Rus Articles Journal

Early swimming of

Questions of a hardening and the correct physical development of the child undoubtedly concern many parents. A powerful factor of strengthening of health of the child is early swimming. When it is possible to begin to be engaged with the kid? What the technique of training in early swimming consists in? Whether it is possible to master it independently?

In the pre-natal period the fruit develops in the liquid environment which allows the child to move, helps formation of vestibular reactions and other physiological functions. The body of the child keeps skills of stay in the liquid environment within the first months of life. Experts convincingly proved that it is the best of all to begin occupations with swimming with children with 3 - week age, knack is not lost yet to float. Fading of a “water“ reflex comes after the third month of life. During this time it is necessary to manage to achieve that swimming became the acquired skill of the child. If to your kid 3 - 4 months were already executed, congenital swimming reflexes to this age disappear also a technique of early swimming with it it is not necessary to master. In this case training in swimming should be begun with three-year age, for example, on the basis of child care educational institutions or children`s policlinics.

Why it is necessary?

Early swimming is remarkable incentive to active development of the kid, influences practically all bodies and systems of a children`s organism. This universal remedy of a hardening, physical development, education. It is known that the thermal capacity of water is nearly 28 times higher than an air thermal capacity, the human body loses in water in 30 times more of heat, than on air. For this reason water procedures are very strong tempering means. Swimming increases resistance of an organism to acute respiratory diseases. It is noticed that if “floating“ kids nevertheless have ORZ, then they have easier current, the minimum duration complications develop less often.

Swimming, making the massing impact on a body and irritating the nervous terminations in skin, indirectly improves a metabolism, a dream, appetite, does steadier nervous system, trains respiratory and it is warm - vascular systems, strengthens muscles, sheaves, forms a correct posture.

Systematic occupations by swimming improve physical development of children. At the same time increase, in comparison with “not floating“ children, indicators of weight and growth, vital capacity of lungs and power characteristics of skeletal muscles, improves nervously - mental development of the child. Children start walking earlier, to sit and talk.

But before starting occupations, consult to the pediatrician who observes your kid. Only the healthy child can do swimming. If the kid got sick, then swimming is interrupted and resumed after recovery and only on permission of the doctor.

of Occupation, stopped in connection with an illness or for other reasons, begin from the very beginning, with strict observance of rules of gradualness.

of Contraindication to swimming of children of the first year of life:

Who can be engaged in

with the kid?

For the baby the loved one and the best teacher - his mother. But if necessary also fathers, and also grandmothers and grandfathers successfully cope with a role of the trainer. That all classes were given by one person is essentially important and their control by the methodologist on swimming was monthly exercised. Usually mother with the child come 1 time in 1 - 2 weeks to the pool at children`s policlinic where the instructor controls correctness of performance of supports, divings etc. and shows new exercises which the kid acquires houses within the next week.

Before you will begin to do

with the child swimming, work the main supports and interceptions on a doll, on a table in the beginning, then in a bathtub that the movements of your hands became smooth, soft, sure and were carried out automatically.

Let`s sort the main, most often used types of manual supports.

the heaviest sinking part of a body of the child is the head therefore all manual supports are carried out under the head and at the same time under a neck and an upper back.

One-manual supports give the chance to the child a free hand to carry out grebk. As soon as the little swimmer learns to row correctly, you have to change nature of supports: in situation on a back support the child only by three, then two, and then and one finger under a nape. Also you remember that changes of supports are carried out only at a full stop of the child.

we Prepare for occupation

For training in swimming at first the usual house bathtub is used. Before each lesson surely wash up it a special cleaner for children`s bathtubs or baking soda, carefully rinse hot water. Prepare water and air thermometers, hours, floating toys, a towel, wadded tampons for drying of ears, drinking water. Air a bathroom, air temperature in it has to be +22 - 24 degrees to S. Vann fill with warm tap water. Water temperature in the first occupations makes +37 degrees With, then it needs to be lowered gradually by 0,5 degrees With in a week, having brought to +30 - 32 degrees With by 6 - 7 months since at this age it will be necessary to pass to occupations in the pool. Depth on the first occupations - 30 - 40 cm, and in a month it is possible to fill a bathtub entirely.

Classes are usually given daily, but at least four times a week, at the same time, it is desirable in the second half of day. If the child during occupations is overexcited and badly sleeps at night, then it is better to transfer swimming to the first half of day. It is undesirable to float at once after feeding, it is better to be engaged in 1,5 - 2 hours prior to feeding, but not earlier than in 1 - 1,5 hour after meal.

Within the first month of occupations duration of procedure depends on the level of physical development of the child. If the kid was born with the body weight of 3 - 4 kg, duration of training can be 12 - 14 minutes if the mass of the child at the birth did not exceed 2,5 - 3 kg, with it it is not necessary to be engaged more than 8 - 10 minutes. Every month time of stay in water increases for 3 minutes and by a year reaches 40 - 50 minutes.

during each occupation needs to be supported by

at the child only positive emotions: pleasure, pleasure, interest, pleasure from stay in water. It is necessary to watch to causing fear and overfatigue in the child that will lead to emergence of hostility and mistrust to water. The baby is not afraid of water and if during swimming the kid has a fear, then adults are guilty of it.

as the Signal for the end of procedure also the resistant discontent of the child has to serve

. Your occupation can be shorter timed, but avoid to exceed it. Of course, the kid can show discontent from - for the sharp movement or unexpected team. In this case let`s it have a rest a little and you remember that rest has to make not less than a half of all procedure. And still: it is impossible to be engaged with the crying child though to take the kid from water as soon as he began to cry, it is not recommended too, calm him in water better. Otherwise you will allow to be created by it to an undesirable reflex - if I do not want to swim, it is enough to me to begin to cry, and me is taken out from water.

Massage and gymnastics before swimming

Each lesson of swimming begins

with the fact that mother carries out to the kid a light massage and carries out with it several special gymnastic exercises on “land“. It is called “dry swimming“, it is necessary that the child was prepared for assimilation of swimming exercises, but also, the touch of maternal hands is the very powerful factor promoting establishment of psychological contact, formation at the child of feeling of safety. Let`s note that “dry swimming“ is not replacement of daily preventive massage and gymnastics. It includes stroking, grinding of skin from the periphery to the center, an easy razminaniye of muscles. At first stroke and pound feet, shins and hips, hands, forearms and shoulders, then area of a back, neck, breast, stomach. In the same sequence you carry out easy superficial razminaniye of muscles. Remember that massage is done on an external surface of handles and legs, and the tummy is stroked clockwise. Such massage continues 3 - 4 minutes, in a month it is possible to increase time till 7 minutes. Before passing to gymnastics, let`s the child have a rest 1 - 2 minutes. Do not forget to talk tenderly to the kid during all procedures.

of Exercise for legs

  • the Starting position - lying on a back, legs are extended. Clasp with hands of foot of the child that he extended socks. Alternately raise legs up - down, quietly saying:“ Legs - a crawl“. These movements imitate the movement of legs when swimming by a crawl. Make 10 - 20 such movements each leg, then - a small break and repeat exercise 2 more times at the first lesson, and then within a month increase up to 3 - 4 repetitions, and further from second month do exercise of 5 times with breaks on half-minute.
  • the Starting position - the same. You teach the child to move legs, as when swimming by a breast stroke (“frog“). At the same time bend both legs of the child in knees and coxofemoral joints, then, you part knees and quickly straighten legs, returning them in a starting position. Do 8 - 10 such movements and in a minute of rest repeat 4 - 6 more times. Do not forget to say:“ Legs - a breast stroke“.

of Exercise for hands

  • the Starting position - lying on a back, handles are extended along a trunk, palms down. Take the kid for hands and slowly raise straight arms against 45 - 50 degrees and lower, gradually increasing an angle of lead of hands to 90 degrees, then to 180 degrees. Do 10 movements for 20 seconds (it is quite fast speed), let`s the child have a rest, then repeat, but at slower speed (in 30 seconds). Execute 3 such complexes with minute breaks. Order to the child: “Handles - a crawl“.
  • the Starting position - the same. Holding the child for brushes, tighten his handles to a breast, bending in elbow and beam joints, then conduct them up and through the parties down, return in a starting position. You speak to the child:“ Handles - a breast stroke“.
  • the Starting position - lying on a back, handles are divorced in the parties. Holding the child for brushes, make at the same time two hands the fungal movements to sides, then lift handles up and return in a starting position (it we imitate the second half of the movement of hands when swimming by a breast stroke). Such movements it is necessary to execute 8 - 10 with a break in several seconds; to repeat a complex 2 - 3 times, with minute breaks. Repeat team:“ Handles - a breast stroke“.
we Begin with


Each occupation has to take place in a certain order which almost should not change for the first half of the year of life. Such stability gives the chance to the child precisely know what from him is required.

Any occupation includes several repeating cycles, each cycle proceeds 3 minutes. The quantity of cycles increases with age.

Let`s sort sequence of actions within one cycle.

Upon termination of massage and gymnastics transfer the child from a table to a bathtub. You hold the child by armpits, support the head by thumbs under the lower jaw. Put the kid vertically, you watch that his chin and your hands were over a water surface. At the same time order: “We stand!“, standing duration - 15 seconds. It is important that the child surely leaned legs on a bathtub bottom. Further it is necessary to tell:“ We go!“ incline the kid slightly - slightly forward and he will begin to touch legs and to move (it is a congenital reflex of automatic walking, it is available for all newborns and remains till 4 months). The way is equal to bathtub length. Do not forget to call the kid by name you praise him more often. As soon as you reach“ an opposite end face of a bathtub, order: “We stand!“ also give the chance to the child to have a rest 15 seconds.

you transfer to

After rest the child from a standing position to a prone position on a back, carrying out double manual support for swimming on a back. Remember that ears and a breast have to be under water. Do not tighten the child`s head up: it is necessary that it was flush with a body and it was slightly supported by mother`s hands. In such situation it is necessary to float “shuttle“, at the same time the child makes a start from a bathtub end face legs, and mother will see him to an opposite end face and back. Make 6 - 8 such conductings. As soon as your movements become sure, replace support on one-manual “half ring“ for swimming on a back.

Further leave to

the child in a prone position on a back in the right near corner of a bathtub. Order: “We stand!“, put the child on legs and then give the We Go! command. “Walk“ to an opposite end face of a bathtub, order: “We stand!“ also give the chance to the child to have a rest 15 seconds.

Is passed to the second half of a cycle - to swimming to breasts (takes 2 - 2,5 minutes). Replace support on two-handled for swimming with breasts give command: “We float!“ also conduct the child “eights“. As soon as you feel surely when performing this support, you pass to one-manual support with “ladle“ and begin to work waterings (divings). In total execute 6 - 8 eights. Then again give command: “We stand!“ have a rest 15 seconds.

Thus, for one cycle the child floats 36 - 47 meters, there “pass“ about 3 meters. The first occupation usually includes 2 - 3 cycles, their quantity will increase with age.

Each next month occupation increases for 3 minutes, that is, by one full cycle, in 2 months of occupations it is necessary to make 4 full cycles, in 3 months - 5 and so on.

Immersion and diving

Training in diving begins

with training of a delay of breath on team: “Dive!“ when watering a child`s face during swimming on a breast “eights“. For performance of this exercise conduct the child one-manual support, then loudly and accurately order: “Katya, dive!“ then water with a full handful of the left hand the child`s forehead. At the same time the child holds the breath for 2 - 3 seconds while water flows down from a face.

of the Mistake: having watered with an incomplete handful; watering on a nape instead of a forehead; sharp splashing of water on the child`s nose; watering during crying.

Further, after consultation of the methodologist, is allowed to carry out immersions of the child under water. Gradually breath delay time reaches 12 - 15 and more seconds that is excellent training of lungs and hearts.


at the end of occupation carries out a hardening in “a cold spot“. For this purpose open the crane with cold water (water temperature in “spot“ has to be by 5 - 6 degrees With below, than in a bathtub) and, holding the child vertically, enter it into the formed “cold spot“ (but not under a stream of cold water), turn a breast, a back. Such eyeliners at first becomes four, it is monthly added on one and by a year the hardening in “a cold spot“ repeats 16 - 18 times. Only after three months of occupations it is possible to try to bring in a stream of the handle or a leg. Children love such exercises, besides, it is very effective way of a hardening. After that you do not hurry to take out the child from water, let the kid will have a rest, lying on water on a back. Then, surely having praised the kid, you can take the little swimmer from a bathtub: the left hand hold the child for a neck and an upper back, right - under buttocks, transfer to a towel, drain skin, drain each ear twice wadded tampons.

do not forget to offer the kid after swimming boiled water (to more senior children it is possible juice), and approximately in 30 - 40 minutes feed him. During occupations a lot of energy therefore increase the usual volume of feeding by 20 - 30 g is spent (but no more than for 50 g).

the Main tasks of lessons

of Occupation by swimming in the first months require special attention. At this time before the child only the general tasks which have not a direct bearing on swimming yet are set and solved. The hardening is carried out, the habit to water, to those special feelings which the person feels only in the water environment (semi-zero gravity, ease, buoyancy, relaxedness, uniformity of pressure upon all surface of the body shipped in water, breath deepening, etc.) is brought up .

First month of occupations:

  • working off of a delay of breath on a speech signal: “Dive!“ when watering by water of the person. At the same time immersion in water is not made.

Second month of occupations:

  • working off of diving in manual supports. After team: “Dive!“ at the time of two - a three-second delay of breath after watering of the person diving of the child by the head under water not more deeply than 29 - 30 cm is carried out with manual supports;
  • introduction of an additional element - a complex of vertical jumps in water with manual supports. It is possible to replace with this element sometimes walking in a bathtub in both half-cycles. Usually kids very much like this exercise. The indispensable condition - the child aspires to a bright toy and the command is given: “Pryg - skok!“
  • training of the child to float in situation on a back. For this purpose the child needs a hat with floats from polyfoam.
Production of a hat for swimming with floats from polyfoam
On perimeter of a sateen cap, on its face is sewn a wide tape so that 6 pockets turned out. Openings of pockets have to be directed to a nape. Foam floats by the size about a matchbox are inserted into these pockets. For support of the head of the child, at the level of a chin are sewn to a cap on both sides of 2 ribbons 50 cm long. These tapes allow to control the level of immersion of the head of the kid in water.
the Main rule - a nose and a mouth of the child are over water. In 1 month of swimming in a hat it is necessary to take out weekly 2 foam floats (from each party on one). The last take out lateral floats. As soon as the kid learns to float in situation on a back in a hat without floats and without support for tapes - the hat is removed, it is not necessary any more.

Third month of occupations:

  • development of diving under water. The equipment is same as when diving with manual support, but after diving of the child release hands. An initial way under water of 20 - 30 cm. By 6 - 7 months it will reach 40 - 50 cm, by a year - one meter. After immersion and a vynyrivaniye transfer the child to a standing position, then rest of 5 - 10 seconds and a praise follows; further swimming by “eight“ continues.

After 3 - x months of occupations new tasks for the child are selected individually, consultation of the instructor is for this purpose obligatory. Can be examples of such tasks:

  • a sliding complex on a water surface. In every second “eight“ apply sliding on a water surface (without diving!) on 10 - 15 cm. The command is given: “Float!“ you watch that the chin of the child did not fall under water.
  • “torpedo“ with turn.

From 5 - 6 months at the child so-called “saving“ reflexes begin to work, and after diving the kid himself comes to a water surface, turning over on a back for swimming - drift - at free breath. If the child himself cannot turn over yet, then he needs to be helped.

From 6 - 7 months walking time in water increases. It is possible to stimulate active walking with a bright toy. It is noticed that floating babies start walking independently in a bathtub in 8 - 9 months, and on the land - in 9 - 10 months.

the Assessment of results

to estimate influence of occupations by swimming on the child, get the diary where it should be noted the content of occupation, mood of the kid, his activity and behavior during exercises and at the end of occupation, emergence of signs of exhaustion and decrease in its interest in swimming. It is necessary to pay attention to the remote results of occupations - as the child sleeps at night what appetite and mood at it, as increase indicators of weight and growth. Analyzing the records, it is possible to regulate the content of occupations and physical activity.

does not need to hurry and show impatience, it is impossible to force training at all. Such mistakes from parents are very widespread and caused by natural desire somewhat quicker to see the kid the good swimmer. In case the child had undesirable reactions or increases of weight and length decreased in comparison with middle-aged, it is necessary to reduce duration of trainings, to reduce the number of exercises and to stop decrease in water temperature. Only after a total disappearance of the negative phenomena it is possible again to begin to raise gradually loadings and to reduce water temperature.


in conclusion, we will advise not to be afraid and by all means to use remarkable means of a hardening and improvement of physical development of the child - early swimming.