Why has diarrhea the child?
Unlike the sharp diarrheas having the infectious nature (we in detail spoke about them in “NANOMETER“ No. 10, 2000), long frustration of a chair are connected most often with noninfectious factors - intolerance of foodstuff and violation of intestinal absorption.Long diarrhea can call
frustration at which remains frequent (rub also more once a day) a liquid chair or the expressed violation of its structure and a type further of two weeks. whetherdysbacteriosis Is guilty
In our country the opinion took roots that, first of all, dysbacteriosis - violation in a quantitative ratio of intestinal microbes is the reason of it. Dysbacteriosis is usually observed at prolonged use of antibiotics which strongly oppress usual flora of intestines. Suppression of normal flora of intestines opens a way for its settling by the unusual flora including capable to cause disorders of its activity.
It is a serious problem for newborns and especially premature children who have a dysbacteriosis connected with use of antibiotics (at the child or at his mother) can break formation of normal flora of intestines and to become the diarrhea reason. But at more senior children to whom antibacterial treatment, the expressed dysbacteriosis and furthermore long diarrhea - a rarity is carried out.For treatment and prevention of dysbacteriosis at newborns application of Bifidumbakterina drugs is justified by
as they not only occupy intestines normal bifidoflory, but also create in it an environment, adverse for development of pathogenic microbes. These preparations apply also at more senior children, is long receiving antibiotics. However to extend it to all children of more advanced age (sometimes even on school students!), with a normal chair, only on the basis of “the bad analysis on dysbacteriosis“ there are no bases.
In cases when children did not receive antibiotics at all, is difficult to be understood how goodness knows where from the undertaken violation of number of microorganisms could cause a diarrhea. But at research of such children usually it is possible to reveal this or that violation of digestion connected with intolerance of any foodstuff.In this case should establish
that from foodstuff the child does not transfer and to exclude this product from a diet. To hurry with crops a calla on dysbacteriosis, to apply Bifidumbakterin or other similar products (Bifidolakt, Bifillin, Laktofidus, etc.) there is no sense: at intolerance of foodstuff, violation of intestinal absorption (malabsorption) it does not give effect. It is necessary to treat a disease.
Intolerance of dairy sugar (laktazny insufficiency) - the most frequent form of intolerance of foodstuff. Dairy sugar (lactose) is the main carbohydrate of milk for which digestion cubs of all mammals have enzyme - lactase. It splits lactose on glucose and a galactose which are soaked up in intestines. If it is not enough lactase, lactose is not split and not soaked up.
Activity of lactase decreases under influence of intestinal infections, especially rotavirusny. At such children when feeding by dairy mixes the sharp diarrhea as if “passes“ into long. Decrease of the activity of lactase can be promoted by any serious illness, an anesthesia, some drugs (anabolic hormones which are appointed sometimes to children at a hypotrophy).
of Nedorasshcheplennaya lactose gets into a large intestine where it is fermented by lactic bacteria, forming acid and gases. Gases blow up a large intestine, causing pains, acid complicates water absorption, irritates its mucous and causes its frequent depletion. At the same time the chair has sharply sour smell and consists of the dense kalovy mass of yellow color and a large amount of the water forming a light damp spot on a diaper. The chair together with gases departs (“with a crash“). Despite a diarrhea, children lose flesh a little, at transfer to a delactosed diet the chair is normalized literally in a day.
Treatment consists in reduction of amount of dairy sugar in a diet. For food of the child - the bottle-fed baby use without - or nizkolaktozny products (for example, Humana SL), including nonmilk - soy mixes and porridges (Atsidolakt soy, Bona - soy, Nutrisoya, Similak - Izomil, Frisosa, Heinz soy mix, Enfamil - soy). It is not enough lactose in 3 - day kefir (0,5%) whereas in usually used - 2 - day - there is a lot of lactose - 3 - 4%. In the absence of mixes it is possible to use addition of lactase in powder (Laktraz) in milk in 2 - 3 hours prior to its use, but it is not the cheapest way. In the second half of the year it is possible to give nonmilk meat and vegetable dishes. If to the child limited milk consumption, it needs to enter in addition calcium salts (a calcium gluconate).
What expects a baby with laktazny insufficiency? In most cases in 2 - 4 months activity of lactase is restored, however children perfectly develop on nizkolaktozny mixes or kefir so the disease should not cause big disorders.
Intolerance of protein of cow`s milk - other frequent form of malabsorption. Proteins of cow`s milk in some children cause an allergy, in others - serious intestinal frustration. Cow`s milk and at healthy children increases permeability mucous intestines: the child raised by milk loses daily up to 7 ml of blood. At intolerance loss of blood accrues, absorption of other nutrients is broken from what the child quickly loses flesh.
the Symptom of intolerance of milk is the diarrhea, is frequent with blood impurity which can proceed very hard and not stop to the complete elimination of milk and all products received from cattle - beef and its derivatives, medical preparations prepared from bodies of cattle (for example, Pancreatinum). At many children the diarrhea is followed by allergic symptoms - rashes, eczema, as a rule, exhaustion quickly develops.
Treatment consists in a complete elimination of a diet of cow`s milk and all products of cattle. The child is transferred to mixes on the basis of soy (Atsidolakt soy, Bona - soy, Nutrisoya, Similak - Izomil, Frisosa, Heinz soy mix, Enfamil - soy), and the child of the second half of the year - to vegetable, krupyany products with enough meat mash (pork, mutton, a rabbit, a turkey, a horse-flesh). The children who are not receiving milk need to enter in addition calcium salts (a calcium gluconate).the disease leads
At part of children to development of intolerance of many other proteins so they should be “brought up“ proteinaceous hydrolyzates (Alimentum, Nutramigen, Pregestimil, Pepti is the Junior, Frisopen 2, Hipp of HECTARE, Humana of 1 HECTARE, Human of 2 HECTARES).
Many parents with doubt perceive a nonmilk diet - it seems to them that without milk it is impossible for the child in any way. They should understand: that for most of children the benefit, for their children - poison. Fortunately, intolerance of milk - often hereditary sign so many parents of children with similar intolerance also do not love milk (or even treat him with disgust). With age children try milk, many of them it “is not excited“ about it, but some willingly eat if not milk, then dairy products.
Intolerance of cereals - a tseliakiya - one of the most frequent forms of food intolerance. From dozen of cereals used by mankind 5 contain proteins - gluten and similar to it - having toxic effect on a mucous membrane of a small intestine at the persons possessing the sensitivity increased to it. It is wheat, rye, oats, millet (millet) and barley which gluten is capable to cause a serious illness - a tseliakiya.
under the influence of protein of cereals of gluten the mucous membrane of a small intestine becomes thinner, its fibers become small that sharply reduces the soaking-up intestines surface. It breaks absorption of all nutrients, especially fats. The disease is shown after introduction to a feeding up by a manna or porridge, becoming aggravated quite often after sharp intestinal infection after which chair is not normalized.large volume of a chair, usually kashitseobrazny or diluted, light, with a brilliant (fat) surface is characteristic
Of a tseliakiya; from - for a large amount of fat of a diaper badly wash off. After a while the child ceases to put on weight, it increases a stomach and, on the contrary, muscle bulk decreases, up to extreme exhaustion. Sometimes there are locks from - for a fat irritant action on a large intestine, at the same time loss of a rectum is quite often observed. The child with a tseliakiya often does not transfer cow`s milk, other products.
Treatment of a tseliakiya consists in full removal of a diet of gluten and products supporting him. Exclude bread and bakery products, oat, millet, millet and yachnevy porridges, replacing them with rice, buckwheat, corn. All the rest - as much as necessary, but it is necessary to remember that fish canned food in a tomato, boiled sausage and other gastronomy contain flour and therefore are harmful to the patient too: even 200 - 500 mg of gluten a day are enough to break intestinal absorption!
At small children with a tseliakiya also exclude gluten, using hydrolyzates, bezglyutenovy nonmilk porridges (see the list), bezglyutenovy milk porridges, bezglyutenovy breakfasts, children`s dietary canned food on the basis of meat, birds, vegetables and fruit. In an initiation of treatment for these children it is better to exclude milk.
Bezglyutenovy milk porridges: “Baby“ with buckwheat flour, with rice flour“ “Mother“ rice; Cereal mix with fruit, “Growth“ fruit “, Kolobok“ with buckwheat flour, “Cone“ with buckwheat flour, with rice flour, “Kernel“ with buckwheat flour, with rice flour, “Pilti“ abrikosovo - rice, rice flakes with milk, with milk and apples, with milk and banana, with milk and nuts, “Is given“ to “Baby“ rice, Miluvit Plus, “Protein“ “Frisoky“ rice dairy; Heinz: rice and corn, rice, the mixed cereals with banana, Humana corn with bananas, grushevo - rice, children`s milk porridge, kukuruzno - rice with fruit.
Bezglyutenovy ready breakfasts: corn, rice flakes, sticks, rice flat cakes, risovo - corn flat cakes. > to Parents it is important to p to understand
that a tseliakiya - a lifelong disease. In several months after an initiation of treatment children become completely healthy, absorption in intestines is restored. There is also a temptation - to give to the child a forbidden bagel or cookies then as though, nothing bad occurs. Really, it does not lead to frustration of a chair, but levels of antibodies to gluten increase after that, and in intestines there is an atrophy of a mucous membrane again.
If the child on the first - the second year of life did not receive gluten, in the future will not “pull“ it on bread and it will not be weighed upon dietary restrictions.