Translator: from English and not only
the Famous master of the translation Lilianna Lungina said that the most difficult - to work with plain texts. In “The kid and Carlson“, for example, it was most difficult to think up the phrase “From pies do not get fat“. And all because in Russia the translation is not craft as in the West. This true art. Not casually Russian school of the translation is considered the best in the world.
For the last twenty years the situation with translators in labor market changed repeatedly. At the beginning of 1990 - x on a wave of changes in a state policy the real boom of demand for these experts began. Open borders, business connections with foreign partners, development of tourism demanded a large number of professional translators. Valuable shots were literally worth its weight in gold.
Education reacted quickly. The commercial higher education institutions specializing in training of translators appeared almost annually, already operating educational institutions quickly opened the relevant offices and faculties. As result, in 5 - 10 years started talking about glut of the market.
Especially difficult it was necessary to those who learned English. This language became international, and the most part of businessmen learned it independently, having refused a translation service. Attractive positions and at embassies were employed in the large companies by professionals of high qualification. Rare languages became an exit for gifted young people. Provident entrants became interested in higher education institutions and faculties which train such experts.by
Today translators with knowledge of English are demanded again. Though those who know this language to some extent, many, true professionals - units: as a result of vacancy remain open till several months. Also east languages are Still popular.
Natalya Sokolova, director of Institute of foreign languages of RUDN:
- English is a peculiar communicative admission to any region of the world. Speaking about the near-term outlook, it must be kept in mind rapid development of China and escalating interest in Japan. In spite of the fact that and in these countries it is possible to communicate in English, Chinese and Japanese become more and more demanded. Communication with foreign partners in their native language promotes mutual understanding and advance of any business.the way
Experts are unanimous
: even ideal knowledge of the most demanded language - yet not a guarantee of success. The translator - concept rather general.
the Translation can be written and oral, consecutive and synchronous, technical and literary. Universal experts who equally well work at negotiations and are translated by novels, is practically not present.by
It is important to choose “the“ way of professional development correctly. Not at all it turns out to make it at once. Before stopping on something concrete, it is worth trying the hand in different spheres and genres. By the way, practice in higher education institutions for this purpose gives ample opportunities. For years of training the interested students manage to work as simultaneous interpreters, specialists in consecutive interpretation, to execute several private orders on translation for publishing houses or individuals.by
It is raised the chances
the Profession of the translator begins with the choice of educational institution. You prefer “the quality checked by time“ - enter the state institutes or universities.
the Recognized leader - the Moscow State Linguistic University (MSLU): the known name, the qualified teachers equipped with modern technical means of laboratory and offices. Language faculties of large higher education institutions are held in the deserved respect: Lomonosov Moscow State University (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Russian State Humanitarian University (RSHU), Russian Peoples` Friendship University (RPFU), Russian State Social University (RSSU), etc. If you decided to learn east language, out of competition - Institute of the countries of Asia and Africa of Lomonosov Moscow State University (ISAA). The only thing “but“ - extremely high introductory competition in these higher education institutions: to 22 people into place.
But also good news is. The translator`s employer, unlike, say, lawyer or the economist, pays not so close attention to the status of the diploma. 80% of success in learning of foreign language - diligence, assiduity and a regularity of occupations. Therefore prestigiousness of educational institution fades into the background: it is good to learn language it is possible and not in the most known higher education institution. For example, in one of specialized commercial: Institute of English, Moscow institute of foreign languages, Moscow institute of linguistics, etc.
Lyudmila Zueva, rector of Capital institute of translators:
- In our higher education institution training is conducted on state standard, many teachers use own techniques of teaching. We closely cooperate with representatives of the British Council, we organize practice in the leading international companies. Separate plus - good
it is material - technical base which allows to use modern educational technologies in training.
Translator, linguist or engineer?One higher education institutions release
experts, others gradually pass to the international standards of step preparation: in this case after the first four years of training you receive qualification “bachelor“ and will be able at desire to come on the following stage - to a magistracy.
At language faculties several popular specialties and the directions are:
“Translation and theory of translation“ . Formally suits the translator best of all. In - the first, will teach technology of transfer here: the special attention is paid to it. In - the second, in the diploma qualification “translator“ will be specified. But specialty rather narrow: it will be rather difficult to work in one of adjacent spheres.
“Foreign language“ , “Theory and technique of teaching foreign languages and cultures“ . Total qualification in this case - the teacher.
“Theory and practice of cross-cultural communication“ . Graduates not only well know foreign languages, but also receive thorough preparation on psychology, sociology, cultural science.
“Linguistics“ , “Linguistics and cross-cultural communication“ . It is ideal for ambitious young people who want to make scientific career as a lot of time is devoted to studying of the theory of language.
- the Translator spends the most part of time behind books and the computer.
- Even experts who are engaged only in translations surely have to be sociable people. To find decent work, it is necessary to be able to present itself to the best advantage - the competition is too big.
- the translator`s Life - continuous pleasure: new people, countries, continuous change of impressions.
- it is valid, interpreters have an opportunity to do a bit of traveling on the world, to meet interesting people. But they are busy at this time. To admire sights and to conduct a small talk to them just once.
“Oriental studies, African Studies“ . In spite of the fact that graduates receive qualification “The orientalist, the africanist“, it is quite enough their knowledge to work as translators from east languages.
Of course, when training at different specialties and the directions the nuances are: in arrangement of accents, the list of objects, practical training. But it, by and large, does not matter. According to translators, representatives of all called specialties and the directions equally often occur among them.
However should consider such feature of a profession as a narrow orientation: translators in bank and travel company have to own absolutely different lexicon. And, the branch is more specific, the it is less than professionals capable in it to work. For example, to transfer scientific work on mechanics, it is necessary to understand a subject at the level of the engineer. Otherwise danger to get confused in terms is big. Far-sighted seniors receive specialty from the alleged sphere of the translation and in addition learn language. But in some higher education institutions there are programs which allow to solve both of these problems.
Lyudmila Volkovitskaya, rector of Institute of English:
Two foreign languages in perfection are known by graduates not only linguistic specialties of our higher education institution, but also such as “public relations“, “socially - cultural service and tourism“. Working in the area, they often carry out also functions of translators that does them by especially valuable experts.
Examinations: it is not enough five
Whatever specialty or the direction you preferred, the Russian and foreign languages should be handed over surely. The status of educational institution is higher, the it is more difficult to pass test.
Oral examination now rarity. The majority of higher education institutions passed to testing. But let this word does not deceive you: requirements in the state educational institutions are very high. If at revenues to not language faculty of people which freely talks in English or French examination is passed, most likely, easily, then for future translators by good possession of oral and written language - not the main thing. They have to feel language, understand lexicon subtleties, stylistics, morphology and other nuances.“is excellent“
of the Mark, received at usual comprehensive school, will be insufficiently, more profound knowledge - a minimum, at the level of a language special school will be required. Let`s tell, at examination the task can be offered:“ Choose only the correct option of a grammatical design“. At first sight, each of the given examples approaches. To answer correctly, it is necessary to understand grammar thoroughly. Often complexity and work with not adapted text causes in entrants. Even if the selection committee of higher education institution allows to use the dictionary, it will not rescue at the answer to questions, for example, of use of the English phraseological units. Many turns in language are multiple-valued, and it is impossible to work “at random“.
By the way, test on a foreign language is necessary also to students who decided to come on paid office of state university or to non-state. And at Institute of foreign languages of RUDN entrants of the linguistics direction hand over not one, but two examinations in foreign: written and oral. And it in spite of the fact that the budgetary places for future linguists are not provided.
In non-state higher education institutions sense of testing a bit different: to define level of proficiency in language in the future to distribute students on groups. But if your foreign is absolutely bad, will not admit to institute: training from “zero“ at linguistic faculties is not provided.
the Unusual situation develops in the higher education institutions specializing in rare languages. Enough the entrants capable to pass examination on Chinese or Japanese, no. Therefore arriving show knowledge of one of the European languages, most often to English. And begin to learn the same Chinese later.
the Second obligatory examination - Russian - passes tests or compositions in a look. In some higher education institutions, for example, Lomonosov Moscow State University, it is necessary to hand over also history. Specify the list of entrance tests in advance to avoid unpleasant surprises.
Training: continuous practiceby
In the standard of the higher linguistic education on day form of education provided studying not less than two foreign languages.
Usually on the first courses students bring the first to perfection. The approximate number of class periods on the main language - not less than 20 in a week. There is no wonder: to become the high quality translator, it is necessary to be engaged constantly. Also various introduction disciplines are studied:“ Theoretical phonetics “, “ introduction to special philology and language history “, “ theoretical grammar“, “Lexicology“. On older years the second is added, sometimes - and the third language.
Especially difficult it is necessary to the students who chose east languages. The minimum quantity of hieroglyphs for reading simple texts in Chinese - 7000. And two alphabets in general are equally distributed in Japan. At the same time nobody cancelled also all-humanitarian disciplines. Fundamentals of philosophy, literature belong to obligatory, the bases of the economy, etc.students do practical training as
, working at seminars, conferences, festivals, in a translation agency and business firms, and future teachers - usually at schools.
Special article - preparation and protection of theses. In one higher education institutions it is the whole scientific researches, in others subjects, more approximate to real life are given. So, graduates of a magistracy of Institute of foreign languages of RUDN defend the thesis in the form of the presentation business - the project: develop business - the plan, prepare materials for conference - and all this in a foreign language.the Foreign language should be chosen as
Lev Porokhovnik, head of LLC Bureau Scientifically - Technical Translations NORMA - TM.
- What foreign language will be most perspective in 5 - 6 years when today`s entrants begin to work?
- All. My council - you should not even try to choose a foreign language by the principle of popularity or prospects. Not you choose language for studying. More likely, it finds you. To master it fully, it is necessary to have similar psychology. East languages, for example, come to fans of the corresponding cultures easily: Japanese, Chinese, Indian etc. Casual people teach them extremely seldom. The same concerns the European: one likes French, to another - German. If language not to liking, you and the expert big do not become, and will not earn money. If the internal voice is silent - study English, will not be mistaken.
- the Translator has to know several languages or it is better to concentrate on some one?
- Most of translators of an odnoyazychna. Or even the third language they know the second, but it is more for themselves: for trips or the simple translations. Seldom those who can translate from two languages meet. And trilingual I do not know at all.
- In the market have more than bureau - the translations or privately practicing translators?
- I Think, that and others approximately identical quantity. But to get a job in bureau, the certain experience is necessary. It is necessary to pass tests well: to prove to be the person not only knowing language, but also possessing important qualities.
- with What, for example?
- the Business grasp, sharpness: it is necessary to represent well where the customer “is found“. Obligatory quality - ability of to give, to lead correctly on interviews. It is important both for “freelancers“, and for the regular staff of bureau. And, of course, activity and sociability: it is necessary to keep in touch with recruitment agencies, to communicate on the Internet, to blow the own trumpet.
- the Translator - a final position or can “grow“ further?
- If to speak directly about a profession, then a position final. The translator remains the translator always. Knowledge, experience are accumulated, appears if you want, popularity, but there is no career development.However translators as the people who are freely understanding representatives of different cultures and the countries easily find
themselves in any other business connected with deliveries, the international barter, cultural ties, policy. Even our president, V. V. Putin, except the legal diploma of KGB academy, has profession of the translator.
the Translations and translators
Object of work - fiction, journal and newspaper publications, scientific works, thosehnichesky documentation.Can be translated to
, of course, literally is a so-called information translation: it is applicable generally during the work with documents. But the literary translation where it is possible to show not only talent of the linguist, but also creative abilities is considered aerobatics. Not for nothing translators are called coauthors of writers.
On norms of the UN, the written translator for day of work has to translate no more than 6 - 8 pages. However, it is about the “blank“ text completely ready to the publication. By the way, it is better for beginners to begin with translations. And having acquired a certain professional baggage, it is possible to pass also to more difficult types.
- respect for the author`s text.
Are irreplaceable on the international actions of any level. The simultaneous interpreter`s task - most precisely to convey the meaning of what was said in the mode he - a line: delay of the translation in relation to the speech of the speaker should not exceed one and a half minutes. The translator is in the isolated cabin equipped with the special panel, earphones and a microphone font. to work of air traffic controllers therefore on one action not less than two translators, each 15 - 20 minutes replacing each other are involved. Even experts of synchrony seldom maintain more than two - three days of work in such mode. Obligatory qualities:
on the international actions of any level. The simultaneous interpreter`s task - most precisely to convey the meaning of what was said in the mode he - a line: delay of the translation in relation to the speech of the speaker should not exceed one and a half minutes. The translator is in the isolated cabin equipped with the special panel, earphones and a microphone font.Intensity of load of simultaneous interpreters is equated by
to work of air traffic controllers therefore on one action not less than two translators, each 15 - 20 minutes replacing each other are involved. Even experts of synchrony seldom maintain more than two - three days of work in such mode.
Are applied by on hospitality events, business negotiations, during reception and support of delegations. At such translation speaking especially for the translator does pauses that that read the phrase entirely or its part at this time. Main that should learn to the specialist in consecutive interpretation, - to ability to remember sense enough long statements at simultaneous considering of the translation. One of tools - a special translation cursive writing by means of which it is possible to fix on paper the most difficult moments, figures, dates, names and names. Obligatory qualities: At the initial stages of career to get a job in large business firm or a translation agency it is almost unreal: employers prefer skilled experts. But with non-staff work problems will not be: private orders are always. Especially at those who do translations and know special lexicon. In Russia there is a huge number of translated literature: art, scientific, scientifically - popular, articles in various magazines, encyclopedias, reference books. Most often the whole group of non-staff translators works on such books (it is unprofitable to support constant employees). By the way, and skilled professionals often are drawn towards freelance. In life of “freelancer“ there are pluses: he chooses the customer, is not attached to concrete office, works in a rhythm, convenient for himself. Minus follows from pluses: it is necessary to look for orders independently. But after you will earn to yourself a name, it will begin to work for you. As well as in any other specialty, professionals whose income can envy are. However salary of the ordinary translator rather modest. The regular employee of a translation agency on average receives $500-900. Simultaneous interpreters usually do piecework: from $50 a day, depending on the status of action and qualification of the expert. The fees of technical and art translators - from $5-10 for printed page.
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on hospitality events, business negotiations, during reception and support of delegations. At such translation speaking especially for the translator does pauses that that read the phrase entirely or its part at this time.
Main that should learn to the specialist in consecutive interpretation, - to ability to remember sense enough long statements at simultaneous considering of the translation. One of tools - a special translation cursive writing by means of which it is possible to fix on paper the most difficult moments, figures, dates, names and names.
At the initial stages of career to get a job in large business firm or a translation agency it is almost unreal: employers prefer skilled experts. But with non-staff work problems will not be: private orders are always. Especially at those who do translations and know special lexicon. In Russia there is a huge number of translated literature: art, scientific, scientifically - popular, articles in various magazines, encyclopedias, reference books. Most often the whole group of non-staff translators works on such books (it is unprofitable to support constant employees).
By the way, and skilled professionals often are drawn towards freelance. In life of “freelancer“ there are pluses: he chooses the customer, is not attached to concrete office, works in a rhythm, convenient for himself. Minus follows from pluses: it is necessary to look for orders independently. But after you will earn to yourself a name, it will begin to work for you.
As well as in any other specialty, professionals whose income can envy are. However salary of the ordinary translator rather modest. The regular employee of a translation agency on average receives $500-900. Simultaneous interpreters usually do piecework: from $50 a day, depending on the status of action and qualification of the expert. The fees of technical and art translators - from $5-10 for printed page.