Rus Articles Journal

Artificial feeding of

by the Most optimum and desirable for the newborn child is natural (or chest) feeding. But sometimes, for various reasons, it is necessary to transfer the baby to artificial feeding or to add the missing volume of food in the form of dairy mix to breast milk (such feeding call mixed). What in this case parents need to know about children`s mixes?

Composition of mix

Substitutes of maternal milk (mix) have to be as close as possible

(are adapted) on the structure to breast women`s milk. Most often mixes for artificial feeding are made on the basis of cow`s or goat milk. On productions of baby food approach of composition of dairy mixes to composition of women`s milk on all components - proteinaceous, carbohydrate, fatty, vitamin, mineral is carried out. Such mixes call adapted about what there is an inscription on packing. Adaptation of a proteinaceous (protein) component consists in decrease in the general level of protein till 1,4 - 1,6 / 100 ml in ready dairy mix that almost corresponds to protein level in women`s milk - 0,8 - 1,2 / 100 ml. It becomes to warn an adverse effect of excess of protein on a digestive tract and unripe kidneys of the kid.

One more moment of adaptation is introduction to substitutes of women`s milk of proteins of whey which on the structure are brought closer to women`s milk. Unlike protein - the casein prevailing in cow`s milk, serumal proteins in the course of digestion form more gentle and digestible clot in a stomach. The mixes enriched with serumal proteins promote maintenance of optimum structure of intestinal microflora, cause functional changes from outside zheludochno less often - an intestinal path of the kid. The ratio of serumal proteins to casein in dairy mixes for children of the first 4 months of life has to make 60 for 40%, and for children of the second half of the year of life - 50/50 (information on contents and concentration of serumal proteins and casein is in full placed on packings of mixes, it is independently possible to count their ratio to each other).

the Majority of modern dairy mixes contain free (i.e. not being a part of proteins) amino acid - taurine who is necessary for the correct formation of the central nervous system of kids, especially premature since it takes part in development of an organ of vision and a brain, and also improves process of absorption and digestion of fats. For children of the first months of life this amino acid is irreplaceable as it independently begins to be synthesized in an organism from cysteine and a serin only at children 1,5 months are more senior. Therefore concentration of taurine in mixes has to be about 40 - 50 g/l, and cysteine - 1,7 g/l (this information is printed on packings of mixes).

Adaptation of a fatty component of dairy mixes is most directed to

to their approach fatly - acid structure to composition of women`s milk, i.e. on production carry out partial or full replacement of dairy (animal) fat by mix of vegetable oils (corn, soy, coconut, sunflower, palm, etc.) . Thanks to it in mix the content of irreplaceable polynonsaturated fatty acids (PNZhK) significantly increases: linolenovy, dokozogeksayenovy, eykozopetayenovy, linoleic - the irreplaceable factors of food necessary for the baby for construction and adequate functioning of cages, formation of a brain, an eye retina etc. It is also necessary to observe a proportional ratio of PNZhK with vitamin E. Normal synthesis of fatty acids requires enough a carnitine - the vitaminopodobny nitrogenous substance allowing to develop adequately to the central nervous system of the kid, to form immune protection of an organism and it is just good to grow (from - for what the carnitine is called growth vitamin). Therefore its concentration in dairy mix has to be not lower than 10 - 15 mg/l.

For adaptation of a carbohydrate component add lactose to dairy mix (the dairy sugar making about 99% of all carbohydrates of any milk including female), t. to. its concentration in cow`s milk is much lower, than in female. Lactose influences an organism as follows: improves digestion processes, promotes development in a digestive tract lakto - and bifidobacteria which oppress growth of “undesirable“ microbes in intestines improves digestion of mineral substances (magnesium, calcium) and so forth. Partial replacement of lactose with a dextrinmaltose (mix various mono - di - and polysaccharides, received as a result of starch splitting) which is also well acquired by an organism is admissible and exerts positive impact on intestinal microflora. Other carbohydrates - glucose, fructose, sucrose - are undesirable as components of substitutes of breast milk to children of the first half of the year of life (though can be present at composition of some mixes) as they strengthen processes of fermentation and gas generation in intestines, can cause development of an allergy, accustom kids to more sweet products, thereby, breaking insulin hormone regulation. Also addition in dairy mix for children of the first half of the year of life actually of starch as the carbohydrate component promoting the best saturability is not recommended. Activity of amylase - the enzyme splitting starch reaches considerable level only after three - four months of life. Early introduction of the mixes containing starch to a food allowance of the child will lead to the undesirable phenomena from outside zheludochno - an intestinal path (the speeded-up chair, the increased gas generation and gripes).

the Important stage of adaptation of dairy mixes to women`s milk is optimization of mineral structure. It consists in decrease in comparison with cow`s milk of amount of salts of calcium, potassium, sodium. As their excess consumption leads to considerable load of kidneys. In addition mixes are enriched with necessary minerals: iron, iodine, zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, selenium, as their contents in cow`s milk low.

dairy mixes enrich

Together with mineral substances water - and fat-soluble vitamins. To them A, D, E, K, V, V2, V3, V6, V, 2, RR, S. vitamins

For the maximum approach belong to quality of women`s milk add nucleotides (it is specified on packing) to some dairy mixes - the substances which are material for creation of RNA and DNA of cages, growth and development of bodies and systems of an organism thereby accelerates. The mixes containing nucleotides are especially shown to premature children since they promote growth of fermental activity zheludochno - an intestinal path, intestinal microflora, to maturing of immune system of an organism.

For children of the second half of the year of life so-called subsequent mixes (on packing there is figure 2) are issued. They differ from substitutes of women`s milk for children of the first six months of life in smaller extent of adaptation. They are made from powdered whole milk without whey addition. Content in them of protein and power value is much higher, than in starting mixes. As a carbohydrate component sucrose and starch is used. In the subsequent mixes the maintenance of minerals and vitamins is increased that is caused by the increased requirements of an organism of the child.

Besides the adapted mixes partially adapted substitutes of women`s milk (partially adapted dairy mixes) exist - in them there is no whey, is not completely balanced fatly - acid structure, as a carbohydrate component sucrose and starch are used on an equal basis with lactose. However process of creation of such mixes is simpler therefore their cost is less in comparison with the adapted substitutes of women`s milk. It is undesirable to use partially adapted mixes for artificial feeding of the baby from the moment of the birth. The age of the child who is on artificial feeding, the more is less it needs the adapted mixes.

Substitutes of women`s milk can be: dry (demand cultivation before the use) and liquid (are ready to the use), in turn, both dry and liquid mixes can be fresh and sour-milk. In the first 2 - 3 weeks of life it is preferable to child to appoint fresh mix, and in the subsequent to combine fresh and acidified milk formulas in an equal proportion. Surplus of acidified milk formulas in a diet can cause or strengthen vomiting, break kislotno - alkaline balance in an organism, and their shortcoming can lead to functional violations zheludochno - an intestinal path.

How to pick up mix

At the choice of dairy mix for the specific child needs to be considered:

  1. Age of the child;
  2. Degree of adaptedness of mix - to the newborn child needs to appoint by
  3. the adapted mix; the child till 6 months should not appoint at all “the subsequent mixes“, kefir, whole milk, not adapted acidified milk formulas, and the mixes calculated on the second half of the year of life (on a jar there is figure 2);
  4. Specific features of an organism and health of the child (if the child is unhealthy, i.e. there are violations from a gastrointestinal tract (frequent vomiting, locks and so forth) or some other violations, experts are appointed medical mixes) and individual tolerance of mix.

How to enter mix

At introduction to a food allowance of the child of dairy mix (for the first time or new) you remember

  • that new mix is entered within 5 - 7 days. In the first day offer the kid dairy mix in small volume - no more than 1/3 from the feeding volume recommended on age, and within a week on condition of good tolerance (skin is not changed, the stomach is not blown up, gases depart, a chair not liquid or not a lock), increase the volume of new mix before full feeding.

    the Diet

    the Diet of the kid on artificial feeding considerably differs in

    from the breastfeeding mode. The kids receiving maternal milk should be fed on demand. A certain diet is necessary for the children who are on artificial feeding - it is 6 - 7 single feeding, every 3 - 3,5 hour with 6 - a one-hour night break, with the subsequent with transfer to the 5th single food. In the first 2 months of life the child has to receive per day mix in volume of 1/5 from body weight, with 2 - to 4 months - 1/6 from body weight, in 4 - 6 months - 1/7 from body weight, after 6 months - 1/8 - 1/9 from body weight. Juice and water do not join in the volume of the main food.

    the Volume of one feeding pays off so: we divide what turns out (by data above) into number of feedings. For example, the child is 2 months old, he weighs 4,5 kg. 1 / 5 - 900 ml of mix he has to receive from body weight in days. Having divided 900 ml on 7, we receive 130 ml on 1 feeding.

    the Choice of a pacifier

    Is very individual and delicate question, sometimes children refuse the best and expensive pacifiers, preferring them to more unpretentious samples. The only thing that should be told, nipples and small bottles needs to be got in specialized shops and drugstores, and it is desirable well proved firm - producer, responsible for quality and safety of goods. If the child besides mix receives breast milk, then watch that openings in a nipple were minimum that the child when feeding from a small bottle made the efforts similar to those at feeding by a breast. Besides, if to turn the filled small bottle with a pacifier upside down, liquid should not follow from an opening of the “correct“ pacifier, but is admissible that it slowly dripped.

    When feeding the child dairy mix needs to follow the following rules : to prepare for
    • mix just before the use in thermally processed ware (it is very convenient to use a sterilizer for small bottles);
    • at mix cultivation precisely to observe the instruction written on bank;
    • for cultivation of mix to use the specialized water for baby food which is not containing harmful substances;
    • before the use of the prepared mix to check its temperature (temperature of mix has to correspond to body temperature, on average 36,6 °C)
    • when feeding the kid you watch that he did not swallow air (that in a nipple there was no air bubble, and the child densely clasped a pacifier with lips);
    • do not offer repeatedly unused mix to the child;
    • carefully to process small bottles and nipples after feeding.

    Additional liquid

    the Child who is on artificial feeding has to receive in addition liquid (about 100 - 200 ml), it can be boiled or children`s bottled water or children`s teas of industrial production (specially it is not necessary to sweeten water). Certain norms of volumes of additional liquid on age do not exist therefore it is necessary to give to drink to the child on demand, in breaks between feedings, since if to offer the child liquid before feeding, then the volume of a stomach will be filled and necessary nutrients of mix the child will receive less.

    Medical mixes it is possible not only to provide to


    by means of artificial mixes good nutrition of the newborn child, but also to solve certain problems with health. Firms - producers offer a large amount of medical mixes which can be divided into the following groups:

    • of of mix on the basis of soy protein . Soy mixes do not contain proteins of cow`s milk and lactose in this connection they can be used in food of children with intolerance of cow`s and maternal milk, and also with laktazny insufficiency;
    • of mix on the basis of in whole or in part the hydrolyzed (split) proteins . Mixes with the changed proteinaceous component can be used at food allergy, intolerance of proteins of cow`s milk, at violations of absorption of food in intestines, at a hypotrophy - low body weight;
    • delactosed or nizkolaktozny mixes . Their appointment depends on a type of laktazny insufficiency - at primary laktazny insufficiency are appointed delactosed, and at secondary - nizkolaktozny mixes, in their quality both soy mixes, and mixes on the basis of the hydrolyzed proteins can act;
    • of mix, not containing phenylalanine . Group of the products necessary for treatment of children with a serious hereditary illness - a fenilketonuriya, coming owing to congenital defect of the enzyme which is responsible in a human body for a normal exchange of phenylalanine (one of not the replaceable amino acids which are a part of protein). Leads to a metabolic disorder and, as a result, to an underdevelopment of an organism of the child. At the timely diagnosis the correct diet can help;
    • of mix, the containing prebiotics (the indigestible ingredients of food promoting improvement of health due to selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of one or several groups of the bacteria living in intestines) or of a probiotics (the live or dried-up cultures of “useful“ bacteria - lakto - bifidobacteria, - usually existing in zheludochno - an intestinal path of the person). Mixes, are intended for correction of violations of intestinal microflora at violations of motive function of intestines, intestinal infections, at food intolerance;
    • of mix with addition of thickeners - polysaccharides. The mixes intended for prevention and treatment of a syndrome of persistent vomiting at children;
    • of mix, enriched with srednetsepochechny triglycerides . Are intended for food of children with the broken intestinal absorption, diseases of a pancreas, liver and zhelchevyvodyashchy ways.
    we Will remind

    that to recommend medical mixes, considering their structure and indications to application, only the doctor can.