We prepare for examination in literature of
of the Teacher long ago sound alarm - school students forgot to read. Forget names of the main characters, cannot quote poets, are confused in literary terms... What else typical mistakes are made by entrants?by
of the Task for fans of literature
Usually at oral entrance examination in literature for work retelling, even very detailed, puts the two - it you will be told on any consultation. But for some reason the school students arriving on humanitarian specialties are firmly convinced of the majority that they a basis of the good answer - boringly detailed retelling of work, and usually begin the performance with it irrespective of the fact how the question was formulated.
the Basis of the good answer - qualitative knowledge of the text of the analyzed work.
successfully to pass examination, to the entrant it is necessary to solve several problems, and at the same time:
- to show knowledge of the text and understanding of the literary work to
- to show ability to analyze the text within a specific question
- to select necessary material and to arrange it according to logic of creation of your answer. Do not forget about statements of critics and literary critics
- it is good to issue the performance: the rich lexicon, possession of oratorical receptions, intonation and even a certain mimicry can decorate any answer.
Each of these components demands thoughtful approach and long training.
Is read, we think, we argue
In advance get acquainted with the program of the chosen higher education institution. Be ready to unexpected surprises: in the list of works on the basis of which questions of tickets are formed there will be a lot of such which you at school did not study. From there is conclusion: the program should be taken in 10 - m a class and to devote the last summer school vacation to reading. It is necessary not only to read or re-read texts, and to note interesting examples and to make in the book of a bookmark on which it is short to mark as the plot of work or character of the hero develops. Further it fine will help you - when you begin “to adjust“ work to questions of examination cards of the last years.
that you think of work and that felt when it was read. It is good if you do not give categorical estimates, sharp characteristics and to pass “final decision“: the Russian literature not so much decides how many it raises questions, lifts problems. Works of art are often ambiguous, versatile. About what, for example, A.S. Pushkin`s poem “To the sea“? About love to the nature? About freedom and farewell to rebellious youth? Work should be understood, and for this purpose it is necessary to read criticism, articles of literary critics and responses of writers. But only after you will read work and will make the opinion on it, - any interpretation traditional or original, has to rely on good knowledge of the text of work. Let`s remember, for example, as A.S. Griboyedov`s play “Woe from Wit“ in I. A. Goncharov`s article “Milyon of torments“ as falls into place much after its reading is in detail sorted.If you agree
with an aphorism “in dispute the truth is born“, then “having listened“ to opinion of each critic, be only approved in the position. And as it is felt at examination! The person who has no own look it is very easy to bring down, confuse. Besides you have a fine opportunity to master safe reception: having answered a question, in conclusion you will quote two - three critics, and on the basis of it propose already the solution of a question. This reception impresses examiners most favourably.
do not confuse concept
- the first question - the 19th century, the second - the 20th century
- first - poetry or dramatic art, the second - prose
By preparation pay special attention to development of literary terms. The words “plot“, “hyperbole“, “culmination“, “metaphor“, “octave“, “note“, “synecdoche“, “spondy“, “epithet“, “tracks“, etc. have to not only fly easy from your language, but also lay down organically on the text of your answer. Otherwise you can get into a ridiculous situation. When, for example, the entrant answering on A. Fet`s lyrics was asked what is an amphibrach - she quoted lines:“I will tell nothing
Ya I will not disturb you at all“.
with the leading question to the analysis of a meter.“ Amphibrach? - the girl was surprised, is a place where there live amphibians“.
to Master a necessary minimum of theoretical concepts extremely important. Without knowing the theory of literature, you can not understand a ticket question. For example, the first question you will have “A plot and composition of “The hero of our time“ M. Yu. Lermontov“, and you do not even know difference of a plot from composition.
Councils of examiners
Sergey LEONOV, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor of department of a technique of teaching literature of philological faculty of the Moscow pedagogical state university:
- Before examination remained not a lot of time. That who only begins to prepare most logical to undertake literature of the 19th century - questions on this period contain practically in all tickets.
- Limitation of lexicon:“ The writer interestingly wrote this interesting work, and it was interesting to me to read work of this writer“... over
- Incoherence of the answer - the thought jumps from one subject on another: “Pushkin wrote the message “To Siberia“ to the friends - Decembrists, and he very much appreciated friendship and when it was in the south, wrote “To the sea“...
- Abundance of speech and stylistic mistakes in the speech of the entrant: “did not play value“, “below any criticism“, “to accept to attention“, “according to the order“, etc. Filler words so litter with
- the speech that the meaning is lost: “as if“, “here“, “it type killed“...
- the Frank slang which is perceived by many teachers as a sneer:“ Pechorin played a role of group of capture and killed the Cossack“
not to do at examination and without knowledge of the historian - the literary facts. They can be gathered from manuals. It is better to use the sound university editions guaranteeing quality of the stated information. The materials released by MSU and containing on each of program authors are good in this sense of a grant for entrants.
As for the past century, for its studying I would advise the book L. Ya. Sheynberg and I. V. Kondakova “From Gorky to Solzhenitsyn“, N. A. Popova`s textbook “Russian literature of the 19th century (the first half)“. It is not simple to find grants on literature of the latest period. Knowing it, examiners of our higher education institution offer arriving only the general questions. For example, “What work of modern literature seems to you the most valuable?“ . Competently to answer this question, it is necessary to be aware of the current literary process and to be able is reasoned to state the point of view, meaning that you are asked about the art value of the book. It is unlikely modern best-sellers about life rich and well-known apply for it.
Nadezhda Semenova, chairman of the subject commission on Russian and literature of the Moscow state open pedagogical university of Sholokhov:
- As practice, ignorance of the author`s text - the biggest trouble arriving shows. Today the selection committee is not surprised any more to the fact that entrants try to speak about work, leaning only on strongly cut down axiomatic material or telling about the impressions about the screen version of this or that work of art.
the situation with knowledge of poetry is Even worse. Most of all difficulties cause tasks in which it is required to read by heart and to analyse the poem. I do not say any more that today it is difficult to meet the graduate able to read verses with expression. Present entrants, as a rule, cannot even remember the poem up to the end. But worst of all the fact that many simply do not distinguish authors. Cases when arriving confuse Pushkin and Yesenin`s poetic texts are frequent. And the knowledge of modern poetry leaves much to be desired. Only some entrants can tell about creativity, for example, of Nikolay Rubtsov, Vladimir Vysotsky and to quote the text.So the only and main council which I can give those who prepare for receipt now - thoughtfully read to
art texts. And according to the theory of literature it is possible to be prepared for questions by means of reference books:
- the Modern dictionary reference on literature under the editorship of S. I. Kornilov, (Moscow, 1999)
- the Encyclopaedic dictionary of the young literary critic under the editorship of V. I. Novikov (Moscow, 1987, etc.) etc.