Rus Articles Journal

How to estimate a bearing of

(The beginning - in the article “Bearing Good and Bad“)

by What methods can investigate violations of a bearing in house conditions? To estimate a bearing and it is correct to make the diagnosis experts several methods of research of a backbone are used. Survey of the patient, functional tests, tool methods, and if necessary - tables for an assessment of growth and weight, tools for measurement of proportions of a trunk and the provision of a basin, a X-ray concern to them.

From tool methods wants to note especially a computer optical tomography which allows to find deformation of a backbone and the related parts oporno - the motive device at the earliest stages. Unlike a X-ray, it can be used somehow often, monitoring changes of a bearing. Unfortunately, the equipment necessary for this purpose is not in each diagnostic center, and such inspection is free do not do.

We will give simple and available methods of research of a bearing in house conditions.

For survey the child has to be undressed and undress to pants (and it is better completely), to rise in a pose, usual for himself (not on a rack “quietly“), to put feet in parallel at distance of one foot and to look directly before himself. Better to estimate ability of the child randomly to correct a bearing, it is desirable to use a mirror. It is much easier to cure violations of a bearing which give in to conscious correction (functional), than organic, caused not just by a habit to stoop, and changes in muscles and, especially, in ligaments, cartilages and bones.

Check for a start a condition of legs. Besides that flat-footedness, X - or About - a figurative curvature of legs and in itself are the reason for concern and demand treatment, they are almost always combined with violations of a bearing.

Survey sideways (in the sagittalny plane). The vertical line passing from top to down through all body has to connect an ear lobe, shoulder top, the rear edge of a coxofemoral joint, a back surface of a patella and a first line of an anklebone. If the imagined line to you has not enough, it is possible to use a plumb from a thread with a small weight.

the Head has to be in situation at which the corner of a mouth and a corner of the lower jaw are located at one height, a forehead and a chin - on one vertical line, a nape and nadplechya connect a smooth arch. The hung head or the neck extended forward strengthened or flattened cervical lordoz change the provision of other parts of a backbone. Pay attention to expressiveness of a chest kifoz and a lumbar lordoz, degree of camber of a thorax, chest department of a back, stomach, to knee joints - whether there are they in normal situation, are excessively bent or pererazognuta. At survey shovels, wing-shaped, not adjacent to a back, can be sideways visible.

Survey in front (frontal plane). Begin survey with a face and the head. Their asymmetry and other deviations of a shape of a skull and person from norm usually are signs of congenital violations of development oporno - the motive device. Pay attention to position of the head: it is located directly or inclined forward, back or sideways, turned to the left or to the right. Look, shoulders are lifted or trimmed whether at one level they are, whether clavicles, nipples are symmetrically located, estimate a shape of a thorax: it can be funneled, hollow, cylindrical, barrel-shaped, flattened.

Measure by

distance from finger-tips of the lowered hands to a floor: unequal height of shoulders can be not noticed at survey, and such measurement will allow to reveal asymmetry of a humeral belt. The upper edge of a trapezoid muscle normal is slightly bent, and at the raised tone nadplechya become convex, as at the body builder. It is often combined with violations in cervical department of a backbone, including is characteristic of its ladder deformation when each cervical vertebra is slightly displaced rather underlying forward.

the navel Displaced aside from the average line tells

about shortening and the raised tone of muscles of a stomach from this party. Waist triangles (gleams between a trunk and hands) have to be symmetric. Estimate the provision of a basin - whether at one level crests of podvzdoshny bones are located or there are signs of the mown or twisted basin (one crest is higher than another or acts forward or back). A protruding stomach - a sign of weakness of muscles of an abdominal tension and the increased lumbar lordoz.

Survey behind . Pay attention to a condition of skin around a backbone. Pigmentary and vascular spots, sites of the strengthened growth of hair or too dry and coarsened skin, the strengthened drawing of hypodermic veins, small hemorrhages can be signs of congenital violations in a backbone.

are behind well visible to

of Violation of position of the head (an inclination, turn) at survey on an arrangement of lobes of ears. Once again estimate a tilt angle and a relative positioning of nadplechiya. Shovels have to adjoin to a back; wing-shaped shovels - a sign of weakness of muscles of a back and a humeral belt. Awned shoots of vertebras have to settle down in a straight line. At the thin person they are well noticeable and if they is not present, it is possible to probe them and to note a felt-tip pen or iodine.

the Right and left half of a body have to be symmetric to

. Note whether at one level there are shoulders and shovels, double-check symmetry of triangles of a waist, be convinced of lack of asymmetrical muscular rollers of a backbone on each side. At a backbone curvature the muscular roller is in the frontal plane on the concave party of an arch as a bowstring at onions, and from convex side of a muscle are stretched and weakened.

to reveal rejections of the provision of a basin, pay attention to area of a waist and buttocks. Whether crests of podvzdoshny bones are equally probed? One of them can be higher than another. Pay attention to the sacral rhombus formed on each side by two poles over basin bones, from above - an awned shoot of the fifth lumbar vertebra, from below - top of a mezhjyagodichny fold. Check a form and position of buttocks, podjyagodichny and mezhjyagodichny folds.

the Slanting provision of a basin and violation of a bearing in the frontal plane can be caused by the unequal length of legs (it is checked in a prone position).

Just violations of a bearing in the frontal plane are the yet not worst. But they can be the first visible symptom of a skoliotichesky illness.

Survey at an inclination forward (the horizontal plane). It is necessary to bend at such survey correctly: to hang the head, to press a chin to a breast and, without bending legs and having freely lowered hands, to incline a trunk to horizontal position. The back is examined also from the head, and behind. Asymmetry of parts of a trunk at an inclination, turn of a humeral belt when one hand falls below another, the muscular roller and the acting edges on one of sides of a backbone - symptoms of scoliosis. Confirmation of this diagnosis requires radiological research.

At research of a backbone of the child the expert also estimates his constitution. Growth and weight of the child it is easy to p to measure

. Including from the point of view of a bearing, children have to cause concern both too thin, and excessively full for the growth and like a constitution. Weak, undeveloped muscles do not provide the correct formation of physiological bends of a backbone, protect it from lateral curvatures worse. Excess weight gives additional load both of muscles, and of intervertebral disks.

Pay attention to a circle of a stomach and a thorax. Measure by a centimetric tape a navel stomach circle in a pose being up to standard in usual situation, and then - a difference between a grasp of pulled most in and most protruding stomach. Normal this difference has to make about 15% of a stomach circle on average situation. The smaller difference, especially in combination with the stuck-out, drooped stomach, speaks about weakness of muscles of an abdominal tension.

the Thorax is measured by

on the horizontal line passing under bottom corners of shovels. The difference between a breast circle on the maximum breath and the maximum exhalation has to make about 10% of a breast grasp in neutral situation. Smaller values, especially in combination with the narrow, hollow or deformed thorax, - also a reason for concern.

pay attention to a respiratory stereotype At the same time. In a quiet state, without physical activity diafragmalny breath at which on a breath the stomach slightly acts forward is ideal, and on an exhalation - it is a little tightened.

to cope with loadings, to a backbone both flexibility (mobility), and stability - force and endurance of pozny muscles (“a muscular corset“) are equally necessary for

. For an assessment of these characteristics functional tests flexibility of a backbone, harmonious development of a muscular corset carry out .

Flexibility of a backbone. At an inclination forward the young man or the teenager with a good bearing has to manage, without bending knees, to reach fingers of hands socks of legs, sitting - to put a chin on knees. At an inclination it is necessary to reach fingers of hands the middle of a hip back (standing, with direct legs). At an inclination sideways (without inclining a trunk forward and without turning it) - to reach fingers a lateral surface of a leg at the level of a popliteal pole.

to estimate total mobility of all departments of a backbone in the horizontal plane, it is necessary to sit down astride a chair or a bench to exclude turn of legs and a basin, and to turn a trunk and the head, having looked sideways and back. Normal the sagittalny plane of the head (simply telling a nose) has to turn approximately on 110 º. It is possible not to measure a corner by a protractor: if as much as possible to squint eyes, at normal mobility of a backbone in the horizontal plane it becomes visible what is directly behind the back.

Normal flexibility of a backbone at children of younger age is more than

, than at teenagers and healthy adults. For example, the distance between an awned shoot of the VII cervical vertebra and top of a mezhjyagodichny fold at an inclination back at children of 7 - 11 years has to decrease approximately by 6 cm, at children of 12 years and is more senior - on 4 cm (though this distance at more adult children grows together with other body).


In exact standards of mobility of a backbone in general and each of its departments depending on age, sex, type of the constitution and other factors it is easy to get entangled. It is much more important to pay attention to that flexibility not too deviated norm neither in that, nor in other party. If you are not sure that all departments of a backbone in the sagittalny plane move according to norm, see a doctor.

Still big alarm asymmetry at trunk inclinations has to cause

sideways and turns aside: distinctions in volume of these movements speak about violations of a bearing in the frontal plane or about scoliosis.

Restriction of mobility of a backbone - the strong indication of violations is able oporno - the motive device. But also excessive flexibility, especially in a combination to weak muscles, is not less dangerous to a backbone, than limited mobility.

Muscular corset . The correct shape of a backbone, a good bearing are provided first of all with ability of muscles to support static efforts.

In formation of a bearing and maintenance of position of a trunk the main and equally important role is played by static power endurance of muscles of a back, stomach and lateral surfaces of a trunk. Muscles have to be not just strong, and harmoniously developed, capable as is long to hold a trunk in the correct situation, and to relax and stretch at reduction of muscles - antagonists during movements.

Spasmodic the reduced or weak, stretched muscles break normal position of a backbone and cause violations of a bearing. Imagine badly tense tent - it looks a curve from - for uneven or insufficient efforts from extensions. In the same way under the influence of uneven efforts of pozny muscles or their general weakness the backbone “sags“.


To an assessment of a condition of a muscular corset apply functional tests of muscles of a back, stomach and lateral faces of a trunk. This peculiar testing in the form of exercises from static poses on each group of muscles.

Results of functional tests needs to be considered at selection of exercises of physiotherapy exercises. Too strong muscles usually should be weakened and stretched, too weak - to strengthen. As it was already told by

to p, most often violations of a bearing (in any case) are caused in younger school students not by orthopedic or exchange diseases, and bad physical development and lack of skill of a correct posture. Such violations are not a symptom (a consequence or the reason) of a backbone illness yet, and have functional character.

However functional violations of a bearing never take place

in itself and always sooner or later lead to organic changes. Functional violations rather easily give in to correction. Organic changes are treated long and difficult, and good result of treatment the termination of progressing of an illness often is considered.

to Begin to be engaged in treatment of violations of a bearing it is necessary right now, and it will be possible to finish not earlier, than growth and formation oporno - the motive device, by 18 - 20 years will stop. After that it is possible to continue to go in for physical culture - already for prevention of osteochondrosis.