Relatives helped the beginning writer. Mother and the sister sponsored him, and Mikhail became actually Anton`s secretary. Daily in the kudrinsky house there was also a father Pavel Egorovich lodging at the son Ivan. Incidentally there lived Nikolay Pavlovich - the artist who acquainted subsequently the brother Anton with the classmate I. I. Levitan. Both brothers almost at the same time began to cooperate in comic magazines: Anton - as the writer, Nikolay - as the artist.
Chekhov` Family continued to live in misery also in Kudrin, but in two years prior to moving Anton Chekhov already gained the diploma of the doctor and had continuous medical practice. Same 1884 its collection of stories “Melpomene`s Fairy Tales“, and in 1886, in three months prior to moving to Korneev`s house, - the collection “Motley Stories“ under Antosh Chekhonte`s pseudonym was published.
And still the way of life in Kudrin resembled settled now. The family occupied both floors, everyone had the room, and Anton Pavlovich - an office and a bedroom with a separate entrance from other rooms. In Kudrin Chekhov lived four difficult, but the happiest years - time of formation and the first serious recognition of its works in the literary environment of Moscow and St. Petersburg. It was blossoming of youth of the writer, his sincere and physical forces. For the last collection of stories written in Kudrin under the name “In Twilight“, to Chekhov the Pushkin award was awarded in 1888. His witty and capacious stories were highly appreciated by D. V. Grigorovich, but emphasized:“ You, I am sure, are called for writing several works of art excellent truly“. Chekhov apprehended words of the writer and by the end of 1880 - x he already publishes the first big stories “Steppe“, “Name-day“, “Fires“, “Boring History“ in thick magazines, writes the first play “Ivanov“. It was noticed: V. M. Garshin openly recognizes that “in Russia the new first-class writer appeared“. A. Chekhov was 30 years old at this time.Can be told
with confidence that within 4 years (till 1890) Chekhov`s house in Kudrin was one of the centers of cultural life of Moscow. Here writers D. V. Grigorovich, V. G. Korolenko, V. A. Gilyarovsky, the poet A. N. Pleshcheev came. Chekhov was connected by close friendship with the artist Levitan and his companions on Mamontov`s theater - V. D. Polenov and K. A. Korovin. F. O. Schechtel who was also cooperating in comic magazines as the artist became the friend of Chekhov. Chekhov devoted to Pyotr Tchaikovsky living nearby the collection of stories. Theatrical actors V. N. Davydov, P. M. Svobodin, N. N. Solovtsov, A. P. Lensky, A. I. Yuzhin, Nemirovich - V. I. Danchenko is future director, often came here: doors were open for friends “day and night“.
B 1890 Anton Pavlovich undertakes a trip to Sakhalin. After its departure the house in Kudrin became empty: Chekhov replaced the apartment too.