From the first shout to the first step...
the Movement, being one of functions of a human body, from the very beginning of its formation becomes a basis of active activity. From first weeks of pre-natal development and throughout all life the human body is in the movement. Even in a dream short-term reductions of skeletal muscles and permanent job of involuntary muscles of internals are noted. Reductions of the skeletal muscles which are directly involved in the organization of physical activity of an organism except this function, take part in heat exchange processes, provide protection of internals against external damages, development of nervous system. Therefore health of the person from the first days of life depends on a condition of muscles.
of Ability, data from the birth
By the time of the birth the muscle bulk of the newborn makes about 23% of body lump. It is twice less, than at adults. Muscles of the top extremities are developed better, than muscles of the lower extremities which increase the weight to teenage age more than by 16% in relation to body lump. Before everything the muscles providing the act of sucking - muscles of language and lips, and the act of breath - intercostal muscles, muscles of a back and a diaphragm ripen. There is “growing“ of muscles of the top extremities a little more slowly, and the latest finish development of a muscle of legs. The sequence of formation of movement skills is explained by it. By the time of the birth the child can effectively and is long to suck - it is necessary for maintenance of his life. Ability of the newborn child to sucking suffers only at the diseases which are followed by the expressed violation of the general state. The same can be told also about respiratory muscles: their effective and full reductions are necessary for normal work of respiratory organs. Dysfunction of these muscles happens only in the most hard cases of pathology of the period early íîâîðîæäåííîå™.is higher than
the head!Rather good development of muscles of a back provides to
that ability to hold the head in vertical position becomes one of the first movement skills of the child. There is it aged between 1,5 and 3 months. Until, when the child begins to hold surely the head, it is necessary to preserve in every possible way his neck against possible damages, carefully holding the head of the kid at any manipulations. It is impossible to allow bendings or extensions of cervical department of a backbone at a podmyvaniye and swaddling, any movements of the kid in space have to be carried out very carefully. It is necessary to remember that the neck of the baby is very vulnerable that in channels of a spine column there pass the blood vessels feeding a brain, and the expressed bending or extension of a neck can cause a spasm of these vessels that, in turn, will cause violation of food of a brain.Freedom of movements
By the end of the second month of the life the child begins to make
more - less purposeful movements by hands: tries to reach the toy which interested him, can hold the subject enclosed in his hand. Slightly later (in 3 - 4 months) it takes a toy in a hand independently, in a prone position on a back leans on forearms, and then and on outstretched arms. In 5 months well developing kid freely reaches a hand a subject necessary to it from any situation and can play long with toys, shifting them from one hand in another. Ability to turn over from a back on a stomach (from 4 months) and back (from 5 - 6 months) is provided to
with coordinated actions of muscles of a back, an abdominal tension, the top and lower extremities therefore this rather difficult movement skill can be considered as one of the first victories of the little person. From this time it is necessary to be extremely attentive and not to leave the child out of a bed unguarded for a minute. It is simply amazing as quickly the kid can appear on the edge of a pelenalny table or a sofa!
we Learn to sit
In 4 months development of the child reaches that stage when the prone position ceases to satisfy it - the kid needs to see as much as possible around. It leads to emergence of a contradiction: the child feels sharp need for sitting, desperately seeks to reach this position, but neither his backbone, nor his muscles are ready to it yet. Parents have to understand it and in every possible way encourage inquisitiveness of the child, without landing, however, him until when he is able independently to sit down. To this age it is impossible to use strollers, backpacks - kangaroos in whom the child is forced to sit constantly, it is undesirable for a long time (longer than for 3 - 5 minutes) to leave the kid in so-called “prygunka“.
Before the baby will start walking, it is not necessary to put it in walkers and after starts walking, - it is not necessary to leave for a long time in them the child. It is not necessary to prisazhivat the kid, to try to drive for handles until the child himself begins to do such attempts. Long load of a backbone at yet not strengthened muscles of a back can become the reason of a curvature of a backbone and violation of food of a brain owing to a vascular spasm.
After 6 - 6,5 months when formation of a chest bend of a backbone comes to the end and sufficiently muscles of a back and a press ripen, there is a joyful event: the kid for the first time sits down independently. Most of children sit down from a prone position on a stomach through turn sideways. Now it is possible to allow the baby to sit so much time how many he wants. It is possible to walk with it in a summer carriage, to feed in a stool and to rejoice together with it this remarkable opportunity - to play sitting.
But this achievement is not capable to satisfy the little researcher for a long time. By 7 months he understands that to get some remote subject, it needs to learn to move in space. It is possible to reach it by means of the difficult act - crawling.
At first kids try to crawl upon stomach “on - plastoon“, but already later few weeks of such exercises of their handle and a leg become stronger so that the child can get up on all fours and creep already rather safely. Now it can crawl to some support to grasp it and to rise. By this moment (in 8 - 9 months) thanks to continued trainings and the growing muscle bulk muscles of legs got stronger enough and the lumbar bend of a backbone finished the formation. Standing at a support and moving along it, the child learns to keep balance.
interests many parents At this time whether it is possible to use devices, (walkers) helping the child to go. It is impossible to answer this question unambiguously. On the one hand, these devices expand a sphere of the child, make his games by more substantial. Certainly, it is interesting to kid to move independently on the room. But, on the other hand, long stay of the child in walkers slows down development of skill of independent walking: the child gets used to mechanical support, and his vestibular mechanism does not train. Besides, often, it is long moving in walkers, the kid gets used to put legs incorrectly. Position of the child in this adaptation provokes a support to fingers. Therefore finding of the child in walkers has to be limited for 30 minutes a day (2 - 3 times for 10 minutes). In other time it is necessary to encourage in every possible way its exercises directed to improvement of balance and walking.
the First steps
I here, at last, it can throw a support to take the first independent step. Normal this grandiose event takes place aged from 10 till 13 months of life of the child. Now its opportunities are really boundless: he can learn absolutely independently the world, that is do that it is the most interesting to it.By a year formation small motoriki1 begins
. It is very difficult process directly depending on a condition of nervous system of the child. Parents, since 8 - 9 months have to offer the child of game, the developments of small motility directed to stimulation. It can be games with lacings, balls, various objects in a form and the invoice. There is a big variety of the toys which are specially developed for development of this function of nervous system. But the child can be interested also the toy sewed by mother from the rags of matter differing according to the invoice, and filled with peas or haricot. Besides, in a cerebral cortex the centers which are responsible for implementation of small motility are located near the centers of the speech that does development of these two major functions closely interconnected. So, at violation of speech development of exercise, directed to stimulation of small motility, help to improve development of speech function.This example clearly demonstrates
, are how closely bound among themselves development of nervous and muscular systems. At violations from nervous system always motive function to a greater or lesser extent suffers. And, on the contrary, at the low-mobility of the child connected with obesity or restriction of opportunities for the active movement owing to excessive guardianship from parents informative function of nervous system cannot but suffer, food of muscles worsens and, as a result, their working capacity decreases.
What can be undertaken to provide optimum conditions for development of motility of the newborn? Each mother can seize skills of the all-strengthening and hygienic massage. It is necessary to hold its sessions daily since 1 - go month of life of the child. Methods of massage and complexes of gymnastics for babies change in process of a growing of the kid. The huge advantage for development and nervous and muscular systems will be rendered by early training of the child in swimming and regular visit of the swimming pool for babies.to
the Stimulating impact on development of motility of the child of the first months of life is exerted by everything that causes interest of the kid: the bright, making various sounds of a toy, active games with adults, active living position of parents, the correct day regimen and good nutrition. It is very important to organize thus vital space of the child that it had an opportunity constantly to move, without endangering itself.