We prepare for examination in Russian: the dictation, a statement what test
B higher education institution you arrived, waits for you examination in Russian everywhere. Statistically, this test is unexpectedly difficult for entrants. Will not prevent to double-check as far as you are ready to the forthcoming competitive task.
first step: foreign intelligence
First of all needs to be found out in what form there will take place examination. To know it better in advance: in one or two years prior to the beginning of entrance tests. Each form demands the technique of preparation. For example, training persistently in writing of dictations, it is possible not to go in for phraseology or the analysis of the text quietly. It is more time to give to hard cases in which often you make mistakes.
But even if you are absolutely sure that it is necessary to write a dictation, will not prevent to recheck this information. For few weeks before the planned examinations be not too lazy to go to higher education institution and to specify whether will be some changes, - higher education institutions began to change contents and quantity of tasks nearly every year.
the grants for preparation released high school publishing house, textbooks for training courses and record of diligent first-year students who successfully passed examinations last year will help to Understand requirements of institute. Often reference material is distributed or sold the other day open doors. Collect texts of tasks of last years, work them and try to remove the general regularities. Find the foreign-language and dictionary words which are most often repeating in all texts, write out the most popular syntactic designs, note on what grammatical rules “catch“ entrants - the word, make own program of preparation.
Step of the second: internal audit
If in the ninth class you at school examination in Russian had a strong four, then it does not mean at all that receive the same assessment in serious higher education institution. Each examiner knows medallists to whom you delivered the two at receipt absolutely deservedly! Entrants and their parents will not get used to thought in any way that the school is one educational institution, and higher education institution - absolutely another. And the school is not obliged to prepare for entering higher education institutions especially as their requirements strongly differ from each other at all. Present, in a graduation class three persons come to the HAZE (write a dictation), four - to MSU (composition) and seven - eight - to MEPhI (test). How in such situation the teacher has to arrive? He made the main thing - put base of literacy in middle classes, and it is necessary to build on it.you Are ready
to examination or not? You can pass a small test on syntax right now. In two provided offers there have to be 20 commas, two colons, two dashes and one semicolon.Tired with the long road Grigory allocated for
a horse in a stable and dreamily trudged on a mow there was a wish to sleep madly however passed probably not less than half an hour and the dream as ill luck would have it did not go and did not go because damned thoughts did not leave the good fellow and recent events disturbing everything rushed in the head. Exhausted he constantly changed a pose and was covered with the head and even tried to consider sheep of nothing also last year`s hay all around old clothes and a roof full of holes helped began to cause the irritation mixed perhaps with desire to talk with itself what the pier the brother is not slept?
Dictate the text on the tape recorder, and then try to write it under the dictation - it will help you to feel as the entrant.For preparation for a dictation and a statement the textbook where there are more exercises, but not the theory is better to choose
Step the third: developing attackto
It is clear that language, even native, you will not master for two - three months. Many higher education institutions carry out for sponsored schools control - the diagnostic works which are brought closer on the level and requirements to examination. And if you study at other school, and the pleasant higher education institution is not a patron of you? Serious institutes (not a something ephemeral!) met requirements and here of the entrant. They provide trainings on which situation happens surovy, than at entrance examinations. Your task - only to learn phone of a selection committee, to call and tell: “I want to check the knowledge. How it can be made in your higher education institution?“ Usually after training there takes place analysis of works. And this most valuable: you will see not only gaps in the knowledge, but also will understand how works are estimated, will be able to estimate the number of points which are required to be gained to pass on a competition. Shortcomings of such way: all trainings paid (from 400 - 600 rub for one subject) are also not present individual analysis of mistakes.Can still advise to take
single consultation from the good tutor - here - that will tinker with you at full scale! You learn about yourself and the knowledge a lot of new and interesting, and sometimes you are waited by tremendous opening. Remember all subjects which once passed, and those which did not understand and left “for later“ - the word derive the mass of pleasure for money of parents. Shortcomings of such way: similar “shows“ are expensive (from 700 rub to 1100 rub for an hour), and to good tutors it is difficult to get.Useful tips
- As you usually study
or repeat a subject? A beret you read the good textbook and the head behind the head, then there comes the turn of exercises. Actually it is better to begin to repeat Russian from syntax. In passing you will write all the same words, and ability to see the offer in general will bring you to new level of proficiency in language at once.
- Use different ways of preparation: hang out pieces of paper with difficult words on the apartment, rewrite fragments from classical works of art.
- Learn to make out the works correctly. The person slightly mad about calligraphy will check you. A readable handwriting, full writing of words, statement of points over “yo“, the correct transfers. There is a mass of things which will show checking that you respect a subject, love Russian, think of it much. And it will turn back in your advantage.
of the Book without which not to do you
nothing surprising that entrants make many mistakes at examination in Russian. You will not find in the school schedule of 10 - 11 classes of Russian. A lot of things are forgotten, takes off from the head. Successfully to be prepared, it is necessary to be engaged according to the textbooks and didactic materials approved and recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science.
- of 125 basic rules of the Russian grammar with exercises for execution. Under P. A. Lekont`s edition. - M, Bustard, 1999. Pay special attention to sections: phonetics, graphics, morphemes.
- of Rams of M. T. Russian. Reference materials. - M, Education, 1989. The morphology and syntax are worked well out.
- of Greeks of V. S. Posobiye on Russian for the senior classes. - M, Education, 2000. According to this book it is better to study and repeat spelling, a punctuation.
- Kozlovsky N. V. Sivakova Yu. I. Russian: analysis of the text. A grant for preparation for USE. - SPb., Nevsky Avenue, 2004
- Collections control - measuring materials on USE. They will help to get acquainted with a format of examination and statement of questions.
it is short about everything
- Lasts 1 - 2 hour.
- text Volume - 180 - 260 words, including office.
- Text art or publicistic. Practically without individually - author`s punctuation marks. to
- reads three times: the first - completely, the second - according to offers and the third - entirely repeatedly. Prestigious higher education institutions dictate the text via earphones, in higher education institutions it is simpler - alive, facing entrants.
- Lasts 3 hours.
- text Volume - 400 - 450 words. the Text is read to
- two times. The first - at a slow rate, at the same time it is possible to write down basic information on a draft copy. The second - in usual tempo of speech.
- If in the text proper names, dates, difficult foreign-language words, archaisms are, teachers write them on a board. to
- to receive a good mark, it is necessary to state not less than 80% of information. by
- Sometimes carry out a statement with composition elements. It is required to answer a question, to state the point of view on a problem or to write the option of possible succession of events. In some higher education institutions instead of a creative task grammatical is given.
Council of the examiner
Galina Zharonkina, chairman of the subject commission on Russian of the Moscow technical university of communication and informatics:
- Often entrants insufficiently seriously treat a statement, considering as its simplest examination, and it is vain. As practice shows, much arriving incorrectly transfer the listened text. It is not necessary to finish thinking, try to find room for anything into a statement the work moments which did not enter the set fragment. The task consists in most precisely to reproduce the text. It is desirable to keep at the same time an author`s syllable.
Typical mistakes which are considered at evaluation of works can be divided into three groups.
K stylistic the inability to truly construct the phrase belongs, first of all. In my opinion, the reason is covered that school students began to read much less. From there is the second problem: in a statement the mass of the actual mistakes is made though we try to select for tasks fragments from works of the school program for literature. Without knowing axiomatic option of works, children confuse even names of the heroes mentioned in the text.Spelling mistakes I conditionally would divide
into two categories. It is possible to refer spelling of double “N“ in participles and adjectives to the first, the use of particles “not“ and. Joined-up or separate writing of adverbs and even spelling of a root vowel. It seems to entrants that in these cases everything is so simple and clear that they do not think of the fact that they write. The second category - the blunders connected with excessive communication with the computer. Working at the personal computer, school students wean to watch correctness of the letter, relying on the program of editing which will specify and will help to correct an error. In recent years in statements we observe such mistakes which should not be even in initial classes:“ cha“ and “shcha“ - through “I“, “zhy“, “shy“ - through “y“ lack of commas before the “and “no“ unions and even own names written from a small letter.
the Most difficult for arriving the section - syntax . Most of all difficulties are caused by isolation of participial and verbal adverb phrases, parenthesises, statement of punctuation marks in complex and compound sentences. It is good to repeat the section “Direct Speech“.the Test Quantity of tasks and duration of testing each higher education institution determines
Council of the examiner
Ivan Pugachev, professor, chairman of the subject commission on Russian of the Russian Peoples` Friendship University (RPFU), head of the department of Russian of engineering faculty of RUDN:
- what difficulties entrants face?Many are lost by
if necessary to put the theory into practice . For example, it is required to find means of art expressiveness in the text and to define their role. Entrants, even the metaphors knowing definition or an epithet, cannot often find them in the text. It means that skills of work with the text, ability to analyze and structure material are absent.
Entrants badly know language norms : orthoepic, lexical, morphological. To the deadlock can raise a question of the correct pronunciation of the word: you will call or will call, cottage cheese or cottage cheese.
One more gap in basic knowledge of school students - definition of a lexical meaning of words . So, sometimes they answer the question “What Is “Cache-pot“?“:“ headdress“.
an Important role during examination is played by psychological aspects , a spirit and concentration of entrants. Sometimes they cannot correctly calculate operating time and as a result do not manage to rewrite already ready task for the clean copy. We advise to distribute time (180 min.) as follows: on the first part of the test to take away about 60 min., on the second - 30 and on the third - 90 min. Experience shows that for the last section - the short composition - most often is not enough time. Therefore it is desirable to accelerate performance of the first part of a task, having saved thereby precious minutes for the last.