In the ancient time fought against the fires by means of hooks, shovels, hooks and buckets - means, to put it mildly, not too effective. More technological ways of rescue from the fire are available to the modern citizen, nevertheless we remember them most often when already too late. How to protect itself from fire, the correspondent of “SP“ Elena Malik found out
of the House at each of us are stored the impressive sizes of the first-aid kit - on a case of a sudden illness. We keep candles in storerooms - not to be lost in the dark if traffic jams suddenly take off. The zapaska - on everyone the firefighter is stored in the car nearly at each motorist. At the same time we do not think of possibility of the real fire cases. The offer to buy home the fire extinguisher or a special antismoke mask causes in us a skeptical smile: no, thanks, this superfluous. And in vain: when the property acquired by back-breaking toil or even life is at stake it makes sense to be reinsured. At least, in case of trouble you should not reproach yourself.
the Moscow team of firefighters - one of the most completed in Europe.
Daily take up watch 1,5 thousand firefighters. At their order of 220 cars, three helicopters, 59 lifting mechanisms capable to extinguish the fires at the height from 30 to 68 m. There is the highest in Europe 90 - the meter elevator. In plans of firefighters to receive from the government of Moscow three new 90 - meter the elevator and three - four light helicopters for rescue of people from roofs.
But only unique equipment often is useless - traffic jams, impossibility to stop the fire truck at the house become the reason for that and not on any roof covered with antennas the fire helicopter can land.
Unlike cars and offices, inspectors of fire-prevention protection do not survey the apartment therefore practice of storage of fire extinguishers of the house is not widespread among us. And it is absolutely vain if to consider that all in our dwellings, since wall-paper and finishing with books on shelves, perfectly burns.
of Subjects at whom the thought smoldered to adjoin a narrow circle of the people who consciously approached a question of the safety and having personal fire extinguishers in the apartment it is necessary to know about them several things. As there is no medicine for all diseases, so there is also no substance which can extinguish everything that burns. Suppression of a wooden rack and the lit-up TV will require fire extinguishers with different fire extinguishing substance.
In fire extinguishers, except water, are applied by different fire extinguishing substances (in abbreviated form they are called by OTV): chemical and vozdushno - mechanical foam, nonflammable gases (carbonic acid, freon) and different types of powders. From here and types of fire extinguishers: water, vozdushnopenny, carbon dioxide, powder. For private use experts recommend to pay attention to powder and carbon dioxide devices - they are designated by markings of OP and OU on the instruction pasted to the fire extinguisher case. Besides, in this paper the cylinder volume, and also conditions and ways of its application has to be specified.by
to get out of the room captured by a flame when there is no hope arrival rescuers bigger thought up folding fire escapes with steps from pipes or a tree.
of the Ladder with wooden steps do from parachute a sling - the high-strength synthetic tape capable to sustain loading to 1000 kg. A step of steps - 350 mm.
of Model with steel steps are more fire-resistant - in them steel chains or a cable are used. Length of ladders, as a rule, of 6 m, but is and 12 m
it is possible to go down on them on one - two floors lower, for example from a balcony of your apartment on lower.
is provided In the top part of ladders two carbine or a hook to fix a design under a window. For this purpose it is necessary to hammer two anchor bolts into a house wall. The lower part of a fire escape comes to an end with loops that it was possible to connect several ladders. Choosing a ladder, it is important to remember that for children it is better tubular steps: their hands are small and will not be able to clasp a wide flat wooden step. It is much more convenient to use a ladder with the persistent racks fixing it at a certain distance from a wall.
For descent from the top floors of houses can be used also other means - cables, systems of blocks, brake mechanisms, “cradles“. But this almost climbing equipment, and, without having skills in rock-climbing, to use such equipment (as, however, and ladders) it can be deadly.
Froth on the Daydream
Powder fire extinguishers are filled with the mineral salts crushed in powder with various additives. Getting on fire, powder melts and forms a film, isolating the place of burning from air. As a rule, on sale powder fire extinguishers which it is possible to extinguish any kinds of the fires, except for the burning electric devices energized are presented. Such fire extinguishers easily transfer even subzero temperatures, so, they can be stored not in the room, and on the same balcony. However, it is worth remembering wherever the fire extinguisher was stored, powder in it can slezhivatsya. Operability of the device needs to be checked regularly on the built-in manometer. If the arrow from a green zone was displaced in red, gas was pitted - you need to recharge the fire extinguisher or to buy new.
the Essential lack of the powder fire extinguisher that during suppression in the apartment the small suspension of powder easily gets not only on the ignition center, but also pollutes everything around. To wipe powder after everything is extinguished not a problem, but, having got in audio - video - and teleequipments, substance puts all equipment out of action even if extinguished not it.For this reason experts advise
to have in the apartment, except powder, also carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. The carbon dioxide fire extinguishers creating a stream of the extinguishing substance in the form of a gas stream can be used to elimination of any fires. Carbonic acid is dielectric and can extinguish the flashed TV or the electric heater even if the owner will not manage to pull out a fork from the socket.also the fact that carbon dioxide fire extinguishers make thrifty use of furnishings Is important
. If foam got on pictures, books and other objects of petty-bourgeois life, then after its drying of traces will not remain.
However and carbon dioxide fire extinguishers have minuses. At the time of suppression the bell of the fire extinguisher is cooled to - 75 degrees and if to touch it with hands, the thermal burn is provided. Besides, during suppression on the case of the carbon dioxide fire extinguisher the static electricity can collect, it is better to use it in rubber gloves. Experts advise all who intend to use the fire extinguisher in the enclosed space, to remember: concentration of carbon dioxide during suppression increases why dizziness can develop. When the fire is extinguished, the room needs to be aired. > it is important to p to remember
At the choice of the fire extinguisher for the apartment that the device needs to be lifted, and not always it should be done to physically strong person. It is better to choose two fire extinguishers - for example, OU - 1 with a weight of 6 kg and OP - 2 weighing 3,7 kg, instead of one weight of 10 kg. > It is ideally quite good to p to buy
on the fire extinguisher on the certain room in the apartment (not including a bathtub and a toilet) to have an opportunity to localize the fire. However, in reality even of two small fire extinguishers will be quite enough. Of course, it is not the most esthetic thing, and not everyone will agree to keep a cylinder in a living room.by
At the market presented generally domestic fire extinguishers: one of the largest producers - JSC Pozhtekhnika from Torzhok. The prices of fire extinguishers vary depending on a filler (carbon dioxide more expensively powder twice) and the volume (from 1 to 50 l). The two-liter powder fire extinguisher costs about 230 - 250 rub. For carbon dioxide analog it is necessary to lay out about 520 - 540 rub. To buy fire extinguishers, as well as other fire-fighting equipment, in Moscow it is possible in specialized shops, for example in the Pozhtekhnika or Shop 01 networks. > It is very important to p not to forget
that powder, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers of times in five years demand a recharge (water and foamy - once a year), differently at midpoint they will not be able to squeeze out from themselves gram of OTV. The recharge depending on the volume of the fire extinguisher and its look stands up 100 - 300 rub for piece (carbon dioxide more expensively) and takes several days. About that, carry out a recharge and check of fire extinguishers where exactly, it is the most correct to learn from the seller or on the Internet.
Experts of fire extinguishing recommend to follow several rules.
according to firefighters if you follow the provided recommendations, being active the fire extinguisher, it will help you to cope with fire quicker.
needs to Extinguish the fire from minimum safe distance - it is, as a rule, specified on a cylinder.
the Stream should be directed so that substance got on the burning surface, to the flame basis, but not on it or to a smoke.
cannot spend the Charge of the fire extinguisher at once and everything, it is better to save it, working falteringly. there is no
If after two - three such approaches of result, it is possible to try to come on the other hand.
On a plain surface begin suppression with the forward party of the center.
extinguish the Burning wall from below up.
extinguish Liquid substances from top to down.
After use immediately recharge fire extinguishers.
the fire hose can be Quite good alternative to the fire extinguisher. If in your apartment there is no individual fire hose (since 2001 they have to be in each apartment leased by the builder), he can be established independently. Of course, this is not about the huge fire hoses twisted and laid in a huge box of red color with inscription personal computer.“ Individual“ fire hoses unlike it is less, their diameter is equal to diameter of a water pipe - 19,5 mm, and length of 15 mare laid by
of the Sleeve for apartments in compact boxes of white color and have the union for connection to a water supply system. It is possible to arrange a sleeve, for example, in a wall case of a toilet, there it is easily possible to bring to a sleeve of a pipe and to cut the crane. Such fire extinguishing system of the place will demand a minimum, and in “a fire situation“ its owner should not drag water buckets.In an amicable way a fire hose needs to use
together - one untwists a sleeve and brings it to the place of the fire, and another on a signal turns off the crane. Using a sleeve alone, it is possible, having extinguished ignition, to fill in not only the apartment, but also the lower neighbor. Therefore it is very important to commensurate risks.
the Mask, I know you
Anyway as soon as the fire is found, it is necessary to call 01 and only then to begin to extinguish fire by own forces. And if blazed really, and by own efforts by means of “emergency firefighting equipment“ to cope with fire it did not turn out, it is necessary to notify neighbors and to be on the lam.Firefighters advise
to work so: to close all window leaves and windows that fire did not inflame. To try to cut off power the room, to disconnect gas and to leave. In general, at the fires the main part of victims - victim of poisoning and asthma. Not to inhale the toxic substances which are formed at the fire (carbon monoxide, cyanides, aldehydes belong to them), it is possible to use a wet towel: covering with it a nose and a mouth, to move to an exit along a wall. It is necessary to move as low as possible bending down to the earth. The smoke and poisonous products of burning with warm air rise up, and concentration is closer to a floor than them less. And during the fire it is impossible to use the elevator at all - it can get stuck, or firefighters will cut off power the house while the elevator appears between floors.
Should be remembered: the self-made mask from wet fabric helps not always. Therefore will not prevent to stock up with the special fire-prevention masks and hoods capable to protect respiratory organs, eyes and hair. It is possible to find several types of protective masks in shops of fire-fighting equipment.
the Most technological, easy and compact of them is called “A hood protective “Phoenix““. The cap of a mask is executed from the polyamide film maintaining temperature to 800 degrees. Filtering - the absorbing element is made on military technologies: it consists of six layers of the filter which not only do not allow carbon monoxide to poison the person, but also protect from 20 substances, dangerous to an organism. “Phoenix“ of only 90 g weighs. It is good and the fact that it is suitable for people of any age, except unless babies. In the put state it is a compact quadrangular bag, and in the worker - it is similar to a helmet of a space space suit. It is possible to put on it in half-minute - to straighten, knead the filter, to place a mouthpiece in a mouth, and to hold a nose a clip, to inhale sharply and it is ready. The hood remains in working order 20 minutes. Period of storage - not less than five years. The price - 1429 rub“The gas and smoke protective set of GDZK“ is suitable
only for adults and children 10 years are more senior. In it the person is similar to the employee of chemical troops. In fact, such mask is an isolating gas mask, but oxygen in it is stored not in cylinders, and in chemically connected look which will last for 15 minutes of protective action. Mass of such mask already 800 g. A warranty period of storage - three years. The price - 1285 rubExperts recommend to use
only such masks and hoods which are specially created for protection against burning products. And here to use the military filtering gas masks or respirators do not advise as they do not detain carbon monoxide - the main toxic agent which is emitted at the fire.Whatever mask you chose
, it is important to remember that product disposable and maintenance they do not demand it. The mask has to lie in such place where you will even find it blindly.during the fire if it, God forbid, happens, should work with
quickly and without deliberating. So it is better to think of safety in advance.