Beds on the seasonal dacha. How to grow up the first harvest
Each mother wants to provide during the summer the child with a maximum of vitamins. And what can be more useful than guaranteed organic carrot or cucumbers, the grown-up hands? Even absolutely inexperienced person at desire can cope with several beds of not too whimsical plants. And that the first in life own harvest did not die on a root, “debutants - to landowners“ will need to follow simple rules. >
to the Inexperienced gardener it is very difficult for i to be defined by
what plants, vegetables or root crops he wants to grow up on the site. Often the choice is limited to either esthetic criterion, or usefulness degree (that is, availability of vitamins). And meanwhile, there are several fundamental moments disregarding whom it is only necessary to dream of a worthy harvest.
to Everyone the term
at the end of May can plant carrots, a garden radish, a radish beet, onions, fennel and salad. The first harvest can be expected in June - July. At first there will be a fennel, spinach, salad, cress - salad, a sorrel, Welsh onion, a ramson. After their place to take mid-season grades of cabbage, turnip, a radish or to repeatedly sow a garden radish, salad, spinach.
In June not late to sow onions and onions - shallot, peas, cabbage, cucumbers and vegetable marrows, carrot, beet and garden greens. Then at the end of July - the beginning of August, at the correct leaving it is possible to wait for a quite good harvest.
we Prepare for “sowing campaign“
should be Begun with the choice of seeds. It is the best of all to buy the seeds of hybrids of F1 (received as a result of artificial crossing) as they have higher productivity, good taste and possess resistance to adverse conditions and diseases. Therefore less work and processings will be required by means of protection of plants. And it will significantly facilitate life to gardeners - beginners.
Getting packing of seeds, it is necessary to pay attention to an expiration date. It is better to put root crops, cabbage, onions fresh seeds, then plants will be larger. For seeds of onions, parsley, a parsnip, corn optimum period of storage makes 1 - 2 years; from 3 to 5 years are stored seeds of cabbage, carrots, a celery, salad, peas, pepper, a garden radish, spinach, a turnip; more than 5 - ti years - beets, a cucumber, mustard, a tomato, pumpkin.needs to be prepared by
for crops Now. First of all, the bought seeds need to be disinfected as 80% of diseases of plants are transferred with seeds and the vegetable remains, and only 20% - with the soil. It is possible to carry out this procedure by means of heat treatment (seeds in sacks from nonwoven fabric place in a thermos with hot water (+52gradusas) for half an hour, and then keep 2 - 3 minutes in cold water) or a protravlivaniye potassium permanganate (seeds in a sack place for 20 minutes in 1% potassium permanganate solution (it has to be black color), then, directly in a sack, wash out cold boiled water).
However, these tortures it is possible to avoid if to buy the granulated or inlaid seeds which already passed the corresponding processing. On bags of such seeds there are corresponding marks.
After disinfecting seeds can be sowed in soil at once, but everything is better - previously to kill them in solution of biostimulators (an epin or a humate) which increase resistance of plants to adverse external effects. It is possible to buy them in the same place where also seeds. These substances belong to the category environmentally friendly as completely decay in environment and do not collect anywhere. Nevertheless, during the work with them it is necessary to observe safety measures - before carrying out procedure to put on gloves, and after - to rinse a face and hands with water.
the Essence of process consists in the following: seeds presoak in solution within 12 - 24 hours at a temperature of 27 - 28 degrees of C, superficially immersing them in liquid, in low and wide ware. It considerably accelerates emergence of shoots of tugoprorastayushchy seeds (a celery, onion, a parsnip, pepper, beet, spinach, etc.) stimulates growth of shoots, and, above all - reduces sensitivity of seedlings to adverse conditions and increases their resistance to diseases.
Secrets of a fruitful bed
Having dealt with seeds, it is possible to start preparation of the place where they should be seeded. The gardener - “debutant“ should know: the ideal bed has to get warm the sun, to be equal and to have earth or board sides at the edges not to be showered and also that moisture in it kept longer and evenly extended among all planted plants. Height of beds (as a rule, 10 - 15 cm) can be increased on sites with close ground waters or if on them it is planned to grow up vegetables with deep root system, for example, of carrots. Optimum width for a bed 0,5 - 1,2 meters. It is not desirable to sow plants in just dug up bed - it is necessary to wait few weeks that the earth managed to sink. And further to facilitate fight against weeds, the bottom of a bed can be prostelit a polyethylene film.All views of soils on mechanical structure share
on clay, sandy, loamy (the soil with the primary content of clay and a significant amount of sand) and sandy (the friable soil with a large amount of sand). Sandy and sandy soils call easy and warm: they get warm quicker, it is easy to process them. Clay and loamy call cold and heavy. The best soils for cultivation of fruit and vegetable plants - loamy and sandy. They possess a sufficient moisture capacity and air permeability.
Clay soils - dense, hardly give in to processing, are characterized by bad air permeability, on their surface the crust is often formed. To make them more friable, add ordinary river sand
If the soil clay, then ranks of plants on beds it is better to have from the North on the South - in this case the sun on rising will light one party of a row, at sunset - another, and at midday - all plants, from above. The most favorable arrangement of ridges on sandy soils - from the East on the West, in this case row-spacings are in a shadow of plants and do not dry up so quickly.
the Individual approach
should Sow these or those plants, proceeding from their “character“.Onions , for example, are unpretentious
, grow on any soils which should be fertilized previously compost. Land, as a rule, the small bulbs which are grown up from seeds (onion sets) at distance of 10 - 15 cm. At the same time slightly press a lukovichka into the earth and leave a top slightly higher than the level of the soil.to
For of a radish, beet, salad and greens is suitable any soil which is dug over and fertilized by manure or compost. The main thing that the site was rather lit. Right after germination of seeds the “broken-through“ plants should be thinned out (for a garden radish on distance of 2 cm, for salad of lettuce and beet on 10 - 15 cm), then to get rid of weeds and to water as required.Carrots are very captious
to the soil, long and equal root crops grow only on deeply processed fertile soils. For carrot the soil is fertilized peat and manure. And to thin out this root crop (on distance of 5 - 7 cm) it is possible only in the evening that the appetizing savor did not attract a dangerous carrot fly. It is necessary to water carrot moderately as from plentiful watering root crops can burst.
A here vegetable marrows, cabbage and cucumbers in June should be landed seedling, otherwise it is possible and not to wait for a harvest. The seedling is grown up by houses, in any, the containers suitable for this purpose (at the bottom of which there are drainage openings), with use of special compost which is on sale in shops.
By the way, compost it is possible to make and: for the majority of cultures (cabbage, tomato, a vegetable marrow, pepper, a cucumber, onions) it prepares on the following proportions: the earth - 25 - 30%, peat or humus - 30 - 50%, sand - 25 - 30%. Light should hold seedling on solar, if necessary to put fluorescent lamps, and also - to water plentifully.
Now - directly about landings. Here too there are small cunnings. For example correctly to seed carrots, a garden radish, a radish beet, onions, fennel or salad, along an estimated row it is necessary to pull a lace, then a stick or a scoop to make grooves of the recommended depth 1 and to check a palm the earth if dry - to water. After that as seldom as possible (the distance has to be not less than 1 - 2 cm) to sow seeds, previously having poured out them in a hand and to fill up a groove. The smallest before crops mix with sand.
1 Depth of early-spring crops on easy soils - 3 - 4 cm, on heavy - 1 - 2 cmLarge seeds (a vegetable marrow, haricot, peas, pumpkin) sow
in the dug-out poles on 2 - 3 kernels, then weak plants delete, having left only one. The majority of these cultures - thermophilic, put them deeply: 3 - 4 cm on heavy soils or 5 - 6 cm on lungs. > the soil it is better for p to condense
After crops a little, having slightly pressed down from above a shovel that seeds nestled on the earth better. But, if before emergence of shoots the bed is strongly filled in by rains, ramming can only do much harm: it will be difficult to plants to break through a firm earth crust.
of the Subtlety of work with seedling
As conditions of the protected and open ground differ markedly, the seedling “coddled“ in house climate, is not adapted for a survival on the unprotected space. She loses leaves and badly gets accustomed. That it did not occur, the seedling needs to be tempered well. For this purpose in 10 - 12 days prior to disembarkation it in an open ground is limited by waterings, and in 7 days completely they are stopped. At the same time, for the night the seedling is taken out on a balcony that she got used to a frigid climate. And only after such here preparation she can be imprisoned in an open ground.
If seedling cultivate in separate glasses, then before its disembarkation are rather moderately watered that the earth lump with a green sprout could be got easily from a glass, and it was not scattered. >
it is desirable for p to Land seedling in cloudy weather or in the evening as the plants which got used by incomplete light day cannot adapt to a bright sun at once. The soil before disembarkation has to be well processed and humidified. Rows have to be straight lines, and plants - to settle down at identical distance from each other.
For of cabbage seedling land on distance 30 - 45 cm, on the solar place. It is possible to use that site from where cleaned other cultures (but it is impossible to put more than three years in a row in one and too the place). One week prior to landing and at the beginning of formation of heads of cabbage introduce mineral fertilizers. also plant Pumpkin, vegetable marrows, zucchini, bush pumpkins on the solar place to the soil with a large number of a humus. Have seedling kvadratno - a nested way, through 70 - 80 cm
At the creeping grades of pumpkin and vegetable marrows of a top of escapes should be prishchipat (to pinch off hands an escape top) when stalks reach length 0,5m. The soil should be watered plentifully, trying not to get on leaves. And from the beginning of growth of fruits - time in 2 weeks to feed up fertilizer for tomatoes. For protection against decay and slugs it is good to stack fruits on a piece of glass.
Cucumbers , on the contrary, love a small shadow therefore they can be grown up closer to trees, at distance of 12 - 15 cm. The cucumber, unlike cabbage, badly transfers low temperatures, in an open ground this culture is sowed when the soil gets warm to +12-+15 gradusovs.
That cucumbers yielded a good harvest and were not bitter, they should be watered plentifully with warm water (for watering of cucumbers, tomatoes, pepper, eggplants water has to be na2 - 3gradusas higher than air temperature). Besides, the culture of a cucumber has interesting feature: the more often collect fruits, the harvest is higher. >
it is not obligatory for p to allocate for
Under laws of compatibility under each vegetable the bed At all. Plants at desire can be combined. Recently the edible beds representing mix of flowers, vegetables and greens enter fashion. Beautifully salads as sheet, so ikochanny, especially grades skrasno - brown leaves (for example, Lola Ross, Berlin yellow) and the Beijing cabbage look . Will shade gentle greens of salad deeper color of parsley various grades including curly.
At the edges of an edible bed can put onions shallot , and also a mangold (sheet beet) and strawberry cape gooseberry, ukotory very magnificent ikrasivy greens. Izmnogoletnikh of spicy plants will suit a marjoram , a hyssop , a melissa , and as a border - white and red wild strawberry .
According to skilled gardeners, the combination of various cultures can as it is positive, and to have an adverse effect on a harvest. Closely planted plants of identical height and a raskidistost, and representatives of one family do not get on together. Especially umbrella - carrot, fennel, parsley, a celery, a parsnip, a lyubistok and cilantro quarrel with each other. Fennel and a wormwood need to be isolated as they oppress one and all. Onions and garlic are aggressive in relation to bean and cabbage, but extinguish fungal diseases. And here salads and spinach - the real assistants, they emit the substances which are making active roots of other plants.
haricot, parsley, a melissa, a basil (Regan), a chaber, a thyme, a hyssop and a marjoram, and also a calendula, a nasturtium and barkhatets Protect all from wreckers.
already developed symbioses Are: carrots and onions protect each other from a carrot and onions fly, and at the neighbourhood of cabbage and a celery the last frightens off white butterflies. It is good to seed cucumbers, fennel, a basil, tomatoes, a radish where there will be a zucchini and vegetable marrows later.
I still. Even on the tiniest kitchen garden it is necessary to try to allocate a little place for “own“ bed of the kid and to teach him to look after future harvest. Let on it the most unpretentious cultures like a garden radish, a vegetable marrow or salad grow - it will be interesting to child to water and weed the green pets. Besides, children usually very much are proud of the gardening progress and eat those vegetables which grew up with pleasure. > It is time for p to fertilize
Several words about top dressing of plants without which any kitchen garden does not do. Even the most skilled vegetable growers often have an opinion that manure, compost and ashes (natural fertilizers) - environmentally friendly substances, and mineral (artificial) fertilizers - continuous chemistry and nitrates. The matter is that application of ultrahigh doses of nitrogen fertilizers really leads to receipt in plants of excess of nitrogen. It collects there in large numbers therefore nitrates are formed. But it not absolutely so.
the Source of terrible nitrates also. Besides, both humus and in manure can contain bacteria, dangerous to plants. Therefore which you should not refuse artificial fertilizers (play a role of vitamins for plants), it is necessary to dose only carefully them, considering a condition of the soil and feature of those of a plant which need fertilizer. But, anyway, the choice remains for the owner of a kitchen garden. Fertilizers - as liquid, so isukhy - to bring only at the roots plants.
will not be superfluous at landing of plants to pay attention and to moon phases. In day of a new moon (and it is even better a day before and after) landing and change are not made. Everything that grows up (that is if the purpose of landing are elevated parts of a plant), put in the period of the growing Moon, right after a new moon, and everything that grows down (that is root crops), land under the decreasing Moon.Needs only to wish
that efforts of newly made gardeners in this season crowned success, and the family had enough abundance on their beds for the whole year!